CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id sigradi2005_321
id sigradi2005_321
authors Almeida da Silva, Adriane Borda; Ana Lúcia Pinho Lucas, Ricardo Silveira
year 2005
title Defining a process of design and learning of digital graphics by means of distance education
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 321-326
summary This paper describes and analyses the teaching/learning approach which progressively is being established in the context of the Digital Graphics Post-Graduation Course. The method used has, basically, generated educational situations able to increase the self-learning capacity of the students; develop skills for collaborative activities to build the knowledge and overtake the limits of time and space imposed by traditional educational systems. The theoretical references adopted to draw the didactic situations are explained, these situations include more and more moments of distance learning, synchronous or asynchronous, redefining the attitude of lecturers and students. This work points out the introduction of a tutor, an agent to promote interactions among student/lecturer/object of knowledge; and the investment on production of didactic material specific to digital graphics is emphasized between lecturers and students, exploring collaborative activities to the distance learning modality. [Full paper in Portuguese]
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 12d9
authors Anumba, C.J., Ugwu, O.O., Newnham, L. and Thorpe, A.
year 2002
title Collaborative design of structures using intelligent agents
source Automation in Construction 11 (1) (2002) pp. 89-103
summary The construction industry has a long tradition of collaborative working between the members of a construction project team. At the design stage, this has traditionally been based on physical meetings between representatives of the principal design disciplines. To aid these meetings, the information and communications technologies that are currently available have been utilised. These have yielded some success but are hampered by the problems posed by the use of heterogeneous software tools and the lack of effective collaboration tools that are necessary to collapse the time and distance constraints, within which increasingly global design teams work. In particular, there are very few tools available to support distributed asynchronous collaboration. Distributed artificial intelligence, which is commonly implemented in the form of intelligent agents, offers considerable potential for the development of such tools. This paper examines some of the issues associated with the use of distributed artificial intelligence systems within the construction industry. It describes the potential for the use of agent technology in collaborative design and then goes on to present the key features of an agent-based system for the collaborative design of portal frame structures. An example is presented to demonstrate the working and benefits of the prototype system, which makes a significant contribution by allowing for peer to peer negotiation between the design agents.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id ddss2004_ra-161
id ddss2004_ra-161
authors Bandini, S., S. Manzoni, and G. Vizzari
year 2004
title Crowd Modeling and Simulation
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 161-175
summary The paper introduces a Multi Agent Systems (MAS) approach to crowd modelling and simulation, based on the Situated Cellular Agents (SCA) model. This is a special class of Multilayered Multi Agent Situated System (MMASS), exploiting basic elements of Cellular Automata. In particular SCA model provides an explicit spatial representation and the definition of adjacency geometries, but also a concept of autonomous agent, provided with an internal architecture, an individual state and behaviour. The latter provides different means of space-mediated interaction among agents: synchronous, between adjacent agents, and asynchronous among at-a-distance entities. Heterogeneous entities may be modelled through the specification of different agent types, defining different behaviours and perceptive capabilities. After a brief description of the model, its application to simple crowd behaviours will be given, and an application providing the integration of a bidimensional simulator based on this model and a 3D modelling application (3D Studio) will also be described. The adoption of this kind of system allows the specification and simulation of an architectural design with reference to the behaviour of entities that will act in it. The system is also able to easily produce a realistic visualization of the simulation, in order to facilitate the evaluation of the design and the communication with involved decision-makers. In fact, while experts often require only abstract and analytical results deriving from a quantitative analysis of simulation results, other people involved in the decision-making process related to the design may be helped by qualitative aspects better represented by other forms of graphical visualization.
keywords Multi-Agent Systems, 3D modelling, Simulation
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ga0217
id ga0217
authors Bentley, Katie A.
year 2002
title Exploring Aesthetic Pattern Formation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper is an exploration of an interdisciplinary nature. Through studies in fine art, pattern formation in nature, and artificial life, a mechanism for the artistic process is presented. Asynchronous updating schemes implemented in cellular automata and pheromonal agent swarms were evolved to produce aesthetic patterns and compared favourably to non-evolved synchronous production methods. The curious adaptive properties of the resulting patterns were investigated.
