CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id e978
authors [Zupancic] Strojan, Tadeja Z.
year 1999
title CyberUniversity
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 196-200
summary The study of a cyberuniversity derives from an analogy between real urban space and its virtual "substitution". It represents an attempt to balance some views, which seems to be contrary, exclusive, but they are just parts of the same wholeness. Especially the notion of a cyber society is lately considered such an exaggeration, that it is possible to forget the meaning of a real life experience and interactions, which are already threatened. One should contribute to the awarness that is used in such a comparison, it is "just" an analogy, not a real similarity. At the same time it is possible to point out some limitations of a cyberspace and indicate a more realistic view of the meaning of cyber communities. Awarness of the development processes could help to find a balance between reality and virtuality, using cyberfacilities not to destroy us (our identity) but to improve the quality of our (real) life.
keywords University, Cyberuniversity, Space, Cyberspace
series eCAADe
type normal paper
last changed 2007/03/04 06:03

_id ascaad2009_mohamed_abdalla
id ascaad2009_mohamed_abdalla
authors Abdalla, Mohamed Saad Atia
year 2009
title 3D Model and Decision Support System for Fire Safety: A case study of Kingdom of Bahrain
source Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content [4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2009) / ISBN 978-99901-06-77-0], Manama (Kingdom of Bahrain), 11-12 May 2009, pp. 419-430
summary Fire agencies on all levels try hard to save lives, properties, and natural resources. Accurate access to critical information is essential in this regard, many agencies around the world have embraced GIS as a tool that helps them balance needs, uses, and hazards to promote sustainability of the environment while identifying and limiting vulnerability. At Kingdom of Bahrain, Ministry of interior established the Geographic Security System (GSS) to enhance the emergency response. The 3D of the GSS Consisted of 3 main parts: (1) 3D for terrain model, (2) 3D model for entire targeted zones, and (3) 3D models for individual buildings. In this paper, the integration between GSS system and 3D model will be illustrated, and how this kind of integration could enhance decision support system (DSS) for fire safety at kingdom of Bahrain. On other hand, we will highlight the technical and legislation difficulties faced in this project. Also, the future steps to enhance DSS will be discussed.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2009/06/30 06:12

_id 678e
authors Aish, Robert
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Input and Visualization
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 68-84
summary The aim of this chapter is to investigate techniques by which man-computer interaction could be improved, specifically in the context of architectural applications of CAD. In this application the object being designed is often an assembly of defined components. Even if the building is not actually fabricated from such components, it is usually conceptualized in these terms. In a conventional graphics- based CAD system these components are usually represented by graphical icons which are displayed on the graphics screen and arranged by the user. The system described here consists of three- dimensional modelling elements which the user physically assembles to form his design. Unlike conventional architectural models which are static (i.e. cannot be changed by the users) and passive (i.e. cannot be read by a CAD system), this model is both 'user generated' and 'machine readable'. The user can create, edit and view the model by simple, natural modelling activities and without the need to learn complex operating commands often associated with CAD systems. In particular, the user can view the model, altering his viewpoint and focus of attention in a completely natural way. Conventional computer graphics within an associated CAD system are used to represent the detailed geometry which the different three-dimensional icons may represent. In addition, computer graphics are also used to present the output of the performance attributes of the objects being modelled. In the architectural application described in this chapter an energy- balance evaluation is displayed for a building designed using the modelling device. While this system is not intended to offer a completely free-form input facility it can be considered to be a specialist man-machine interface of particular relevance to architects or engineers.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 2005_010
id 2005_010
authors Aish, Robert
year 2005
title From Intuition to Precision
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 10-14
summary Design has been described as making inspire decisions with incomplete information. True, we may use prior knowledge, we may even think we understand the causalites involved, but what really matters is exploration: of new forms, of new materials, and speculation about the response to the resulting effects. Essentially, this exploration has its own dynamics, involving intuition and spontaneity, and without which there is no design. But of course we all know that this is not the whole story. Design is different to 'craft'; to directly 'making' or 'doing'. It necessarily has to be predictive in order to anticipate what the consequence of the 'making' or 'doing' will be. Therefore we inevitably have to counter balance our intuition with a well developed sense of premeditation. We have to be able to reason about future events, about the consequence of something that has not yet being made. There is always going to be an advantage if this reasoning can be achieved with a degree of precision. So how can we progress from intuition to precision? What abstractions can we use to represent, externalize and test the concepts involved? How can we augment the cognitive processes? How can we record the progression of ideas? And, how do we know when we have arrived? Design has a symbiotic relationship with geometry. There are many design issues that are independent of any specific configurations. We might call these “pre-geometric” issues. And having arrived at a particular configuration, there may be many material interpretations of the same geometry. We might call these “post-geometric” issues. But geometry is central to design, and without appropriate geometric understanding, the resulting design will be limited. Geometry has two distinct components, one is a formal descriptive system and the other is a process of subjective evaluation.
