CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 8780
authors Abdelhameed, W., Ozel, F., Addelatiff, M. and Daef, A.
year 2002
title Assessment of the Impact of Digital-Manual Media Types on the Basic Design Capabilities of Architects: A Proposed Framework and Directive Measures
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 275-276
summary The research attempts to defi ne and classify the design capabilities of architects into a basic framework. This defi nition will be useful in understanding and determining the types and nature of impact introduced by digital and manual media used during architecturaldesign process. The research consists of three parts. The First part reviews the main stages, tasks and activities of the architectural design process. The second part builds the proposed framework of design capabilities relating them to the specifi c tasks and activities conductedby the architect along the design process. The third part proposes some useful measures as to how to make use of the proposed framework in assessing the impact of media on the design capabilities of architects.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id cf2011_p109
id cf2011_p109
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif; Lee Jinkook, Eastman Chuck
year 2011
title Automated Cost Analysis of Concept Design BIM Models
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 403-418.
summary AUTOMATED COST ANALYSIS OF CONCEPT DESIGN BIM MODELS Interoperability: BIM models and cost models This paper introduces the automated cost analysis developed for the General Services Administration (GSA) and the analysis results of a case study involving a concept design courthouse BIM model. The purpose of this study is to investigate interoperability issues related to integrating design and analysis tools; specifically BIM models and cost models. Previous efforts to generate cost estimates from BIM models have focused on developing two necessary but disjoint processes: 1) extracting accurate quantity take off data from BIM models, and 2) manipulating cost analysis results to provide informative feedback. Some recent efforts involve developing detailed definitions, enhanced IFC-based formats and in-house standards for assemblies that encompass building models (e.g. US Corps of Engineers). Some commercial applications enhance the level of detail associated to BIM objects with assembly descriptions to produce lightweight BIM models that can be used by different applications for various purposes (e.g. Autodesk for design review, Navisworks for scheduling, Innovaya for visual estimating, etc.). This study suggests the integration of design and analysis tools by means of managing all building data in one shared repository accessible to multiple domains in the AEC industry (Eastman, 1999; Eastman et al., 2008; authors, 2010). Our approach aims at providing an integrated platform that incorporates a quantity take off extraction method from IFC models, a cost analysis model, and a comprehensive cost reporting scheme, using the Solibri Model Checker (SMC) development environment. Approach As part of the effort to improve the performance of federal buildings, GSA evaluates concept design alternatives based on their compliance with specific requirements, including cost analysis. Two basic challenges emerge in the process of automating cost analysis for BIM models: 1) At this early concept design stage, only minimal information is available to produce a reliable analysis, such as space names and areas, and building gross area, 2) design alternatives share a lot of programmatic requirements such as location, functional spaces and other data. It is thus crucial to integrate other factors that contribute to substantial cost differences such as perimeter, and exterior wall and roof areas. These are extracted from BIM models using IFC data and input through XML into the Parametric Cost Engineering System (PACES, 2010) software to generate cost analysis reports. PACES uses this limited dataset at a conceptual stage and RSMeans (2010) data to infer cost assemblies at different levels of detail. Functionalities Cost model import module The cost model import module has three main functionalities: generating the input dataset necessary for the cost model, performing a semantic mapping between building type specific names and name aggregation structures in PACES known as functional space areas (FSAs), and managing cost data external to the BIM model, such as location and construction duration. The module computes building data such as footprint, gross area, perimeter, external wall and roof area and building space areas. This data is generated through SMC in the form of an XML file and imported into PACES. Reporting module The reporting module uses the cost report generated by PACES to develop a comprehensive report in the form of an excel spreadsheet. This report consists of a systems-elemental estimate that shows the main systems of the building in terms of UniFormat categories, escalation, markups, overhead and conditions, a UniFormat Level III report, and a cost breakdown that provides a summary of material, equipment, labor and total costs. Building parameters are integrated in the report to provide insight on the variations among design alternatives.
