CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id acadia04_282
id acadia04_282
authors Anders, Peter
year 2004
title Arch-OS: An Implementation of Cybrid Strategies
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 282-293
summary A review of the literature on Intelligent Buildings suggests an ideal of a building as an autonomous system that controls its internal and external environments. The model, whose origin lies with early models of artificial intelligence, effectively treats the building as a slave to human needs, and appears to invest more intelligence in the building than in its occupants. This paper proposes that automated environments be understood as extensions of human sense and awareness. It describes an operating system, Arch-OS, that exemplifies this approach by increasing building occupants’ consciousness of their environment.
keywords Cybrid, Mixed Reality, Responsive Environment, Planetary Collegium
series ACADIA
email ptr@mindspace.net
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id acadia04_088
id acadia04_088
authors Bechthold, Martin
year 2004
title Digital Design and Fabrication of Surface Structures
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aidd Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 88-99
summary This paper presents a study in digital design and manufacturing of shells, which are material-efficient systems that generate their load-bearing capacity through curvature. Their complex shapes are chal­lenging to build, and the few current shell projects employ the same shape repetitively in order to reduce the cost of concrete formwork. Can digital design and manufacturing technology make these systems suitable for the needs of the 21st century? The research developed new digitally-driven fabrication processes for Wood-Foam Sandwich Shells and Ferrocement-Concrete Sandwich Shells. These are partially pre-fabricated in order to allow for the application of Computer-Numerically Controlled (CNC) technology. Sandwich systems offer advantages for the digitally-enabled construction of shells, while at the same time improving their structural and thermal performance. The research defines design and manufacturing processes that reduce the need for repetition in order to save costs. Wood-Foam Sandwich shells are made by laminating wood-strips over a CNC-milled foam mold that eventually becomes the structural sandwich core. For Ferrocement-Concrete sandwich shells, a two-stage process is presented: pre-fabricated ferrocement panels become the permanent formwork for a cast-in-place concrete shell. The design and engineering process is facilitated through the use of parametric solid modeling envi­ronments. Modeling macros and integrated Finite-Element Analysis tools streamline the design process. Accuracy in fabrication is maintained by using CNC techniques for the majority of the shaping processes. The digital design and manufacturing parameters for each process are verified through design and fabrication studies that include prototypes, mockups and physical scale models.
keywords Shell, Pre-Fabrication, Prototype, Custom-Manufacturing, Simulation
series ACADIA
email mbechthold@gsd.harvard.edu
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id acadia04_000
id acadia04_000
authors Beesley, P., Cheng, N.Y.-W. and Williamson, R.S. (eds.)
year 2004
title FABRICATION: EXAMINING THE DIGITAL PRACTICE OF ARCHITECTURE
source Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 09696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004.
summary We are presenting design ideas, technical innovation, and fabrication expertise that address crucial issues. Authors investigate how to effectively design and practice architecture with automated prototyping and manufacturing. We want to understand where this might lead, and how it might change the nature of architecture itself. We are just beginning to discover the opportunities to be found in integrating automated fabrication within the practice of architecture. At the same time, the new century has brought very mixed perspectives on confident Modern progress. A cautious scrutiny of 'innovation' is needed. Fabrication is an old word with the straightforward meaning, to make. The roots of the word lead to the origins of architecture. Making has been considered a virtue by ancient writers and modern politicians alike. Fabrication (and homo faber, 'one who makes') have served as fundamental terms that constitutions and contract laws have been built upon. Shaping and working with materials is at the core of Western civilization. However at a point in human history where nature is steadily being replaced by human artifice, the consequences of making are far from simple. Whether for good or ill, our new fabricated environment is transforming the world.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2005/03/07 06:14

_id acadia04_186
id acadia04_186
authors Bell, Bradley
year 2004
title Digital Tectonics: Structural Patterning of Surface Morphology
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 186-201
summary The computer in architectural design has shifted from its role as a merely representational device to that of a tool for instrumentalized simulation and fabrication. The desire to make buildings look like a rendering, or to produce photo-realistic images and walkthroughs has given way to an opening of the potentials of software to assist the designer with managing complex geometries, parametric organizational diagrams, structural analysis, and integrated building systems. Simulation has become the means by which virtual space becomes more than just a mirror of reality. It becomes the space within which different potential realities can be tested and evaluated before they are materially implemented. In architecture, information derived from material constraints to site conditions can be constantly fed into the computer models to provide an accurate update, which in turn introduces feedback into the overall design, and change can then be registered in the detail.