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id ascaad2016_048
id ascaad2016_048
authors Al Shiekh, Bassam
year 2016
title Arabic Calligraphy and Parametric Architecture - Translation from a calligraphic force to an architectural form
source Parametricism Vs. Materialism: Evolution of Digital Technologies for Development [8th ASCAAD Conference Proceedings ISBN 978-0-9955691-0-2] London (United Kingdom) 7-8 November 2016, pp. 469-482
summary This paper describes an on-going research that unites two distinct and seemingly unrelated interests. One is Arabic calligraphy and the other is parametric architecture. The effort is to integrate these interests and, in doing so, balance cultural issues with technological ones, traditional with contemporary and spiritual with material. Moreover, this paper is inspired by Arabic calligraphy and its influence on Zaha Hadid’s designs; it is invigorated by parametric systems and their capacity as a source of architectural forms. This paper will observe the rising importance of computation technologies to architecture, which has always been a form of negotiation between ‘function and fiction’ and ‘force and form’. The paper proposes a Parametric Calligraphic Machine that simultaneously produces, connects and separates calligraphic surfaces, calligraphic images and calligraphic reality. Therefore, the goal is to examine this hypothesis in order to produce a set of techniques, tools and methods that inform the three-dimensional design process of Arabic calligraphy’s contemporary possibilities by addressing a process description rather than a state description of creating calligraphic images and calligraphic surfaces. The theoretical approach highlights issues pertaining to calligraphy, spatiality, translation, generative systems, parametric design, visual structure, force and form.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2017/05/25 11:33

_id ecaade2017_240
id ecaade2017_240
authors Al-Sudani, Amer, Hussein, Hussein and Sharples, Steve
year 2017
title Sky View Factor Calculation - A computational-geometrical approach
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 673-682
summary Sky view factor (SVF) is a well-known parameter in urban-climatic studies, but there is a lack of consensus on its effectiveness, especially with regard to the interpretation of changes in urban air temperatures. This led the authors to develop the new concept of the partial sky view factor (SVFp), which showed promise in a previous study. The objective of this study is to save the time associated with manual methods of calculating SVF and SVFp by developing a Rhino-Grasshopper component to quantify them via the hemispheric projection of a 3D model. In addition, a different approach, in terms of a hemispheric projection to calculate SVF, will be introduced by another component, and the pros and cons of each approach are considered. We will name these methods 'Ray Method' and 'Geometrical Method' respectively. The Ray Method has achieved a good balance between accuracy, processing time and urban scale and complexity compared to the Geometrical Method.
keywords Sky view factor; parametric design; Rhino - Grasshopper; urban morphology; partial Sky view factor
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:30

_id ecaade2018_162
id ecaade2018_162
authors Alkadri, Miktha, Turrin, Michela and Sariyildiz, Sevil
year 2018
title Toward an Environmental Database - Exploring the material properties from the point cloud data of the existing environment
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 263-270
summary The utilization of point cloud as a 3D laser scanning product has reached across multi-disciplines in terms of data processing, data visualization, and data analysis. This study particularly investigates further the use of typical attributes of raw point cloud data consisting of XYZ (position information), RGB (colour information) and I (intensity information). By exploring the optical and thermal properties of the given point cloud data, it aims at compensating the material and texture information that is usually remained behind by architects during the conceptual design stage. Calculation of the albedo, emissivity and the reflectance values from the existing context specifically direct the architects to predict the type of materials for the proposed design in order to keep the balance of the surrounding Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. Therefore, architects can have a comprehensive analysis of the existing context to deal with the microclimate condition before a design decision phase.