keywords building information modeling, interoperability, cost analysis, IFC
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ascaad2016_049
id ascaad2016_049
authors Abdelsabour, Inas; Heba Farouk
year 2016
title Impact of Using Structural Models on Form Finding - Incorporating Practical Structural Knowledge into Design Studio
source Parametricism Vs. Materialism: Evolution of Digital Technologies for Development [8th ASCAAD Conference Proceedings ISBN 978-0-9955691-0-2] London (United Kingdom) 7-8 November 2016, pp. 483-492
summary Physical Models as an architectural design tool, had major effect on architecture learning process. In structural form finding, it helped in improving visual design thinking to track form creation processes during form finding design stage. The aim is to study the impact of using physical models for second year architecture students in design studios learning. By analyzing and comparing students’ performance and progress; to clarify the effect of using physical models as a tool for designing progression, followed by analytical study on the students' structural models, in order to investigate the influence of models on their design educational progress. Research achieved that there were three basic phases the students pass through during form finding process when used manual physical models that improve the students' design capability.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2017/05/25 11:33

_id ascaad2009_mai_abdelsalam
id ascaad2009_mai_abdelsalam
authors Abdelsalam, Mai
year 2009
title The Use of the Smart Geometry through Various Design Processes: Using the programming platform (parametric features) and generative components
source Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content [4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2009) / ISBN 978-99901-06-77-0], Manama (Kingdom of Bahrain), 11-12 May 2009, pp. 297-304
summary The emergence of parametric generative design tools and prototyping manufacturing technology led to radical changes in architectural morphologies. This change increased the opportunity to develop innovative smart geometries. Integrating these algorithms in the parametric softwares led to variations in building design concepts increasing alternatives and decreasing the repetitive work previously needed in conventional CAD software. The chosen software in this research is Generative Components (GC). It is a software design tool for an associative and parametric design platform. It is tested for using Global Variables with associative functions during the concept creation and form GC comprises features. The results presented in this research may be considered an introduction to the smart geometry revolution. It deals with the generative design which applied in the design process from conceptual design phase, defining the problem, exploring design solutions, then how to develop the design phases. Office building is a building type which encourages new forms that needs computational processes to deal with repetitive functions and modular spaces and enclosed in a flexible creative structural skin. Generative design helps the office buildings to be arranged, analysed, and optimized using parameters in early stages in design process. By the end of the research, the use of the smart geometry in a high rise office building is defined and explained. The research is divided into three parts, first a summary of the basic theories of office buildings design and the sustainable requirements that affect it, and should be integrated. Secondly, the previous experiences in generating office buildings by Norman foster and Sergio Araya. At last, a case study is proposed to test and evaluate the use of the parametric generative methodology in designing an office building with specific emphasis on the function, environmental aspects and form generation using Generative Components (GC) Software.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2009/06/30 06:12

_id ce52
authors Abram, Greg, Weslover, Lee and Whitted, Turner
year 1985
title Efficient Alias-Free Rendering using Bit-masks and Look-up Tables
source SIGGRAPH '85 Conference Proceedings. July, 1985. vol. 19 ; no. 3: pp. 53-59 : ill. (some col.). includes bibliography
summary The authors demonstrate methods of rendering alias-free synthetic images using a precomputed convolution integral. The method is based on the observation that a visible polygon fragment's contribution to an image is solely a function of its position and shape, and that within a reasonable level of accuracy, a limited number of shapes represent the majority of cases encountered in images commonly rendered. The basic technique has been applied to several different rendering algorithms. A version of the newly non-uniform sampling technique implemented in the same program but with different tables values was introduced
keywords algorithms, computer graphics, anti-aliasing
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ecaade03_269_43_achten
id ecaade03_269_43_achten
authors Achten, Henri and Joosen, Gijs
year 2003
title The Digital Design Process - Reflections on a Single Design Case
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 269-274
summary CAD tools are increasing their expressive and geometric power to enable a design process in which the computer model can be used throughout the whole design process for realizing the design. Such a process, in which other media such as physical scale models or drawings are no longer required by necessity to facilitate the design process, can be considered a digital design process. Rather than proposing that such a process is ideal – drawings and scale models should not be discarded – we feel that when taken as a starting point, the digital design process raises a number of new challenges to architectural design that deserve attention. These challenges concern the basic activities in design: exploration of the problem space, creating preliminary solutions, understanding consequences of design decisions, and so forth. In this paper we take the concrete design case of a graduation project that was developed from the start solely in CAD. We identify a number of key issues in that process such as continuous modeling, the model as design, continuous pliability, localized focus, and postponed decision. These issues not only have a technical, CAD-related aspect, but also are connected to architectural design. Most of these aspects are subject of contemporary debate in architectural design. On this basis, we can indicate where CAD is making a potential difference in architectural design.