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4727
authors Cabellos, C., Casaus, A., Fargas, J., Mas, M., Papazian,P. and Roses, J.
year 1994
title Heterogeneous, Distributed, Collaborative: The Li-Long Virtual Design Studio
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 175-182
summary This paper describes the Li-Long Virtual Design Studio, which involved six universities in three countries, collaborating in a distributed asynchronous manner on a two-week design exercise. We give an account of the technical, methodological and design aspects of the exercise, concentrating on the perspective of the Barcelona node, and evaluating some of the technical tools used in the studio.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id cf2005_1_54_91
id cf2005_1_54_91
authors CANEPARO Luca, MASALA Elena and ROBIGLIO Matteo
year 2005
title Dynamic Generative Modelling System for Urban and Regional Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 259-268
summary This paper introduces a dynamic generative modelling system for urban and regional design. Through dynamic modelling the system evolves in time according to the interactions of the planners, decision-makers and citizens. On the basis of several synchronous and/or asynchronous user interactions, models are dynamically generated at run time. The models are built by defining the data (datasets) and the actions to perform on that data (tasks). The system reads and correlates data at urban and regional scale from various authorities to generate dynamic datasets. Tasks are especially powerful when they integrate generative procedures in a hierarchical structure. This allows us to model urban and regional dynamics through the interaction of tasks at micro- and macro-scale. Tasks can also implement either Cellular Automata or software agents. We examine the system application to a case project: the simulation of micro- and macro-dynamics in an Alpine valley, with specific challenges to fit competitive and sustainable growth in a landscape quality perspective. The simulation in spatial and temporal dimensions of regional data provided us with the elements to study the territorial evolution over the next twenty years. Four strategies gave as many scenarios highlighting the results of specific policies.
keywords large-scale modelling, participatory design, GIS, software agent, datascape
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id 6651
id 6651
authors Chen, N., Kvan, T., Wojtowicz, J., Van Bakergem, D., Casaus, T., Davidson, J., Fargas, J., Hubbell, K., Mitchell, W., Nagakura, T. and Papazian, P.
year 1994
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 115-132
summary A design problem shared over the Internet raises issues of how digital media and group dynamics affect networked design collaborations. This paper describes how to conduct a long-distance studio and compares asynchronous and synchronous collaborative techniques. Digital methods are discussed in relationship to both the creative process and design communication. In schematic stages, less precise tools used asynchronously allow free exploration and creative misreadings, while in later stages, more direct real-time exchanges bring a project to resolution. For the final review, synchronous video-conferencing with interactive graphics allow comparison of cross-cultural differences. Used effectively, these tools can electronically create a compelling sense of place. Ways to foster a strong virtual community are discussed in an agenda for future virtual design.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2004/04/10 04:45

_id 8425
authors Chiu, Mao-Lin
year 1995
title Collaborative Design in CAAD Studios: Shared Ideas, Resources, and Representations
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 749-759
summary This paper is to discuss the shared experiences among two institutions learned from the collaborative design project with a three-stage structured design process. The collaborative methodology is developed for participants in the studios to learn how to utilize shared ideas, resources, and representations. Design communication and interaction is taken place through internet in the asynchronous mode. The shift from conventional design studios to collaborative design studios requires several changes, including the tools, the communication media, the remote reflections, and more importantly, the design process, the team organization, and the networked design culture.
keywords Collaborative Design, Computer-Aided Architectural Design, Computer Supported Collaborative Work, Shared Representations
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 38f3
authors Craig and Zimring
year 2000
title Supporting collaborative design groups as design communities
source Design Studies, Vol. 21, no. 2, March
summary This paper explores computer support for unstructured collaboration. A web-based online environment used in conjunction with a graduate-level architectural studio was investigated, with special attention given to patterns of online behavior and the perceptions of those who used the environment. It was assumed that asynchronous collaborative environments like the one studied naturally alleviate certain problems like evaluation apprehension and production-blocking, but do not on their own motivate contributions to a group in an unstructured setting. It was hypothesized that open participation hinges on the development of a sense of community, which itself depends partially on environmental factors intrinsic to the support environment. The environment studied failed to promote open interaction and did not appear to sustain a strong sense of community. Environmental factors thought to have played a role include page structuring, page-naming conventions, and the spatial clustering of textbased exchanges.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 6e0a
authors Craig, David Latch and Zimring, Craig
year 2002
title Support for collaborative design reasoning in shared virtual spaces
source Automation in Construction 11 (2) (2002) pp. 249-259