keywords point cloud data; material characteristics; albedo; emissivity; reflectance value
series eCAADe
last changed 2018/07/24 10:24

_id diss_anders
id diss_anders
authors Anders, P.
year 2003
title A Procedural Model for Integrating Physical and Cyberspaces in Architecture
source Doctoral dissertation, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, U.K
summary This dissertation articulates opportunities offered by architectural computation, in particular the digital simulation of space known as virtual reality (VR) and its networked, social variant cyberspace. Research suggests that environments that hybridize technologies call for a conception of space as information, i.e. space is both a product of and tool for cognition. The thesis proposes a model whereby architecture can employ this concept of space in creating hybrids that integrate physical and cyberspaces.The dissertation presents important developments in architectural computation that disclose concepts and values that contrast with orthodox practice. Virtual reality and cyberspace, the foci of this inquiry, are seen to embody the more problematic aspects of these developments. They also raise a question of redundancy: If a simulation is good enough, do we still need to build? This question, raised early in the 1990's, is explored through a thought experiment - the Library Paradox - which is assessed and critiqued for its idealistic premises. Still, as technology matures and simulations become more realistic the challenge posed by VR/cyberspace to architecture only becomes more pressing. If the case for virtual idealism seems only to be strengthened by technological and cultural trends, it would seem that a virtual architecture should have been well established in the decade since its introduction.Yet a history of the virtual idealist argument discloses the many difficulties faced by virtual architects. These include differences between idealist and professional practitioners, the failure of technology to achieve its proponents' claims, and confusion over the meaning of virtual architecture among both architects and clients. However, the dissertation also cites the success of virtual architecture in other fields - Human Computer Interface design, digital games, and Computer Supported Collaborative Work - and notes that their adoption of space derives from practice within each discipline. It then proposes that the matter of VR/cyberspace be addressed from within the practice of architecture, a strategy meant to balance the theoretical/academic inclination of previous efforts in this field.The dissertation pursues an assessment that reveals latent, accepted virtualities in design methodologies, instrumentation, and the notations of architectural practices. Of special importance is a spatial database that now pervades the design and construction processes. The unity of this database, effectively a project's cyberspace, and its material counterpart is the subject of the remainder of the dissertation. Such compositions of physical and cyberspaces are herein called cybrids. The dissertation examines current technologies that cybridize architecture and information technology, and proposes their integration within cybrid wholes. The concept of cybrids is articulated in seven principles that are applied in a case study for the design for the Planetary Collegium. The project is presented and critiqued on the basis of these seven principles. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of possible effects of cybrids upon architecture and contemporary culture.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id acadia03_002
id acadia03_002
authors Anders, Peter
year 2003
title Four Degrees Of Freedom
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, p. 17
summary Letting go is hard to do. Remember back to when, after months of trying, you let go of the handlebars of your bicycle and sailed down the street, effortless and assured. It was a freedom born of mastery, balance and technique. You had let go, but were in control. Technique extends to other devices as well and we are here to discuss architectural computation. Here too, as we will see, mastery is shown by letting go. These papers explore new degrees of freedom in design computation. Each is on a separate aspect of architecture, whether it be aesthetics, process, or structure. Two papers inquire into the entities of design and the processes by which they are manifested. They pose important questions. If we can affect the course of design going forward, are we free to change its past? By defining the characteristics of objects at the outset, are we through automation free to choose from a refined spectrum of outcomes? From the evidence of these papers, the answer to both questions is yes. Through the agency of parametric design we can affect the future and past of architectural processes and their products. Rather than being locked into rigid, linear decisions we are temporally free to choose, tweak and modify. Choice and chance play an important role in aesthetics as well. This has become emblematic of design trends as we have seen in recent years. One of our papers addresses the indeterminacy of particle systems in the design of a monument to the victims of 9/11. By letting go of the handlebars of the computer, the author has been freed to new, poetic forms and processes. Another paper opens urban design to its client community by use of a sophisticated web site. In the tradition of populist innovators like Charles Moore and Lucien Kroll, the authors have extended the design process beyond the office walls to the city itself. The designers, by loosening their grip on the project have made the effort democratic and participatory. Intriguingly, at the end of the paper, they note that this use of cyberspace opens the door to a non-physical architecture. Could architecture, then, let go its materialist biases as well? We hope to engage this and other questions shortly.We are pleased then, to share with you these insights and projects. Wassim and I hope that these presentations will be as liberating for you as they were for us.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/27 14:21