keywords surface, patterns, structure, CAD/CAM, fabrication
series ACADIA
email bbell3@tulane.edu
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id acadia04_014
id acadia04_014
authors Burry, Mark
year 2004
title THE SAGRADA FAMíLIA - WEST TRANSEPT ROSE WINDOW, A RAPID PROTOTYPE
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 14-19
summary The recently completed design and construction in a little over twelve months of the west transept rose window (Passion Façade) of Antoni Gaudí’s unfinished major work and Barcelona icon, the Sagrada Família church, is a notable example of ‘lean construction’. The processes involved include traditional stone masonry, actual employment of the traits discussed in Evan’s ‘The Projective Cast’, and semi-automated construction methods.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id acadia04_150
id acadia04_150
authors Clarke, Cory
year 2004
title The Siren's Call
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 150-161
summary This paper presents an account of our research and development of processes providing seamless transition from design to fabrication. The narrative of our design, development, and prototyping experi¬ments spans seven years, including our current project, the Trusset software/structural system. Trusset is a combined building system and agent-based software design tool. The building system is based on a differential space-truss designed for fabrication entirely with computer numerically controlled (CNC) linear cutting devices, such as laser cut¬ters or three-axis mills. The software component is a set of agent-based design tools for developing surfaces and envelopes formally suitable to be built using the space-truss structure. Developed in parallel, the soft¬ware and building components combine within the Trusset system to provide a seamless pipeline from design to fabrication and assembly. The story of the development of software components and structural system, leading to the Trusset, act as a means of discussing the larger issues framing the research: the potential pitfalls and benefits of design and fabrication integration via the computer.
keywords Fabrication, Space-truss, Structure
series ACADIA
email cory@arch.columbia.edu
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id acadia04_244
id acadia04_244
authors Daubmann, Karl
year 2004
title Teaching Digital Fabrication through Design
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 244-255
summary This paper explains the development of a digital fabrication graduate seminar that has evolved over four semesters. The class attempts to teach at various levels between ‘how to’ considerations of learning hardware and software, while exploring a deeper understanding of the technological implications on design and digital fabrication. At the heart of the course is the belief that the limitations of hardware, software, and materials can be viewed as opportunities during the making of any artifact. A number of teaching models have been employed over the four semesters that include short, abstract, directed mini-projects, which teach one skill to the opposite extreme that develops longer, open-ended research / design projects focused on a technology or technique. The products of the class are used to compare the benefits and deficiencies of various pedagogies. The work is also used to further define the desires of the course related to strategies for materials and making.
keywords Digital fabrication, design research, craft
series ACADIA
email kmdaub@umich.edu
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id acadia04_020
id acadia04_020
authors Eastman, Charles
year 2004
title New Methods of Architecture and Building
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 20-27
summary Three conditions exist that are likely to lead to significant restructuringof the construction industry. These are (1): the recognition that traditional contracting practices are inefficient and costly to the client, (2) the growing availability of information-rich 3D parametric modeling, and (3) the strong interest in integrating the issues of design and fabrication. Some aspects of these conditions are examined using two examples: parametric design and integration in steel structural design, and in fabrication-level modeling of precast concrete. The implications of these changes are explored.
