CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id acadia03_001
id acadia03_001
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 2003
title Digital Design
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, p. 16
summary Describing design as a sequence of steps cannot convey the complexity of social interactions that it embodies. Design is not merely a process, but a co-evolution of efforts and events in various places and times—both synchronous and asynchronous. Designers share their values, effort and expertise within design settings via artifacts that further the design process. Increasingly, these design settings in academia, research, and professional practice combine physical and virtual modalities such as immersion, projection, and a range of interaction technologies. Peter Anders has described such spaces as cybrids: hybrids that integrate virtual and physical space. In these settings, designers use overlapping physical and virtual artifacts and tools to arrive at a co-operative design resolution. Within collaborative design, these artifacts take on an additional role. As embodiments of design ideas and actions, they become media for communication. Donald Schon asserts that design should be considered a form of making, rather than primarily a form of problem solving, information processing or research. Indeed the line separating creation from design is becoming increasingly blurred. For the design artifact itself may become a part of the design proposal—its virtual presence incorporated within a cybrid structure or object. We may in the future see a proliferation of cybrid settings that support collaborative, digital design. The technologies for this already exist in collaborative tools, networked computing, scanning and immersive media. However, it will take a creative vision to see how these disparate tools and devices can integrate within the ideal design setting.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/10/30 15:20

_id ae38
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 1999
title Integrating Databases, Objects and the World-Wide Web for Collaboration in Architectural Design
source Proceedings of the focus symposium: World Wide Web as Framework for Collaboration in conjunction with the 11th International Conference on Systems Research, Informatics and Cybernetics, The International Institute for Advanced Studies in Systems Research
summary Architectural design requires specialized vertical knowledge that goes beyond the sharing of marks on paper or the multi-casting of video images. This paper briefly surveys the state-ofthe- art in groupware and outlines the need for vertical and integrated support of synchronous and asynchronous design collaboration. The paper also describes a software prototype (WebOutliner) under development that uses a three-tier persistent object-oriented, web-based technology for a richer representation of hierarchical architectural artifacts using Apple’s WebObjects technology. The prototype contributes to earlier work that defined a framework for a shared workspace consisting of Participants, Tasks, Proposals, and Artifacts. These four elements have been found through observation and analysis to be adequate representations of the essential components of collaborative architectural design. These components are also hierarchical which allows users to filter information, copy completed solutions to other parts of the program, analyze and compare design parameters and aggregate hierarchical amounts. Given its object orientation, the represented artifacts have built-in data and methods that allow them to respond to user actions and manage their own sub-artifacts. In addition, the prototype integrates this technology with Java tools for ubiquitous synchronous web-based access. The prototype uses architectural programming (defining the spatial program of a building) and early conceptual design as examples of seamlessly integrated groupware applications.
keywords Computer Supported Collaborative Design, WebObjects, Synchronous and Asynchronous Collaboration, Java Applets, Application Server, Web-based Interface
series other
last changed 2002/03/05 18:55

_id 394a
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 2000
title WebOutliner: A Web-Based Tool for Collaborative Space Programming and Design
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 195-201
summary This paper discusses a web-based tool that allows members of a design team to collaboratively specify a hierarchical spatial program for an architectural project. Given its object orientation, the represented artifacts have built-in data and methods that allow them to respond to user actions and manage their own sub-artifacts. Given that these components are hierarchical allows users to filter information, analyze and compare design parameters and aggregate hierarchical amounts in realtime. Furthermore, the software goes beyond outlining functions to support synchronous collaborative design by linking each item in the spatial program to a detail page that allows file uploading, realtime group marking of images, and textual chat. Thus, the software offers a seamless transition from the largely asynchronous definition of an architectural program to synchronous collaboration. In addition, and in contrast to commercially available groupware, the software allows multiple collaboration sessions to run at the same time. These sessions are artifact-based in the sense that they get automatically initiated once participants visit the same architectural space in the program hierarchy. The software employs a three-tier object-oriented, web-based scheme for a richer representation of hierarchical artifacts coupled with a relational database for server-side storage. The prototype integrates this technology with Java-based tools for synchronous web-based collaboration.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id f7ec
authors Jeng, T., Chen, S.-C., Lee, C.-H., Chiang, J.-Y. and Huang, .-Y.
year 2001
title Developing asynchronous collaborative design environments: An experimental study
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 291-294
summary Our interest is in the development of design environments that incorporate means for representing ill-structured design knowledge and processes for use in design education. This paper describes the experiment in developing the foundations for generating a new paradigm for digital design studios, allowing significant movement toward coordination and process design.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id 1a59
authors Jeng, Taysheng
year 2000
title Towards a Process-Centric, Asynchronous Collaborative Design Environment
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 15-24
summary The objective of this paper is to develop an effective multi-user computer environment supporting design collaboration. As design teams are distributed in different positions in time-space, coordination becomes a challenging problem for any collaborative projects. This paper addresses the coordination problem by modeling the dependencies between activities. The prototype of a future generation of collaborative design systems is presented. It concentrates on establishing a software infrastructure towards a process-centric, asynchronous collaborative environment.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2000/08/07 07:11