_id sigradi2006_e165b
id sigradi2006_e165b
authors Angulo, Antonieta
year 2006
title Optimization in the Balance between the Production Effort of E-learning Tutorials and their related Learning Outcome
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 122-126
summary This paper provides evidence on the level of media richness that may be cost effective in the development of e-learning tutorials for teaching and learning computer visualization techniques. For such a purpose the author provides an analysis of low-cost / high-impact media rich products, the effort and cost required in their development and the measurement of related learning outcomes. Circa twenty years of R&D of multimedia and hypermedia applications for instruction have demonstrated the benefits of communicating relevant information to learners using engaging media. Based on this evidence, this paper assumes that due to the cognitive style of design students, the instructional packages for learning computer techniques for design visualization that are rich in media content, tend to be more effective. Available visualization technologies make the development of e-learning tutorials feasible and apparently the logical way to implement our instructional packages. However the question in the development of e-learning tutorials becomes a more strategic one when we are called to reach a level of optimization between producing a package with a basic standard, namely; text & still-graphic based tutorials, or a state-of-the-art package that is based on video demonstrations (more than enough?) that can accommodate the students’ learning requirements and also our production costs. The costs include the human resources (instructor, producers, assistants and others) and the material resources (hardware and software, copies, and others) involved in the creation of the e-learning tutorials. The key question is: What is good enough, and what is clearly superfluous? In order to confirm our hypothesis and propose a relevant balance between media richness and learning effectiveness, this paper describes an experiment in the use of two different levels of media richness as used to deliver instructions on the production of computer animations for design visualization. The students recruited for this experiment were fairly familiarized with the use of 3D modeling concepts and software, but had no previous knowledge of the techniques included in the tutorials; in specific; camera animation procedures. The students, separated in two groups, used one of the two methods; then they proceeded to apply their newly acquired skills in the production of an animation without using the help of any external means. The assessment of results was based on the quality of the final product and the students’ performance in the recall of the production procedures. Finally an interview with the students was conducted on their perception of what was accomplished from a metacognitive point of view. The results were processed in order to establish comparisons between the different levels of achievement and the students’ metacognitive assessment of learning. These results have helped us to create a clear set of recommendations for the production of e-learning tutorials and their conditions for implementation. The most beneficial characteristics of the two tested methods in relation to type of information, choice of media, method of information delivery, flexibility of production/editorial tools,! and overall cost of production, will be transferred into the development of a more refined product to be tested at larger scale.
keywords e-learning tutorials; media richness; learning effectiveness; cognitive style; computer visualization techniques
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ecaade03_627_98_bailey
id ecaade03_627_98_bailey
authors Bailey, Rohan
year 2003
title The Student, The Master and The Computer
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 627-630
summary Architectural education has often been criticised for producing students that seem to lack the practical knowledge needed to create architecture that is fit for purpose, safe and a delight to users. Unfortunately, owing to the complexities of society, technology, practice and academia, design teachers are struggling to balance the teaching of basic practical concerns for making architecture with teaching students how to think critically and abstractly. This paper suggests a resolution that places the computer at the center of the relationship between student and tutor. It suggests a digital teaching tool that detects and interprets the marks students make when sketching. The digital design coach then presents the student with related issues allowing a comprehensive reading of the digital sketch. The student, more aware of the issues involved, engages in more intelligent and wellinformed dialogue with tutor.