keywords Digital design, CAAD
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/22 08:49

_id ddss9801
id ddss9801
authors Achten, Henri and Leeuwen, Jos van
year 1998
title A Feature-Based Description Technique for Design Processes: A Case Study
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary In order to develop appropriate tools for decision support in design processes, it is necessary to found them on an understanding of design. Analytical techniques of design processes that have a direct relationship with tool development can enhance design support systems development. The paper focuses on a design support system in the VR-DIS research program. The aim of this research program is to develop insight in the architectural design process and to establish design tools for architectsworking in Virtual Reality. The basic approach for data modelling in VR in this research is based on an extension of the Feature Based Modelling paradigm taken from design in mechanical engineering. The computer model of the design in the system is a Feature-based model. This paper describes design processes in terms of changes in the Feature-based model of the design. For this purpose, a case of a house design is used. Drawings in the conceptual design phase up to the preliminary design phase arestudied. Each state of the drawings is described in terms of a Feature-model. Particular design actions such as creation of spaces, definition of architectural elements, and changes during the design process can be expressed in terms of changes in the Feature-model. Because of the use of Features, the changes can be formalised in the VR-DIS system. The description in terms of Features offers an analytical toolthat leads to a functional brief for design support tools. The paper ends with a discussion of implications and future work.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id eea1
authors Achten, Henri
year 1997
title Generic Representations - Typical Design without the Use of Types
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 117-133
summary The building type is a (knowledge) structure that is both recognised as a constitutive cognitive element of human thought and as a constitutive computational element in CAAD systems. Questions that seem unresolved up to now about computational approaches to building types are the relationship between the various instances that are generally recognised as belonging to a particular building type, the way a type can deal with varying briefs (or with mixed functional use), and how a type can accommodate different sites. Approaches that aim to model building types as data structures of interrelated variables (so-called 'prototypes') face problems clarifying these questions. It is proposed in this research not to focus on a definition of 'type,' but rather to investigate the role of knowledge connected to building types in the design process. The basic proposition is that the graphic representations used to represent the state of the design object throughout the design process can be used as a medium to encode knowledge of the building type. This proposition claims that graphic representations consistently encode the things they represent, that it is possible to derive the knowledge content of graphic representations, and that there is enough diversity within graphic representations to support a design process of a building belonging to a type. In order to substantiate these claims, it is necessary to analyse graphic representations. In the research work, an approach based on the notion of 'graphic units' is developed. The graphic unit is defined and the analysis of graphic representations on the basis of the graphic unit is demonstrated. This analysis brings forward the knowledge content of single graphic representations. Such knowledge content is declarative knowledge. The graphic unit also provides the means to articulate the transition from one graphic representation to another graphic representation. Such transitions encode procedural knowledge. The principles of a sequence of generic representations are discussed and it is demonstrated how a particular type - the office building type - is implemented in the theoretical work. Computational work on implementation part of a sequence of generic representations of the office building type is discussed. The paper ends with a summary and future work.