_id cf2005_1_65_47
id cf2005_1_65_47
authors KOUTAMANIS Alexander
year 2005
title Sketching with Digital Pen and Paper
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 321-330
summary Architectural sketching with the computer has been possible for some time now. Using manual and optical digitizers architects have been able to create images similar in structure and appearance to conventional sketches on paper. Digitized sketches are traditionally associated with early design but are also increasingly linked to interactive interfaces and information management. The paper reports on the application of a new technology (Anoto) that uses a digital pen on specially prepared paper. The focus of the application was feedback from analogue documents to the computer programs used for preparing these documents and on the roles of freehand sketching in later design phases. Sketching with digital pen and paper was found to be useful for the management of annotations made on analogue versions of digital information, especially in multi-actor synchronous and asynchronous situations.
keywords digital sketching, annotation, information management, digitization, interaction
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id 0d5b
authors Latch Craig, David and Zimring, Craig
year 1999
title Practical Support for Collaborative Design Involving Divided Interests
source Media and Design Process [ACADIA ‘99 / ISBN 1-880250-08-X] Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, pp. 126-137
summary Collaboration is common in design, yet relatively little is known about the cognitive reasoning processes that occur during collaboration. This paper discusses collaborative design, emphasizing the elaboration and transformations of the problem search space, and the roles that unstructured verbal communication and graphic communication can play in these processes. The paper discusses a prototype system called the Immersive Discussion Tool (IDT) that supports asynchronous design. IDT allows collaborators to mark-up 3-D models over the Internet using a variety of tools, including diagrammatic marks, dynamic simulations and text annotations. IDT relies on VRML to view the models, with an extensive Java-based interface on the backend powering the interactive construction and playback of graphical annotations, the management of threaded discussions, and the management of file input/output. The development of this tool has revealed the difficulty of constructing complex marks in a virtual 3-D space, and the initial implementation of IDT suggests several strategies for solving these problems.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/12/02 07:48

_id 2005_173
id 2005_173
authors Leeuwen, Jos van, Gassel, Frans van and Otter, Ad den
year 2005
title Collaborative Design in Education
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 173-180
summary Collaboration in design can take place in a physical, social space, in a distributed or virtual environment, or in a combination of both. Design teams use a range of ICT means to support both synchronous and asynchronous communication. While these tools are designed to facilitate collaboration, the collaboration process still requires planning and organisation in a social context, which are activities that students and professionals need to learn. In current practice there is a need for designers and design managers who have the competences to collaborate in design and to organise distributed collaboration processes. At the department of Architecture, Building, and Planning at Eindhoven University of Technology, we have developed a course on Collaborative Design in the Master of Science curriculum. This course addresses both the organisational, social, and technical issues of collaboration in design. The paper introduces the objectives and educational methods used in this course. It describes the experiences of both teachers and students that were gained now that the course was taught in three subsequent years.
keywords Collaborative Design, Multi-disciplinary Design, Computer Support for Collaborative Working, Education, Design Management
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id cf2009_656
id cf2009_656
authors Madrazo, Leandro; Sicilia, Álvaro; González, Mar and Cojo, Angel Martin
year 2009
title Barcode housing system: Integrating floor plan layout generation processes within an open and collaborative system to design and build customized housing
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009, PUM, 2009, pp. 656- 670
summary The goal of the project has been to design and implement an ICT environment which facilitates the interaction of the different actors (architects, builders, manufacturers, occupants) involved in the design, construction and use of affordable housing built with industrialized methods. The interwoven working environments which form the structure of the system enable the actors to carry out their activities in a synchronous and asynchronous manner. As well as providing a structure that supports collaboration, the system automatically generates housing units and buildings.
keywords Design thinking, knowledge based design, project management, collaboration and communication
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2009/06/08 18:53