summary This paper discusses collaborative design, emphasizing the elaboration and transformations of a problem space, and the role that unstructured verbal communication and graphic communication can play in these processes. An asynchronous collaborative system, called the Immersive Discussion Tool (IDT), is introduced as a means for supporting productive design exchanges. IDT allows collaborators to reason about 3-D models over the Internet using view-dependent and view-independent diagrammatic marks, dynamic simulations, geometric design surrogates and text annotations. IDT relies on VRML to view the models, with an extensive Java-based interface driving the interactive behavior, including the construction and playback of graphical annotations, the management of threaded discussions, and the management of file input/output. The development and initial implementation of IDT has revealed the difficulty of constructing complex marks in a virtual 3-D space. Possible strategies for dealing with these problems are suggested.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 0cc1
authors Dave, Bharat and Danahy, John
year 2000
title Virtual study abroad and exchange studio
source Automation in Construction 9 (1) (2000) pp. 57-71
summary The digital design studio has an area of application where conventional media are incapable of being used; collaboration in learning, design and dialogue with people in places other than where one lives. This distinctive opportunity has lead the authors to explore a form of design brief and virtual design studio (VDS) format not well addressed in the literature. Instead of sharing the same design brief, students in this alternative format design a project in the other students' city and do not collaborate on the same design. Collaboration with other students takes the form of teaching each other about the city and culture served by the design. The authors discovered these studios produce a focus on site context that serves our pedagogical objectives – a blend of architectural, landscape architectural and urban design knowledge. Their students use a range of commercial CAD and computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) software common to that used in many VDS experiments reported on in the literature. However, this conventional use of technology is contrasted with a second distinctive characteristic of these studios, the use of custom software tools specifically designed to support synchronous and asynchronous three-dimensional model exchange and linked attribute knowledge. The paper analyzes some of the virtual design studio (VDS) work between the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, the University of Toronto, and the University of Melbourne. The authors articulate a framework of VDS dimensions that structures their teaching and research.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id c88d
authors Dave, Bharat and Danahy, John
year 1998
title Virtual Study Abroad and Exchange Studio
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 100-115
summary The digital design studio has an area of application where conventional media are incapable of being used; collaboration in learning, design and dialogue with people in places other than where one lives. This distinctive opportunity has lead the authors to explore a form of design brief and virtual design studio (VDS) format not well addressed in the literature. Instead of sharing the same design brief, students in this alternative format design a project in the other students’ city and do not collaborate on the same design. Collaboration with other students takes the form of teaching each other about the city and culture served by the design. The authors discovered these studios produce a focus on site context that serves our pedagogical objectives–a blend of architectural, landscape architectural and urban design knowledge. Their students use a range of commercial CAD and computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) software common to that used in many VDS experiments reported on in the literature. However, this conventional use of technology is contrasted with a second distinctive characteristic of these studios, the use of custom software tools specifically designed to support synchronous and asynchronous three-dimensional model exchange and linked attribute knowledge. The paper analyzes some of the virtual design studio (VDS) work between the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, the University of Toronto, and the University of Melbourne. The authors articulate a framework of VDS dimensions that structures their teaching and research.

series ACADIA
last changed 1998/12/16 08:36

_id caadria2011_026
id caadria2011_026
authors Dorta, Tomás; Yehuda Kalay, Annemarie Lesage and Edgar Pérez
year 2011
title First steps of the augmented design studio: The interconnected Hybrid Ideation Space and the CI Loop
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 271-280
summary Professional or school design studios are essential environments for design supporting free exploration of materials and representations, analogue or digital. New technologies have moved into the studio with mixed results. Paradoxically, the use of portable computers, using Internet as collaboration channel, has actually individualized the design work and limited the support to co-creation, reinforcing individual work. The Augmented Design Studio argues for the implementation of hybrid technology, such as the Hybrid Ideation Space (HIS), in the design studio to compensate for the absence of collective local or remote efficient ideation space. This paper presents a case study showing the primary results of distant synchronous and asynchronous design collaboration supported by the interconnected HIS during an ad-hoc project and assessed by the improved Collaborative Ideation Loop (CI Loop) methodology. The HIS was installed in two universities located in different countries. We ran a research protocol in the format of a design charrette where two teams (team a: two architecture students, team b: two industrial design students) participated in the ideation of a bus shelter. This case study shows that teams were able to co-design while they were virtually “teleported” into each other’s representations.