series ACADIA
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id ijac20097406
id ijac20097406
authors Hanafin, Stuart; Greg Pitts; Sambit Datta
year 2009
title Non-Deterministic Exploration through Parametric Design
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 7 - no. 4, 605-622
summary This paper explores non-deterministic parametric modelling as a design tool. Specifically, it addresses the application of parametric variables to the generation of a conceptual bridge design and the use of repeatable discrete components to the conceptual form. In order to control the generation of the bridge form, a set of design variables based on the concept of a law curve have been developed. These design variables are applied and tested through interactive modelling and variation, driven by manipulating the law curve. Combining this process with the application and control of a repeatable element, known as a Representative Volumetric Element (RVE), allows for the development and exploration of a design solution that could not be achieved through the use of conventional computer modelling. The competition brief for the Australian Institute of Architects (AIA) ‘Dialectical Bridge’ has been used as a case study to demonstrate the use of non-deterministic parametric modelling as a design tool. The results of the experimentation with parametric variables, the law curve and representative volumetric elements (RVE) are presented in the paper.
series journal
last changed 2010/09/06 06:02

_id acadia04_076
id acadia04_076
authors Hanna, Sean
year 2004
title Modularity and Flexibility at the Small Scale: Evolving Continuous Material Variation with Stereolithography
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 76-87
summary In this paper, we introduce a technique by which the internal material properties of an object can be optimised at a microstructural level (5x10-5m) to counteract the forces that are applied to it. These can then be fabricated using the rapid prototyping method of stere­olithography. The proposed technique is analogous to principles of mass customization and takes advantage of a flexible module to cre­ate complex structures in a manner that is computationally efficient and effective. The process is two-staged, in which a genetic algorithm evolves the topology of the microstructure and a second algorithm incorporating Finite Element Analysis then optimises the geometry. The examples shown are designed specifically for the fabrication tech­nique, but the method and general principles are applicable to struc­tural problems at any scale.
keywords genetic algorithm, rapid prototyping, stereolithography, materials
series ACADIA
email s.hanna@cs.ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id acadia04_220
id acadia04_220
authors Harfmann, Anton
year 2004
title Implementation of Component Based Design: A Pedagogical and Actual Case Study
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 220-229
summary This paper explores pedagogical and practical ramifications of implementing the component-based design paradigm through the actual construction process of a simple wood frame house for Habitat for Humanity. The house was digitally-modeled as part of an elective construction class, then physically constructed by students and faculty of the College of DAAP at the University of Cincinnati as part of a community service exercise. The digital model and a detailed database of individual components were mined in order to explore and exploit the complete and accurate electronic modeling of building, prior to actual construction.
keywords Product Design, Component Design, Single Model, Virtual Construction
series ACADIA
email anton.harfmann@uc.edu
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id acadia04_066
id acadia04_066
authors Harrop, Patrick
year 2004
title AGENTS OF RISK: EMBEDDING RESISTANCE IN ARCHITECTURAL PRODUCTION
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 66-75
summary In its most common usage, the term fabrication calls to mind industry and production. For architecture, fabrication and industry have been defining aspects of modern practice. While dependant on the dimensional and temporal standards of industry, modernists were preoccupied with the limitations imposed by the generic restrictions of mass production. When we make, instead of predetermining action, we discover a map of engagement. We play by challenging and resisting material. It in turn, reveals an intentional resistance that provokes yet another challenge, and on and on and on. In fact, craft excels in the less-than-ideal situations. When challenged by aberrant materials, geometry and craft are forced into innovative discovery: a knot of reaction wood within an otherwise homogeneous surface would force a novel adaptation of geometry generated by the imperfection. How, then, do we integrate the indeterminate cycle of craft and invention into a design process transformed by tools entirely reliant on prediction and the (virtual and real) homogeneity of materials? Is it reasonable to introduce an element of risk into the realm of digital fabrication equivalent to the auto-generative sabotage of Signwave’s Auto Illustrator? This paper reflects on the nature of material craft in the realm of digital fabrication. It will look both at the history and the contemporary opportunity of generative art and automata and their subversive (yet essential) relationship to the making of architecture.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id acadia04_270
id acadia04_270
authors Iwamoto, Lisa
year 2004
title Embodied Fabrication: Computer Aided Spacemaking
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 270-281
summary This paper discusses work from two digital fabrication seminars taught at the University of California Berkeley: Fabricating Space and Thick Skinned. The full-scale installations explore relationships among the body, digital design, and making. They combine investigations of perceptual and spatial effects with digital modeling processes and full-scale CNC fabrication, focusing in particular on how new media practices forge alternative methods of representing and constructing corporeal and sensorial experience.