keywords Digital Sketching; Design Education; Design Computing
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/22 08:52

_id 2005_131
id 2005_131
authors Bailey, Rohan
year 2005
title Digital Tools for Design Learning
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 131-138
summary There is growing consensus among architectural critics and educators that there exists an increasing divide between the worlds of architectural education and practice. New social and cultural norms, new materials, and current global concerns, like sustainability, have largely influenced the need for an improved balance/integration between design theory and practice. This places schools of architecture around the world under pressure to provide their graduates with the requisite skills that support responsible design characterized by good design thinking strategies. The Caribbean School of Architecture, in addition to being affected by this predicament, has other pressures on its educational offerings. The region’s lack of resources and particular social issues mandates that graduates of the school adopt a responsible attitude towards design in the region. A positive attitude to such issues as sustainability, energy conservation and community will only come about through an effective transmission of particular architectural knowledge that is relevant to the region. The challenge (globally and in the Caribbean), therefore, is the provision of an innovative and effective way of supporting the student master dialogue in studio, facilitating the transfer of “practical, appropriate knowledge” needed by students to create safe, purposeful and responsible architecture. This paper exists within the research paradigm of providing digital teaching tools to beginning students of architecture. This digital research paradigm seeks to move digital technology (the computer) beyond functioning as an instrumental tool (in visualization, representation and fabrication) to becoming a “Socratic machine” that provides an appropriate environment for design learning. Research funds have been allocated to the author to research and develop the information component of the tool with special reference to the Caribbean. The paper will report on the results of prior investigations, describe the reaction and appreciation of the students and conclude with lessons learnt for the further development of the teaching tool.
keywords Design Education, Digital Design, Teaching Tools
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id sigradi2008_049
id sigradi2008_049
authors Benamy, Turkienicz ; Beck Mateus, Mayer Rosirene
year 2008
title Computing And Manipulation In Design - A Pedagogical Experience Using Symmetry
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary The concept of symmetry has been usually restricted to bilateral symmetry, though in an extended sense it refers to any isometric transformation that maintains a certain shape invariant. Groups of operations such as translation, rotation, reflection and combinations of these originate patterns classified by modern mathematics as point groups, friezes and wallpapers (March and Steadman, 1974). This extended notion represents a tool for the recognition and reproduction of patterns, a primal aspect of the perception, comprehension and description of everything that we see. Another aspect of this process is the perception of shapes, primary and emergent. Primary shapes are the ones explicitly represented and emergent shapes are the ones implicit in the others (Gero and Yan, 1994). Some groups of shapes known as Semantic Shapes are especially meaningful in architecture, expressing visual features so as symmetry, rhythm, movement and balance. The extended understanding of the concept of symmetry might improve the development of cognitive abilities concerning the creation, recognition and meaning of forms and shapes, aspects of visual reasoning involved in the design process. This paper discusses the development of a pedagogical experience concerned with the application of the concept of symmetry in the creative generation of forms using computational tools and manipulation. The experience has been carried out since 1995 with 3rd year architectural design students. For the exploration of compositions based on symmetry operations with computational support we followed a method developed by Celani (2003) comprising the automatic generation and update of symmetry patterns using AutoCAD. The exercises with computational support were combined with other different exercises in each semester. The first approach combined the creation of two-dimensional patterns to their application and to their modeling into three-dimensions. The second approach combined the work with computational support with work with physical models and mirrors and the analysis of the created patterns. And the third approach combined the computational tasks with work with two-dimensional physical shapes and mirrors. The student’s work was analyzed under aspects such as Discretion/ Continuity –the creation of isolated groups of shapes or continuous overlapped patterns; Generation of Meta-Shapes –the emergence of new shapes from the geometrical relation between the generative shape and the structure of the symmetrical arrangement; Modes of Representation –the visual aspects of the generative shape such as color and shading; Visual Reasoning –the derivation of 3D compositions from 2D patterns by their progressive analysis and recognition; Conscious Interaction –the simultaneous creation and analysis of symmetry compositions, whether with computational support or with physical shapes and mirrors. The combined work with computational support and with physical models and mirrors enhanced the students understanding on the extended concept of symmetry. The conscious creation and analysis of the patterns also stimulated the student’s understanding over the different semantic possibilities involved in the exploration of forms and shapes in two or three dimensions. The method allowed the development of both syntactic and semantic aspects of visual reasoning, enhancing the students’ visual repertoire. This constitutes an important strategy in the building of the cognitive abilities used in the architectural design process.