keywords Design studio; hybrid approach; Collaborative Ideation Loop; telepresence; Hybrid Ideation Space
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ecaade2008_086
id ecaade2008_086
authors Elsen, Catherine; Juchmes, Roland; Kubicki, Sylvain; Leclercq, Pierre
year 2008
title DCDS – Distant Collaborative Design Studio
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 325-332
summary This paper introduces new supporting tools in the field of distant collaborative design, namely DCDS and CRTI-weB. These prototypes respectively support: the early stages of design, through the support of the crucial initial step of free-hand sketches shared in real-time, and the asynchronous collaborative activities. The main goal of this paper is to propose the use of these innovative tools as an efficient and realistic way of managing long distance collaboration, to effectively serve the designers’ needs. This proposition is analyzed and addressed through a real-size experiment featuring 30 architecture and architectural-engineering students, working together in real-time at different locations (Belgium and France). This experiment and the necessary survey open up interesting fields of investigation, such as the relevance of the proposed services in supporting distant collaborative design in architecture and the benefit this represents for students to merge the IT aspects and the design studio. The methodology and the replicability are analyzed to increase the level and quality of formation of our students and, finally, a criticism of the tools confirms a benefit for the developing teams.
keywords Distant collaborative design, sketch support systems, asynchronous collaborative activities
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id 5fc4
authors Fruchter, R.
year 1996
title Conceptual Collaborative Building Design Through Shared Graphics
source IEEE Expert special issue on Al in Civil Engineering, June vol. 33-41
summary The Interdisciplinary Communication Medium computer environment integrates a shared graphic modeling environment with network-based services to accommodate many perspectives in an architecture/engineering/construction team. Communication is critical for achieving better cooperation and coordination among professionals in a multidisciplinary building team. The complexity of large construction projects, the specialization of the project participants, and the different forms of synchronous and asynchronous collaborative work increase the need for intensive information sharing and exchange. Architecture/engineering/construction (A/E/C) professionals use computers to perform a specific discipline's tasks, but they still exchange design decisions and data using paper drawings and documents. Each project participant investigates and communicates alternative solutions through representational idioms that are private to that member's profession. Other project participants must then interpret, extract, and reenter the relevant information using the conventional idioms of their disciplines and in the format required by their tools. The resulting communication difficulties often affect the quality of the final building and the time required to achieve design consensus. This article describes a computer environment, the Interdisciplinary Communication Medium (ICM), that supports conceptual, collaborative building design. The objective is to help improve communication among professionals in a multidisciplinary team. Collaborative teamwork is an iterative process of reaching a shared understanding of the design and construction domains, the requirements, the building to be built, and the necessary commitments. The understanding emerges over time, as team members begin to grasp their own part of the project, and as they provide information that lets others progress. The fundamental concepts incorporated in ICM include A communication cycle for collaborative teamwork that comprises propose-interpret-critique-explain-change notifications. An open system-integration architecture. A shared graphic modeling environment for design exploration and communication. A Semantic Modeling Extension (SME), which introduces a structured way to capture design intent. A change-notification mechanism that documents notes on design changes linked to the graphic models, and routes change notifications. Thus, the process involves communication, negotiation, and team learning.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ecaade03_199_196_gatermann
id ecaade03_199_196_gatermann
authors Gatermann, Harald and Czerner, Juergen
year 2003
title Modular E-Learning-Environment for Architecture
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 199-202
summary IMLAB (Interdisciplinary Modular Learning System for Architecture and Building Science) is a project, startet by three schools of architecture in Germany: a modular, digital and online-based system, which has the aim to collect and improve teaching elements from architectural schools around the world. The development of digital teaching materials at every single university is very expensive - so the idea is to motivate schools all over the world to contribute their teaching materials and teaching moduls. It could work like an architectural ""napster"". The initial development of this kind of teaching community was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Research as a research project. The momentary state of work is documentated on the following website: Unfortunately all the information is in German up to now - we will develop the english version as soon as possible. We do have interactive workshops and design-projects beetween different universities up to now (in Germany) and several contacts to international partners. We would like to use eCAADe 2003 as a platform for multiplying this idea and finding more partners from all over the World.
keywords e-learning, modular, synchronous, asynchronous, knowledge-base
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id 3386
authors Gavin, L., Keuppers, S., Mottram, C. and Penn, A.