keywords CAD/CAM, body, perception
series ACADIA
email liwamoto@berkeley.edu
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id acadia04_256
id acadia04_256
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 2004
title Digital Tectonics: The intersection of the physical and the virtual
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 256-269
summary The advent of automated manufacturing processes and the possibility of directly translating virtual creations into physical artifacts brought forth the possibility of exploring a digital tectonic: the poetics of digitally conceived, structurally clarified and directly manufactured architecture. CAD/CAM equipment is being rapidly installed in schools of architecture without much thought given to its effect on the tradition of tectonics. To investigate these effects, this paper includes discussions of the tradition of architectural tectonics and of more recent works that illustrate the possibilities of digital tectonics. This discussion is followed by a brief survey of some of the research in the area of analog/digital pedagogy. Additionally, two experiments were conducted in an academic course setting that explored analog, digital, and hybrid approaches to the creation of architectural artifacts. The physical and virtual artifacts from the two experiments were analyzed and commonalities and differences were discerned. The research project reported in this paper further clarifies the notion of digital tectonics as the poetics of digitally constructed assemblages, and points to possible pitfalls of using CAD/CAM equipment that disregard the materiality of components and their interconnectedness.
keywords Digital Tectonics, Fabrication, CAD/CAM, Virtual Reality, Collaboration
series ACADIA
email jabi@njit.edu
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id acadia04_230
id acadia04_230
authors Johnson, Scott
year 2004
title Linking Analysis and Architectural Data: Why It's Harder than We Thought
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 230-243
summary This paper considers high-level, architecturally oriented repre­sentations, like Building Information Models (BIMs), and examines the difficulty of integrating analyses with such representations. Structural analysis is selected as a sample analysis domain, and is examined by integrating a structural analysis into the test implementation of a program that utilizes architecturally oriented elements. A fundamental problem is found to be that architecturally oriented elements are inappropriate for structural analysis. Methods for sequentially analyzing architectural elements are discussed, but are found to be inadequate. Accurate analysis requires analyzing the entire structure at once using a representation specific to structural analysis. A method for generating a structural representation based on the architectural representation is discussed, but the process is not simple. The process is complicated by the fact that architectural elements and structural elements do not correspond in a one-to-one or even a one-to-many manner. An accurate structural representation may even require semi-fictitious elements not corresponding to actual physical components. These findings are believed to be true for other analysis domains, as well.
keywords Representations, Building Information Models, Proteus, structural analysis, finite elements
series ACADIA
email sven@umich.edu
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id 3d4a
authors Kasprisin, Ronald J.