keywords Symmetry, Cognition, Computing, Visual reasoning, Design teaching
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id cf2015_268
id cf2015_268
authors Benedetto, Henrique; Kipper, Fabrício A.;Marques, Vinícius and Bruscato, Underléa M.
year 2015
title Development of Parklets by using parametric modeling
source The next city - New technologies and the future of the built environment [16th International Conference CAAD Futures 2015. Sao Paulo, July 8-10, 2015. Electronic Proceedings/ ISBN 978-85-85783-53-2] Sao Paulo, Brazil, July 8-10, 2015, pp. 268-278.
summary The lack of urban planning has made the recreation areas increasingly smaller in the cities. Parks and squares gradually gave way to streets and avenues to try to accommodate the growing number of cars and motorcycles. An alternative that tries to balance recreation areas and urban roads was found in the city of San Francisco (USA). Parklets are temporary extensions of urban sidewalks that occupy a few parking spaces. This article aims to demonstrate the potential of parametric modeling in the development of parklets. Thus, anthropometric studies, amount of parking spaces and types of benches were used as input parameters. Rhinoceros and grasshopper programs were used for modeling, while 3D Studio Max was used for rendering. With this study it was possible to verify that when the project is parameterized the processes of creation and modification became faster, reducing design and implementation time.
keywords Grasshopper algorithm editor, Parametric model, Parklets.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2015/06/29 05:55

_id 47a2
id 47a2
authors Bhzad Sidawi and Neveen Hamza
year 2012
title Editorial: Special issue on CAAD and innovation
source ITCON journal
summary The concepts and applications of Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) have a predominant presence and impact on architectural design innovation and creativity. ASCAAD, in its 6th international conference, invited the learnt society of academics, researchers and professionals to debate the ubiquitous emerging role of CAAD in underpinning innovative design thinking processes and research in design education. The conference theme covered the following issues:  Computational research in design pedagogy and in practice  Intelligent agents, generative and parametric design  Building Information Modeling and Computer-supported design collaboration  Ubiquitous computing and interactive environments  Urban/ City/ regional planning and digital Modeling  Digital tools in design and construction  Mass customization Selected papers have been updated in this publication to reflect the constant quest to balance architectural thinking with operative techniques. It is well acknowledged that the advent of computation and information technology had profoundly altered architectural thinking. Design software and numerical fabrication have recast the role of form giving and shaping environments in architecture and opened up unprecedented opportunities of investigation and links with other scientific domains such as biomimcry, parametric design and modeling of urban and building environments. In this issue authors suggest a continuum between architectural analytical thinking and CAAD systems. Looking at the collaboration between authors of various backgrounds also strengthens this narrative that architecture is expanding beyond its traditional enquiry into historical and theoretical aspects into the world of multi-desciplinarity. It is evident from the diverse publications that CAAD is designed and utilized to expand the architectural pedagogy and practice into initiating and opening up the exploratory grounds of creation and productivity in design.
series journal paper
type short paper
last changed 2012/09/19 11:43

_id 96d8
id 96d8
authors Booth, Peter; Loo, Stephen
year 2009
title Beyond Equilibrium: Sustainable Digital Design
source Sustainable theory/ theorizing sustainability Proceedings from the 5th International Conference of the Association of Architecture Victoria University, New Zealand, 4-5 September 2009
summary Implicit in current understandings of sustainability is the presence of a closed system with the capacity of equilibration. Sustainable practices, including design practices, are therefore assumed to possess a redemptive role: design is deployed (as environmentally sustainable design, etc.) to change habits, develop new technologies and recover marginalized practices in the hope of righting the balance between the environment and human endeavours.