_id aa44
authors Martens, Bob and Voigt, Andreas
year 1999
title Implementation of ATM-Based Collaborative Design
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 201-214
summary The following contribution describes research work in progress within the context of the focal field of research and development "Remote Teamwork (RT)" at Vienna University of Technology. Current research work is aiming at the elaboration of suited collaborative remote-working structures for research and project transactions (incl. study projects) - within the context of spatial planning - on the basis of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM, a technology of broad band telecommunications). The generation and manipulation of digital spatial models and their virtual transportation within large distances represent main objectives. The current subjects in architecture, urban and regional planning (e.g. master planning, building-up planning, urban design, interior design) act as test projects to be defined in the course of the research work in their contents and spatial context and to be represented as digital spatial working models. Special attention is given to consolidation, harmonizing and advancement of current single activities in the field of ATM (e.g. facilitation of the access to technology, definition of project partners at the global level, development of originary, planning- and design-relevant software on the basis of native-ATM).
series CAADRIA
last changed 2001/02/11 19:25

_id 96e0
authors Matsumoto, Y., Onishi, Y,, Yamaguchi, S. and Morozumi, M.
year 2001
title Using Mobile Phones for Accelerating Interaction
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 311-316
summary The authors discuss asynchronous communication and its tool in design collaboration on the Web. This paper focuses on using Internet-connected mobile phone in design collaboration between distributed members especially in similar time zone, and a support system which improves interaction through asynchronous communication, is examined.
keywords Design Collaboration, Asynchronous Communication, Communication Response Time, Mobile
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id ce2c
id ce2c
authors McCall, Raymond and Johnson, Erik
year 1996
title Argumentative Agents as Catalysts of Collaboration in Design
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 155-163
summary Since the 1970s we have created hypertext systems supporting Rittel's argumentative approach to design. Our efforts aim at improving design by encouraging argumentative—i.e., reasoned—discourse during projects. Despite the intrinsically group-oriented character of the argumentative approach, all of our past prototypes were single-user systems. The project reported on here is the first in which we aim at supporting argumentation in group projects. To do this, we augmented our PHIDIAS hyperCAD system to shows how argumentative agents can initiate and sustain productive collaboration in design. These agents catalyze collaboration among designers working at different times and/or places by 1) detecting overlaps in the concerns of different participants in a design process, including conflict and support relationships, 2) notifying these people of these overlapping concerns, and 3) enabling asynchronous communication among these people to deal collaboratively with the overlaps. We call these agents argumentative because they represent different personal and professional viewpoints in design and because they promote argumentative discourse among designers about various issues. In addition to identifying and dealing with crucial problems of coordination and collaboration, argumentative agents enable the capture of important design rationale in the form of communication among project participants about these crucial problems.
series ACADIA
last changed 2004/03/18 08:37