series CAAD Futures
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.n
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id acadia12_391
id acadia12_391
authors Ajlouni, Rima
year 2012
title The Forbidden Symmetries
source ACADIA 12: Synthetic Digital Ecologies [Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-62407-267-3] San Francisco 18-21 October, 2012), pp. 391-400
summary The emergence of quasi-periodic tiling theories in mathematics and material science is revealing a new class of symmetry, which had never been accessible before. Because of their astounding visual and structural properties, quasi-periodic symmetries can be ideally suited for many applications in art and architecture; providing a rich source of ideas for articulating form, pattern, surface and structure. However, since their discovery, the unique long-range order of quasi-periodic symmetries, is still posing a perplexing puzzle. As rule-based systems, the ability to algorithmically generate these complicated symmetries can be instrumental in understanding and manipulating their geometry. Recently, the discovery of quasi-periodic patterns in ancient Islamic architecture is providing a unique example of how ancient mathematics can inform our understanding of some basic theories in modern science. The recent investigation into these complex and chaotic formations is providing evidence to show that ancient designers, by using the most primitive tools (a compass and a straightedge) were able to resolve the complicated long-range principles of ten-fold quasi-periodic formations. Derived from these ancient principles, this paper presents a computational model for describing the long-range order of octagon-based quasi-periodic formations. The objective of the study is to design an algorithm for constructing large patches of octagon-based quasi-crystalline formations. The proposed algorithm is proven to be successful in producing an infinite and defect-free covering of the two-dimensional plane.
keywords computational model , quasi-crystalline , symmetries , algorithms , complex geometry
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2013/01/09 10:06

_id ascaad2007_035
id ascaad2007_035
authors Al-Ali, A.I.
year 2007
title Readiness for the Use of Technology for effective learning via the vds: Case of the United Arab Emirates
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 439-456
summary Review of the literature indicated that today’s knowledge-driven economy demands a workforce equipped with complex skills and attitudes such as problem solving, meta-cognitive skills, critical thinking and lifelong learning. Such skills can be acquired if learning and teaching are guided by the constructivist and cognitive learning theories. In particular, the constructivist approach emphasises effective learning processes based on learning by doing and collaboration. This approach is congruent with use of technologies, such as Virtual Design Studio (VDS), for the purpose of architecture education in design courses, but such use is lacking in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It is thus important to assess the extent to which the constructivist and cognitive theories are implemented in teaching design courses in the Architecture schools of the UAE. It is also important to assess the effectiveness of employing technology in general and VDS in particular in implementing these theories. The author intends to study the relationship between effective learning on one hand and using VDS in implementing the constructivist and cognitive approaches on the other hand. Thus, the author conducted a preliminary study to gain a basic understanding of the difficulties, approaches, attitudes, perceptions, and motivation related to the learning of design in architecture schools in the UAE. Second, the investigation was designed to assess the extent to which the students would be interested in the use of sophisticated technology in the teaching and learning environment in the UAE architecture education schools in order to achieve effective learning. The study has been conducted in the United Arab Emirates University (UAEU). Methodology used for this was the focus group method. In addition to the focus group interviews with the UAEU students, unstructured individual interviews with lecturers from UAEU and the American University of Sharjah (AUS) have been carried out. Data analysis showed that students were not satisfied with the current teaching methods based on traditional lectures. It was concluded that students were ready to practice effective learning of design via the intermarriage of VDS and the constructivist and cognitive approaches. An ambiguity that remained was whether students were ready for assessment methods which are consistent with the constructivist approach.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id avocaad_2001_18
id avocaad_2001_18
authors Aleksander Asanowicz
year 2001
title The End of Methodology - Towards New Integration