year 1995
title Visual Thinking For Architects And Designers: Visualizing Context In Design
source Van Nostrand Reinhold
summary Here at last is a book that will help architects and designers avoid the pitfall of creating buildings that battle aesthetically with everything within a three-block radius. In Visual Thinking for Architects and Designers, Ron Kasprisin and James Pettinari unveil a solution to designing for the complex urban landscape: visual thinking. A concept twenty-five years in the making, this integrative approach will help harried professionals prevent environmental disasters. The authors present three-dimensional drawing (visual thinking) as a communication and decision-making tool to be used during the design and planning process. Because architects, landscape architects, and urban designers often work independently, on different scales, and at different interludes, no one can truly envision the completed project. Visual thinking is a way of getting input from every member of the team. Here, you'll learn how to use graphics, whether hand-drawn or computer-generated, as a language to express complex systems, interrelationships, and environments. Using over 300 high quality drawings that are connected at many different scales; from aerial perspectives of entire regions to individual rooms and buildings-this groundbreaking book lays out an urban design process and methodology in a sequential and easily understood manner. The book is illustrated by the authors; own work, which has been recognized in national design competitions, and by the AIA, APA, and NEA. The authors masterfully cover the use of drawing to analyze and create spaces, drawing technique, and communicating complex information to the public. Case studies convincingly illustrate the authors; approach.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id acadia04_034
id acadia04_034
authors Kelmans, Marsha
year 2004
title Bahá’í Temple temple of ligh
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 34-39
summary The winning entry by Toronto’s Hariri Pontarini Architects (HPA) for the design of the Bahá’í Temple for South America in Santiago, Chile has not gone unnoticed by the architectural community and media. Sumptuous images of the “Temple of Light” described by Gary Michael Dault as “a soap bubble that has alighted, momentarily, on the ground” reveal a dramatic departure from the firm’s portfolio. HPA is responsible for McKinsey & Co. in Toronto and the Schulich School of Business at York University (with RYWA in joint venture). Their work is characterized by close attention to proportion and composition through the meeting of materials. Using conventional methods of construction, the firm is capable of producing a high level of detail refinement.
series ACADIA
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id acadia04_110
id acadia04_110
authors Kilian, Axel
year 2004
title Linking Digital Hanging Chain Models to Fabrication
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 110-125
summary The paper traces the development of a digital hanging chain modeler in Java inspired by Antonio Gaudi’s physical hanging chain models. More importantly, it demonstrates how fabrication schemas for physical mockups of the digitally simulated hanging chain can be linked to the real time form finding simulation. Fabrication output is an integral part of the iterative process and not a post-design process. The current implementation is still limited and currently requires programming for reconfiguration. The paper proposes the link of form-finding and fabrication finding and lays out several examples and first steps of how to do so.
keywords form finding, simulation, fabrication
series ACADIA
email akilian@mit.edu
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id acadia04_rp220
id acadia04_rp220
authors Kolarevic, Branko
year 2004
title Designing and Manufacturing in the Digital Age
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004.
summary The paper discusses the newfound capacity to digitally design and manufacture materials, their properties and effects. It surveys recent experimental efforts in material production and presents student projects aimed at designing and manufacturing surface effects using increasingly accessible digital fabrication technologies.
series ACADIA
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id 8f39
authors Laiserin, Jerry
year 1999
title CAD in Practice Profile: Polshek Partnership Architects LLP
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 10-14
summary Since the advent of computers for architecture, James Stewart Polshek, FAIA, founding partner of Polshek Partnership Architects LLP, has insisted that his firm's technology standards match the same high level they maintain for their awardwinning designs. As explained by Senior Associate Don Weinreich, AIA, this objective translates into computing priorities that differ significantly from those of the average firm. Weinreich observes that many "typical" firms use computer technology for profitability first, consistency of documentation second, and enhancement of the design process last. At Polshek Partnership these priorities are reversed. Supporting and enriching the design process is the overriding objective of all computing activity at the firm. Consistency of documentation, as a second-level priority, is pursued not just for routine coordination and quality control, but in a proactive effort to maintain control over every detail in the process of communicating design intent—in other words, to further support design. The potential to increase profitability through computerization (e.g., by doing the same work in less time) ranks low among the computing priorities at Polshek Partnership. According to Weinreich, "the guiding principle is to do no harm," that is, to exploit the maximum potential of computers to support the design process without incurring additional net costs. In effect, the firm is taking the time and effort that computerization can save on many routine, procedural tasks and reinvesting those savings in additional design studies and details. This approach to computers for design is consistent with that of other AIA Firm Award-winning practices profiled in this series. (1)(2)
series ACADIA
email jerry@laiserin.com
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

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