Recent developments in experimental digital design have demonstrated non‐linear and highly complex relations between topological transformations, material change, and the temporal dimension of forces. More importantly, this method of design is bottom‐up, because it does not rely on design solutions presaged by conventions, or restricted by representation, but is emergent within the performance of computational design itself. We argue that digital design processes need to move beyond the flux of determinates and solutions in equilibrium, towards a radically continuous but consistent production, which is in effect, an expression of sustainable pedagogy.

The role of emergent digital techniques has significant impact on the methods in which computation is utilized within both practice and academic environments. This paper outlines a digital design studio on sustainability at the University of Tasmania, Australia that uses parametric modelling, digital performance testing, and topological morphology, concomitant with actual material fabrication, as a potent mode of collaborative design studio practice towards a sustainable design pedagogy.

keywords digital, computation, process, morphogenesis.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2009/09/08 21:21

_id f73b
authors Brady, Darlene A.
year 2000
title Percept vs. Precept: Digital Media & the Creative Process
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 261-264
summary The design of architecture, as well as all of the arts, is a creative act concerned with the expression of ideas through culturally significant and relevant form. In order for the creative act to transcend the authority or dictates of precedents or trends, it must be informed and guided by a process and not a product; one which reveals, but does not dictate, expressive, functional form. The initial impact of digital media on architectural design has been the ability to render the look of a final project or to create shapes that reflect the facility of the tool. Digital media also enables the composition and structure of space and form to be discovered simultaneously and relationally with the phenomena of color and kinetics, to generate and visualize an idea as form, and to represent form as experience. This requires interweaving computing with a creative process in which percept, rather than precept, is the driving force of the investigation. This paper explores the role of ideation, tectonic color and kinetics as an intentional design strategy and formgiver for architecture. The role of the computer is to enable the designer to generate meaningful architecture beyond precepts of image and style. Design as a making in the mind uses our rational and imaginative faculties. Complete freedom is not a necessity for inventiveness. Research on creativity indicates that "constraining options and focusing thought in a specific, rigorous and discerning direction" play an important role. The key is a balance of structured and discursive inquiry that encourages a speculative, free association of ideas. Tim Berners-Lee, one of the creators of the World Wide Web, likened creativity to a weblike process that is nonlinear but also not random; which when placed in an environment rich with information will float ideas so the mind "can jiggle them into an insight." Geoffrey Vickers in his essay, "Rationality and Intuition" described this symbiotic relationship as "...two functions which in practice are never wholly separated but which are, nonetheless, logically distinct as two reciprocating phases in a recurrent process of mental activity." The rational is formative and intuition is generative; both are essential to creativity.
keywords Percept, Creativity, Ideation, Tectonic Color, Kinetics
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id abc9
authors Campbell, A.T. and Fussell, D.S.
year 1990
title Adaptive Mesh Generation for Global Diffuse Illumination
source Computer Graphics Proc. SIGGRAPH 90 Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug. 1990, pp. 155-164
summary Rapid developments in the design of algorithms for rendering globally illuminated scenes have taken place in the past five years. Net energy methods such as the hemicube and other radiosity algorithms have become very effective a t computing the energy balance for scenes containing diffusely reflecting objects. Such methods first break up a scene description into a relatively large number of elements, or possibly sev- eral levels of elements. Energy transfers among these ele- ments are then determined using a variety of means. While much progress has been made in the design of energy transfer algorithms, little or no attention has been paid to the proper generation of the mesh of surface elements. This pa- per presents a technique for adaptively creating a mesh of surface elements as the energy transfers are computed. The method allows large numbers of small elements to be placed at parts of the scene where the most active energy trans- fers occur without requiring that other parts of the scene be needlessly subdivided to the same degree. As a result, the computational effort in the energy transfer computations can be concentrated where it has the most effect. CR Categories and Subject Descriptors: 1.3.3 [Computer Graphics]: Picture/Image Generation-Display algorithms. 1.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism. General Terms: Algorithms Additional Key Words and Phrases: global illumination, radiosity, mesh-generation, diffuse, data structure, incremental.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id d60a
authors Casti, J.C.