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The present paper is devoted to the deliberation on the genesis and development of designing from the point of view of the potential use of computers in the process. Moreover, it also presents the great hopes which were connected with the use of the systematic designing methods in the 1960’s, as well as the great disappointment resulting from the lack of concrete results. At this time a great deal of attention was paid to the process of design as a branch of a wider process of problem-solving. Many people believed that the intuitive methods of design traditionally used by architects were incapable of dealing with the complexity of the problems to be solved. Therefore, the basic problem was the definition of a vertical structure of the designing process, which would make it possible to optimise each process of architectural design. The studies of design methodology directed at the codification of the norms of actions have not brought about any solutions which could be commonly accepted, as the efforts to present the designing process as a formally logical one and one that is not internally “uncontrary” from the mathematical point of view, were doomed to fail. Moreover, the difficulties connected with the use of the computer in designing were caused by the lack of a graphic interface, which is so very characteristic of an architect’s workshop. In result, the methodology ceased to be the main area of the architect’s interest and efforts were focused on facilitating the method of the designer’s communication with the computer. New tools were created, which enabled both the automatic generation of diversity and the creation of forms on the basis of genetic algorithms, as well as the presentation of the obtained results in the form of rendering, animation and VRML. This was the end of the general methodology of designing and the beginning of a number of methods solving the partial problems of computer-supported design. The present situation can be described with the words of Ian Stewart as a “chaotic run in all directions”. An immediate need for new integration is felt. Cyber-real space could be a solution to the problem. C-R-S is not a virtual reality understood as an unreal world. Whilst VR could be indeed treated as a sort of an illusion, C-R-S is a much more realistic being, defining the area in which the creative activities are taking place. The architect gains the possibility of having a direct contact with the form he or she is creating. Direct design enables one to creatively use the computer technology in the designing process. The intelligent system of recognising speech, integrated with the system of virtual reality, will allow to create an environment for the designer – computer communication which will be most natural to the person. The elimination of this obstacle will facilitate the integration of the new methods into one designing environment. The theoretical assumptions of such an environment are described in the present paper.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id avocaad_2001_13
id avocaad_2001_13
authors Alexander Koutamanis
year 2001
title Modeling irregular and complex forms
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Computational technologies provide arguably the first real opportunity architectural design has had for a comprehensive description of built form. With the advent of affordable computer-aided design systems (including drafting, modeling, visualization and simulation tools), architects believe they can be in full control of geometric aspects and, through these, of a wide spectrum of other aspects that are implicit or explicit in the geometric representation. This belief is based primarily on the efficiency and effectiveness of computer systems, ranging from the richness and adaptability of geometric primitives to the utility of geometric representations in simulations of climatic aspects. Such capabilities support attempts to design and construct more irregular or otherwise complex forms. These fall under two main categories: (1) parsing of irregularity into elementary components, and (2) correlation of the form of a building with complex geometric structures.The first category takes advantage of the compactness and flexibility of computational representations in order to analyse the form of a design into basic elements, usually elementary geometric primitives. These are either arranged into simple, unconstrained configurations or related to each other by relationships that define e.g. parametric relative positioning or Boolean combinations. In both cases the result is a reduction of local complexity and an increase of implicit or explicit relationships, including the possibility of hierarchical structures.The second category attempts to correlate built form with constraints that derive usually from construction but can also be morphological. The correlation determines the applicability of complex geometric structures (minimally ruled surfaces) to the description of a design. The product of this application is generally variable in quality, depending upon the designer's grounding in geometry and his ability to integrate constraints from different aspects in the definition of the design's geometry.Both categories represent a potential leap forward but are also equally hampered by the rigidity of the implementation mechanisms upon which they rely heavily. The paper proposes an approach to making these mechanisms subordinate to the cognitive and technical aspects of architectural thinking through fuzzy modeling. This way of modeling involves a combination of (a) canonical forms, (b) tolerances around canonical forms and positions, (c) minimal and maximal values, (d) fuzzy boundaries, and (e) plastic interaction between elements based on the dual principles of local intelligence and autonomy. Fuzzy models come therefore closer to the intuitive manners of sketching, while facilitating transition to precise and complex forms. The paper presents two applications of fuzzy modeling. The first concerns the generation of schematic building layouts, including adaptive control of programmatic requirements. The second is a system for designing stairs that can adapt themselves to changes in their immediate environment through a fuzzy definition of geometric and topological parametrization.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ddssup0201
id ddssup0201
authors Alexiou, K. and Zamenopoulos, T.