year 2001
title Awareness Space in Distributed Social Networks
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 615-628
summary In the real work environment we are constantly aware of the presence and activity of others. We know when people are away from their desks, whether they are doing concentrated work, or whether they are available for interaction. We use this peripheral awareness of others to guide our interactions and social behaviour. However, when teams of workers are spatially separated we lose 'awareness' information and this severely inhibits interaction and information flow. The Theatre of Work (TOWER) aims to develop a virtual space to help create a sense of social awareness and presence to support distributed working. Presence, status and activity of other people are made visible in the theatre of work and allow one to build peripheral awareness of the current activity patterns of those who we do not share space with in reality. TOWER is developing a construction set to augment the workplace with synchronous as well as asynchronous awareness. Current, synchronous activity patterns and statuses are played out in a 3D virtual space through the use of symbolic acting. The environment itself however is automatically constructed on the basis of the organisation's information resources and is in effect an information space. Location of the symbolic actor in the environment can therefore represent the focus of that person's current activity. The environment itself evolves to reflect historic patterns of information use and exchange, and becomes an asynchronous representation of the past history of the organisation. A module that records specific episodes from the synchronous event cycle as a Docudrama forms an asynchronous information resource to give a history of team work and decision taking. The TOWER environment is displayed using a number of screen based and ambient display devices. Current status and activity events are supplied to the system using a range of sensors both in the real environment and in the information systems. The methodology has been established as a two-stage process. The 3D spatial environment will be automatically constructed or generated from some aspect of the pre-existing organisational structure or its information resources or usage patterns. The methodology must be extended to provide means for that structure to grow and evolve in the light of patterns of actual user behaviour in the TOWER space. We have developed a generative algorithm that uses a cell aggregation process to transcribe the information space into a 3d space. In stage 2 that space was analysed using space syntax methods (Hillier & Hanson, 1984; Hillier 1996) to allow the properties of permeability and intelligibility to be measured, and then these fed back into the generative algorithm. Finally, these same measures have been used to evaluate the spatialised behaviour that users of the TOWER space show, and will used to feed this back into the evolution of the space. The stage of transcription from information structure to 3d space through a generative algorithm is critical since it is this stage that allows neighbourhood relations to be created that are not present in the original information structure. It is these relations that could be expected to help increase social density.
keywords Algorithmic Form Generation, Distributed Workgroups, Space Syntax
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 074a
authors Gross, M.D., Do, E.Y., McCall, R.J., Citrin, W.V., Hamill, P., Warmack, A. and Kuczun, K.S.
year 1998
title Collaboration and coordination in architectural design: approaches to computer mediated team work
source Automation in Construction 7 (6) (1998) pp. 465-473
summary The paper reports on three projects at our laboratory that deal respectively with synchronous collaborative design, asynchronous collaborative design, and design coordination. The Electronic Cocktail Napkin and its mobile extension that runs on hand-held computers supports synchronous design with shared freehand drawing environments. The PHIDIAS hypermedia system supports long-term, asynchronous collaboration by enabling designers of large complex artifacts to store and retrieve rationale about design decisions and the Construction Kit Builder (CKB) supports team design by supporting a priori agreements among team members to avoid conflicts.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id sigradi2012_246
id sigradi2012_246
authors Hamuy Pinto, Eduardo; Lares, Lorna; Saiz, Rosa María Mayordomo
year 2012
title Conversaciones asíncronas en un Taller de Diseño: piloto del estudio de la relación entre presencia docente y presencia cognitiva en la construcción de conocimiento proyectual [Asynchronous conversations in a Design Studio: pilot study of the relation between teaching presence and cognitive presence in knowledge building]
source SIGraDi 2012 [Proceedings of the 16th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Brasil - Fortaleza 13-16 November 2012, pp. 238-242
summary Even though most studio courses, in architecture and design curricula in LA, use web resources, their role in learning is not always fully clear and deeper understanding is required. Due to a prevailing approach based on practical reasoning in the studio, learning is usually assessed by focusing on the representation of the design object, rather than on the cognitive process in design thinking. This research examines online asynchronous communication during a studio project, searching evidence of design knowledge-building through a Community of Inquiry framework. It intends to provide better understanding of how teaching may influence cognitive processes in students.
keywords design cognition; asynchronous communication; studio teaching; Community of Inquiry
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id cd9a
authors Indrusiak, L.S., Becker, J., Glesner, M. and Reis, R.
year 2001
title Distributed Collaborative Design over Cave2 Framework
source 11th IFIP International Conference on Very Large Integration, Montpellier
summary The Cave Project is a research initiative aiming to make possible a user-transparent distribution of CAD resources over computer networks. It can be divided in three parts: * a Framework of reusable software, composed by CAD tool modules and design data representation primitives * a web based design environment, implemented over the Framework foundations, together with a Service Space, which provides the necessary control on the distribution of design resources and the data sharing among designers * a Communication Channel, which allows synchronous and asynchronous interaction among the designers The modules can be distributed over nodes of a Internet Protocol based network. The designers interact with all of the modules using a Java-enabled client software, e.g. a web browser.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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