_id cf2011_p110
id cf2011_p110
authors Mcmeel, Dermott
year 2011
title I think Therefore i-Phone: The influence of Pervasive Media on Collaboration and Multi-Disciplinary Group Work
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 69-84.
summary The study of value and its transfer during the multi-disciplinary process of design is stable fodder for research; an entire issue of Design Studies has been devoted to Values in the Design Process. By scrutinising design meetings Dantec (2009) and Ball (2009) separately examine the mechanisms of value transfer between the agents involved in design (clients, designers, engineers). Dantec suggests this is best understood in terms of requirement, values and narrative; Ball proposes it should be viewed as a combination of "analogical reasoning" and "environmental simulation". If we look at Vitruvius and his primary architectural manual (Pollio 1960) we find values‚Äîin the form of firmitas, utilitas and venustas‚Äîembedded in this early codification of architectural practice. However, as much current research is restricted to design practice what occurs when value frameworks move between domains of cultural activity (such as design to construction and vice-versa) is not privileged with a comparably sizable body of research. This paper is concerned with the ongoing usage of pervasive media and cellular phones within communications and value transfer across the disciplinary threshold of design and construction. Through participation in a building project we analyse the subtleties of interaction between analogue communication such as sketches and digitally sponsored communication such as e-mail and mobile phone usage. Analysing the communications between the designer and builder during construction suggests it is also a creative process and the distinctions between design and construction processes are complex and often blurred. This work provides an observational basis for understanding mobile computing as a dynamic ‚Äòtuning‚Äô device‚Äîas hypothesized by Richard Coyne (2010)‚Äîthat ameliorates the brittleness of communication between different disciplines. A follow up study deploys ‚Äòdigital fieldnotes‚Äô (dfn) a bespoke iPhone application designed to test further suppositions regarding the influence exerted upon group working by mobile computing. Within collaboration individual communiqu_©s have different levels of importance depending on the specific topic of discussion and the contributing participant. This project furthers the earlier study; expanding upon what mobile computing is and enabling us to infer how these emergent devices affect collaboration. Findings from these two investigations suggest that the synchronous and asynchronous clamour of analogue and digital tools that surround design and construction are not exclusively inefficiencies or disruptions to be expunged. Observational evidence suggests they may provide contingency and continue to have value attending to the relationship between static components‚Äîand the avoidance of failure‚Äîwithin a complex system such as design and construction.
keywords collaboration, design, mobile computing, digital media
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 422f
authors Morozumi, M., Shounai, Y., Homma, R., Iki, K. and Murakami, Y.
year 1999
title A Group Ware for Asynchronous Design Communication and Project Management
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 171-180
summary The number of Virtual Design Studio experiment that used WWW (Digital Pin-up Board) and e-mail for a synchronous communication, is rapidly increasing. There is no doubt that those media are quite helpful, but it also became clear that writing and managing pages of DPB require extra work for designers and technical staff to proceed with collaborative design. To make VDS a popular approach of collaborative design, developing convenient tools to support writing and managing pages of DPB has become inevitable. This paper discusses a prototype of group ware that supports asynchronous design communication with DPB: GW-Notebook that can be used with common web browsers on net-PCs.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id 2064
authors Murakami, Y., Morozumi, M., Iino, K., Homma, R. and Iki, K.
year 1997
title On the Development and the Use of Group Work CAD for Windows-PCS
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 179-186
summary With the development of high-band width communication technology, designers’ interests seem to shift gradually from a single-user, single-domain system to a network based group-work design system. So long as one regards that the design activity develops only in a concurrent, but asynchronous fashions, it is possible to say that file transfers through computer networks have already opened up the possibility of a hands-on collaborative design process in which all participants do not have to gather in the same place. However few CAD systems support group design work that develops in a concurrent synchronous fashion. This paper discusses a basic model of group work CAD systems that the authors have developed for windows PCs linked with LAN. Reviewing procedure of system operation, the authors conclude that the system could stimulate and accelerate a process of group wok design.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id caadria2007_089
id caadria2007_089
authors Onishi, Yasunobu; Mitsuo Morozumi, Riken Homma and Takahiro Maruyama
year 2007
title Web-based Asynchronous Design Discussion Tool with Utilities for Attaching Comments to Image Data
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary In today’s global, multi-faceted society, architectural design has become a collaborative effort. Often, however, team members are separated by distance and difference in work hours. In order to keep team members connected, research groups have been developing groupware for communication and data sharing using information and communication technology. The results of recent research indicate that the systems developed are useful especially in the early phases of the architectural design process. While these systems cannot support the most important process in design collaboration— the decision making itself—they will enable team members to communicate effectively. The goal of this research is to develop a decision support groupware for the design team. As the first step, in order to enhance interaction among team members, we developed a web-based asynchronous design discussion tool named DesIBo: Design Interaction Board, such as Bulletin Board System. This paper deals with the development of DesIBo employing new concepts about entering and browsing comments and evaluating that system. In the future, we will add a decision-support function to DesIBo.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id 899f
authors Papamichael, K., Pal, V., Bourassa, N., Loffeld, J. and Capeluto, I.G.
year 2000
title An Expandable Software Model for Collaborative Decision-Making During the Whole Building Life Cycle
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 19-28
summary Decisions throughout the life cycle of a building, from design through construction and commissioning to operation and demolition, require the involvement of multiple interested parties (e.g., architects, engineers, owners, occupants and facility managers). The performance of alternative designs and courses of action must be assessed with respect to multiple performance criteria, such as comfort, aesthetics, energy, cost and environmental impact. Several stand-alone computer tools are currently available that address specific performance issues during various stages of a building’s life cycle. Some of these tools support collaboration by providing means for synchronous and asynchronous communications, performance simulations, and monitoring of a variety of performance parameters involved in decisions about a building during building operation. However, these tools are not linked in any way, so significant work is required to maintain and distribute information to all parties. In this paper we describe a software model that provides the data management and process control required for collaborative decision-making throughout a building’s life cycle. The requirements for the model are delineated addressing data and process needs for decision making at different stages of a building’s life cycle. The software model meets these requirements and allows addition of any number of processes and support databases over time. What makes the model infinitely expandable is that it is a very generic conceptualization (or abstraction) of processes as relations among data. The software model supports multiple concurrent users, and facilitates discussion and debate leading to decision-making. The software allows users to define rules and functions for automating tasks and alerting all participants to issues that need attention. It supports management of simulated as well as real data and continuously generates information useful for improving performance prediction and understanding of the effects of proposed technologies and strategies.
keywords Decision Making, Integration, Collaboration, Simulation, Building Life Cycle, Software.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 2da4
authors Paredes León, Luis N.
year 2001
title Arquitectura, Ingenieria, enseñanza y telecolaboracion [Architecture, Ingeneering, Ensenanza and Telecollaboration]
source 2da Conferencia Venezolana sobre Aplicación de Computadores en Arquitectura, Maracaibo (Venezuela) december 2001, pp. 126-135
summary Until the introduction of the chalk in the XIX century, the change but dramatic in the infrastructure of the teaching we are trafficking him at the moment with the technologies of the information. We suppose of the necessity of constitute working teams and to reorient the teaching like means to improve the communication among the professionals of: Architecture, Engineering and Construction. We use concepts of: constructivism, virtual classroom, multimedia classrooms , laboratories of virtual simulation, Internet, teamwork and collaborative, (as electronic and digital spaces of cooperation and collaboration) and to reflect an asynchronous/synchronous communication group with collaborative focuses in the teaching, education and training.
keywords Teaching In Architecture; Multimedia; Collaborative Training; Constructivism
series other
last changed 2003/02/14 07:29