year 2002
title Artificial Design and Planning Support: Interactive Plan Generation andCoordination in Distributed Decision-Making
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary In this paper we discuss some basic issues pertaining to artificial plan design as a paradigm for architectural design and urban planning support. We present a model for artificial design generation based on learning control methodologies. Plan design is seen as a search for "coordinated" solutions (changes) that satisfy distributed domain requirements and views expressed by human or artificial agents. Learning control is used as a method to search for solutions that direct partial descriptionsproduced by agents, to follow their dynamically defined targets -despite conflicting requirements. The model is simulated for land use and layout plan design, involving decisions for the location and physical configuration of a hypothetical housing and retail development.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 31f5
authors Alfares, M. and Seireg, A.
year 1996
title An integrated system for computer-aided design and construction of reinforced concrete buildings using modular forms
source Automation in Construction 5 (4) (1996) pp. 323-341
summary The study reported in this paper investigates the feasibility of automating the on-site construction of reinforced concrete residential buildings. The basic construction tasks are identified, analyzed and modified with a view towards potential for automation. Emphasis is placed on developing modular forms that facilitate automation. The majority of work in the field of construction robotics has focused on the adaptation of existing industrial robots to automate traditional construction processes. This paper outlines a computer-aided construction system approach specially suited for integrating design and implementation by on-site robots. A Computer-Integrated Construction (CIC) system, similar to CIM, is developed that includes a CIC data-base, a construction design system, a construction production/process planning system, and a robotics execution system. This approach is intended to minimize the redesign effort as well as the need for on-site manual work.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 40fc
authors Alonso, Marcelo and Finn, Edward J.
year 1971
title Physics
source 760 p. : ill Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1971. Includes index.
summary This book, designed for a two-semester general physics course for science and engineering students, presents a logical and unified approach emphasizing the conservation laws, the concepts of fields and waves, and the atomic view of matter. The special theory of relativity, in its more basic aspects, is used throughout the text as one of the guiding principles that must be met by any physical theory
keywords physics, mathematics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id ddss2006-pb-101
id DDSS2006-PB-101
authors Aloys W.J. Borgers, I.M.E. Smeets, A.D.A.M. Kemperman, and H.J.P. Timmermans
year 2006
title Simulation of Micro Pedestrian Behaviour in Shopping Streets
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) 2006, Progress in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN-10: 90-386-1756-9, ISBN-13: 978-90-386-1756-5, p. 101-116
summary Over the years, scholars have developed various models of pedestrian movement. These models can be used to assess the effects of detailed design decisions or to predict pedestrian behaviour under conditions of crowding. To date, not much attention has been paid to pedestrians' shopping behaviour at the micro level. Therefore, the main purpose of this project is to test a model that aims at simulating micro pedestrian behaviour in shopping streets, including entering shops. The model assumes a detailed network of links to represent the structure of street segments and entrances to the shops. The basic principle underlying the model is that a pedestrian moves from one link in the network to another, adjacent link. In fact, a pedestrian enters a segment at one side, heading for the other side of the segment. However, a pedestrian might enter the segment by leaving a shop as well. Then, the pedestrian might be heading for either side of the segment. While transferring from the current link to the next link, the pedestrian will be attracted by the shops along both sides of the street. The study area is Antwerp's main shopping street. During a one-week workshop in July 2004, students observed pedestrian movement in this shopping street. An inventory of some physical characteristics of the shopping street was made and pedestrians were tracked through two separate segments of the shopping street. In total, 334 pedestrians were tracked. A conventional multinomial logit model is used to simulate pedestrians' micro behaviour. The process of consecutively selecting links continues until the pedestrian has reached one of the terminal links or a shop. The model performs very well. Simulated routes were used to assess the validity of the model. Observed and simulated link loading correspond fairly well, however, the model seems to slightly mispredict the attraction of a number of shops.