year 1997
title Would be Worlds: How simulation is changing the frontiers of science
source John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
summary Five Golden Rules is caviar for the inquiring reader. Anyone who enjoyed solving math problems in high school will be able to follow the author's explanations, even if high school was a long time ago. There is joy here in watching the unfolding of these intricate and beautiful techniques. Casti's gift is to be able to let the nonmathematical reader share in his understanding of the beauty of a good theory.-Christian Science Monitor "[Five Golden Rules] ranges into exotic fields such as game theory (which played a role in the Cuban Missile Crisis) and topology (which explains how to turn a doughnut into a coffee cup, or vice versa). If you'd like to have fun while giving your brain a first-class workout, then check this book out."-San Francisco Examiner "Unlike many popularizations, [this book] is more than a tour d'horizon: it has the power to change the way you think. Merely knowing about the existence of some of these golden rules may spark new, interesting-maybe even revolutionary-ideas in your mind. And what more could you ask from a book?"-New Scientist "This book has meat! It is solid fare, food for thought . . . makes math less forbidding, and much more interesting."-Ben Bova, The Hartford Courant "This book turns math into beauty."-Colorado Daily "John Casti is one of the great science writers of the 1990s."-San Francisco Examiner In the ever-changing world of science, new instruments often lead to momentous discoveries that dramatically transform our understanding. Today, with the aid of a bold new instrument, scientists are embarking on a scientific revolution as profound as that inspired by Galileo's telescope. Out of the bits and bytes of computer memory, researchers are fashioning silicon surrogates of the real world-elaborate "artificial worlds"-that allow them to perform experiments that are too impractical, too costly, or, in some cases, too dangerous to do "in the flesh." From simulated tests of new drugs to models of the birth of planetary systems and galaxies to computerized petri dishes growing digital life forms, these laboratories of the future are the essential tools of a controversial new scientific method. This new method is founded not on direct observation and experiment but on the mapping of the universe from real space into cyberspace. There is a whole new science happening here-the science of simulation. The most exciting territory being mapped by artificial worlds is the exotic new frontier of "complex, adaptive systems." These systems involve living "agents" that continuously change their behavior in ways that make prediction and measurement by the old rules of science impossible-from environmental ecosystems to the system of a marketplace economy. Their exploration represents the horizon for discovery in the twenty-first century, and simulated worlds are charting the course. In Would-Be Worlds, acclaimed author John Casti takes readers on a fascinating excursion through a number of remarkable silicon microworlds and shows us how they are being used to formulate important new theories and to solve a host of practical problems. We visit Tierra, a "computerized terrarium" in which artificial life forms known as biomorphs grow and mutate, revealing new insights into natural selection and evolution. We play a game of Balance of Power, a simulation of the complex forces shaping geopolitics. And we take a drive through TRANSIMS, a model of the city of Albuquerque, New Mexico, to discover the root causes of events like traffic jams and accidents. Along the way, Casti probes the answers to a host of profound questions these "would-be worlds" raise about the new science of simulation. If we can create worlds inside our computers at will, how real can we say they are? Will they unlock the most intractable secrets of our universe? Or will they reveal instead only the laws of an alternate reality? How "real" do these models need to be? And how real can they be? The answers to these questions are likely to change the face of scientific research forever.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ea4c
authors Chang, Hsi and Iyengar, S. Sitharama
year 1984
title Efficient Algorithms to Globally Balance a Binary Search Tree
source Communications of the ACM. July, 1984. vol. 27: pp. 695-702. includes bibliography
summary A binary search tree can be globally balanced by readjustment of pointers or with a sorting process in O(n) time, n being the total number of nodes. This paper presents three global balancing algorithms, one of which uses folding with the other two adopting parallel procedures. These algorithms show improvement in time efficiency over some sequential algorithms when applied to large binary search trees. A comparison of various algorithms is presented
keywords techniques, parallel processing, algorithms, search, sorting
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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