_id 4ce8
authors Rinner, Claus
year 1997
title Discussing Plans via the World-Wide Web
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary Collaborative teamwork often goes beyond same place - same time situations: new information technologies allow for distributed asynchronous cooperation. In urban planning procedures, the elaboration of a land-use or building plan may be considered as the common goal of all actors. But in general, the participants do have conflicting subgoals. Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW), therefore, must include tools that allow for discussions in distributed workgroups. GMD's Zeno system aims at structuring such argumentation processes and at mediating between opposite interests.
keywords Collaborative Teamwork
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id c0f5
authors Russell, Peter
year 2001
title Creating Place in the Virtual Design Studio
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 231-242
summary The current wave of attempts to create virtual design studios has demonstrated a wide range of didactical as well as computational models. Through work performed over the past year, an evolution of many of these concepts has been created which fosters a sense of place. This aspect of place has to do with identity and community rather than with form and space. Initial virtual design studio projects were often merely a digital pin-up board, which enabled distributed and asynchronous criticism and review. However, the web sites were more analogous to a directory than to the studio setting of an upper level design problem. The establishment of a truly distributed design studio in the past year, which involved design teams spread over three universities (not parallel to one another) led to the need for an independent place to share and discuss the student's work. Previous virtual design studios have also established web sites with communication facilities, but one was always alone with the information. In order to enhance this virtual design studio and to give it a sense of place, a studio platform that serves as a console for participants was developed. The console is a front end to a dynamic database which mediates information about the participants, their work, timetables and changes to the dynamic community. Through a logon mechanism, the presence of members is traceable and displayed. When a member logs onto the console, other members currently online are displayed to the participant. An online embedded talk function allows informal impromptu discussions to occur at a mouseclick, thus imitating ways similar to the traditional design studio setting. Personal profiles and consultation scheduling constitute the core services available. Use of the platform has proven to be well above expected levels. The students often used the platform as a meeting place to see what was going on and to co-ordinate further discussions using other forums (videoconferences, irc chats or simple telephone conversations. Surveys taken at the end of the semester show a strong affinity for the platform concept in conjunction with a general frustration in pursuing collaboration with low bandwidth communication channels.
keywords Virtual Environments, Virtual Design Studio, Internet Utilisation
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

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