keywords Micro pedestrian behaviour, Shopping street, Simulation
series DDSS
last changed 2006/08/29 10:55

_id caadria2015_090
id caadria2015_090
authors Altabtabai, Jawad and Wei Yan
year 2015
title A User Interface for Parametric Architectural Design Reviews
source Emerging Experience in Past, Present and Future of Digital Architecture, Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2015) / Daegu 20-22 May 2015, pp. 65-74
summary Architectural form and performance are affected by the designer's graphical representation methods. Parametric CAD systems, as design and representation tools, have become ubiquitous in architectural practice and education. Literature in the area of parametric design reviews is scarce and focused within building inspection and construction coordination domains. Additionally, platforms marketed as design review tools lack basic functionality for conducting comprehensive, parametric, and performance-based reviews. We have developed a user interface prototype where geometric and non-geometric information of a Building Information Model were translated into an interactive gaming environment. The interface allows simultaneous occupation and simulation of spatial geometry, enabling the user to engage with object parameters, as well as, performance-based, perspectival, diagrammatic, and orthographic representations for total spatial and performance comprehension.
keywords Design cognition; Virtual/augmented reality and interactive environments; Human-computer interaction.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2015/06/05 05:14

_id 8ccf
authors Alvarez, Darío
year 2000
title Atravesando el portal digital: la novísima Arquitectura de los tiempos de la Internet. - (Crossing the Digital Gateway: The Latest Architecture of the Times of the Internet)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 30-33
summary Our architectonical environment is based on the material concept - entity whose control marks the relevance of the XX century: the atom. Across the threshold of the XXI century a new virtual entity - concept: the bit, spreads to became the basic unit of power - control - production, being its more dynamic evidence the phenomenon known as Internet, establishing complex relationships with groups constituted in the net like Virtual Communities, outlining metaphors that involve Urbanists and Architects inviting them as protagonist. Against this newest reality the Architect should change his vision of the typical CAAD work in relative isolation with his computer, until crossing the doors of the “digital reality”; we search to show the contemporary Architect as a manager coordinating multiple resources with different importance: into the alternative of building digital realities, inviting the architectonical students to integrated this Virtual Communities or conform his owns.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ascaad2007_042
id ascaad2007_042
authors Ameireh, O.M.
year 2007
title Abstract Thinking: An Introduction to Creative Thinking in Basic Design
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 527-542
summary This paper critically examines the nature of the dramatic increase in the number of students accepted in schools of architecture in Jordan, and the contradictory decrease in their artistic, creative, thought process, projects problem solving and other skills. The paper also reviews architectural curriculum and courses to identify weaknesses in handling the changes and ultimately within these constraints and in order to handle the students variable potentials, abilities and contradictions, certain exercises in the basic design course are devised in ways that; reduces its dependency on learnable manual skills and conceptual thinking; uses teaching techniques that correlates and incorporates Arts, Architecture and Sciences as complementary topics; approaches and reaches creativity as a procedure not a gift; transfers and travels easily between complexities and simplicities, between natural and artificial intelligence, between abstract and relative thinking; employ geometries and design tools as the main structure of any composition; makes self evaluations of choices, decisions and variables easier. Taking Abstraction as a framework in solving the problem of the exercises gave answers and solution to many problems that was not easy solving under the conventional ways of design.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id f1bf
authors Amorim, S.L., Soares Madeira Domingues, L.C., Pereira Nunes, R. and De Almeida Peixoto, L.
year 2000
title Centro de Referência e Informação em Habitação - Infohab (Reference Center and Information on Housing - Infohab)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 55-57
summary The Center of Reference and Information in Habitation - INFOHAB - is a project led for the ANTAC, that intends to facilitate the access to the technique information relative to all the aspects and subjects that are contained in the construction environment concept, through the captation, selection, organization and spreading this information, offering it in the Internet through a database permanently brought up to date with the reference and, always when authorized, with the complete works. The objective of this article is to present the project and to reflect on the possibilities offered for the Internet as a tool to fulfill some of its objectives, established in the broadcasting of the information and the technology and that they search to corroborate with the creation of the basic conditions to reach upper standards of quality in the information, the products and the jobs offered in the area of the civil construction, architecture and urbanism, considering the characterizes of this thematic area.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

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