CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id acadia18_394
id acadia18_394
authors Adel, Arash; Thoma, Andreas; Helmreich, Matthias; Gramazio, Fabio; Kohler, Matthias
year 2018
title Design of Robotically Fabricated Timber Frame Structures
source ACADIA // 2018: Recalibration. On imprecisionand infidelity. [Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-17729-7] Mexico City, Mexico 18-20 October, 2018, pp. 394-403
summary This paper presents methods for designing nonstandard timber frame structures, which are enabled by cooperative multi-robotic fabrication at building-scale. In comparison to the current use of automated systems in the timber industry for the fabrication of plate-like timber frame components, this research relies on the ability of robotic arms to spatially assemble timber beams into bespoke timber frame modules. This paper investigates the following topics: 1) A suitable constructive system facilitating a just-in-time robotic fabrication process. 2) A set of assembly techniques enabling cooperative multi-robotic spatial assembly of bespoke timber frame modules, which rely on a man-machine collaborative scenario. 3) A computational design process, which integrates architectural requirements, fabrication constraints, and assembly logic. 4) Implementation of the research in the design and construction of a multi-story building, which validates the developed methods and highlights the architectural implications of this approach.
keywords full paper, fabrication & robotics, generative design, computation, timber architecture
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2019/01/07 11:22

_id caadria2018_235
id caadria2018_235
authors Araullo, Rebekah
year 2018
title 3D Growth Morphology - Tectonics of Custom Shapes in Reciprocal Systems
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 307-316
summary Traditionally, Reciprocal Frame (RF) structures feature the use of linear materials such as rods, beams and bars. Their potential in varied curvature and doubly-curved forms illustrate ongoing advances in computation and fabrication. Flexible to using small available materials that span large areas, RF systems appeal as a popular research topic to demonstrate tectonic and engineering feats. However, RF using planar materials is a non-traditional application and is not widely explored in research. This paper discusses RF research projects that feature planar custom shapes with unique 3D tectonic capabilities. Their aesthetic properties and structural opportunities will be discussed and evaluated. The objective of this paper is to examine the use of planar materials and highlight the potential of irregular 3D reciprocal systems. The use of custom shapes in a reciprocal system and their unique growth morphologies presents a novel direction in the practice of reciprocal systems.
keywords Reciprocal Frames; Spaceframes; Computational Design; Digital Fabrication; RF Growth Morphology
series CAADRIA
last changed 2018/05/17 07:08

_id acadia18_424
id acadia18_424
authors Bucklin, Oliver; Drexler, Hans; Krieg, Oliver David; Menges, Achim
year 2018
title Integrated Solid Timber. A multi-requisite system for the computational design,fabrication, and construction of versatile building envelopes
source ACADIA // 2018: Recalibration. On imprecisionand infidelity. [Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-17729-7] Mexico City, Mexico 18-20 October, 2018, pp. 424-433
summary The paper presents the development of a building system made from solid timber that fulfils the requirements of modern building skins while expanding the design possibilities through innovation in computational design and digital fabrication. Multiple strategies are employed to develop a versatile construction system that generates structure, enclosure and insulation while enabling a broad design space for contemporary architectural expression. The basic construction unit augments the comparatively high insulation values of solid timber by cutting longitudinal slits into beams, generating air chambers that further inhibit thermal conductivity. These units are further enhanced through a joinery system that uses advanced parametric modeling and computerized control to augment traditional joinery techniques. Prototypes of the system are tested at a building component level with digital models and physical laboratory tests. It is further evaluated in a demonstrator building to test development and further refine design, fabrication and assembly methods. Results are integrated into proposals for new methods of implementation. The results of the research thus far demonstrate the validity of the strategy, and continuing research will improve its viability as a building system.
keywords full paper, materials and adaptive systems, digital fabrication, digital craft
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2019/01/07 11:22

_id caadria2012_032
id caadria2012_032
authors Chok, Kermin
year 2012
title Automation at scale: Geometry, analysis and post processing
source Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Chennai 25-28 April 2012, pp. 17–26
summary Our team is currently engaged in the peer review of a large steel stadium dome roof. The roof has a diameter of approximately 300m and rises to over 70m in elevation. In addition to its size, the roof also contains a moveable component which can be deployed during inclement weather. The roof structure comprises of approximately 32,000 beams with 10,000 nodes. This paper overviews our efforts in scaling digital design techniques with regards to automation and parametric geometry to expedite the verification of structural members and geometrically complicated connection nodes. The paper will discuss two realms where automation was deployed. The first realm is the verification of Type 1 node connections where less than eight members intersect at a single work point and is relatively geometrically simple. Type 1 nodes were checked against published code requirements. Type 2 connections consisted of nodes where more than eight members intersected or bracing angles did not meet code guidelines. Type 2 nodes were verified using the finite element method and large scale automation of node geometry creation to structural analysis post processing was employed.
keywords Automation; Rhino 3D; scripting; structural; database
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/29 07:34

_id 154d
authors Colajanni, B., Pellitteri, G. and Concialdi, S.
year 2002
title Intelligent Structures for Collaborating with the Architect
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 360-364
summary The number of different designers with different competencies collaborating in a building project is today conspicuous. An undesired consequence is the possible rise of conflicts between decisions taken independently by more than one specialist on the same building object. The early detection of such conflicts is then one of the most important features in collaborative design. Moreover, of great interest would be the possibility not only of automatic detection but also of solution proposal of at least the most manageable of those conflicts. In this perspective smart models of building components could be very useful. This is possible giving the building elements, represented as objects, the specific intelligence. A simple example of this possibility is given in this paper. In a precedent work we proposed a way of managing elementary spatial conflicts between building components tending to occupy the same spaces. The automatic detection derived from the previous declaration of two levels of constraints (soft constraint and hard constraints) in such way that a violation of them could be immediately signaled to the actor wanting to take the decision triggering the conflict. In this paper the topic is the consequences of the rise of a spatial conflict (occupation of the same space) between a column of a spatial frame of columns and beams, and another building object of any sort subject to a soft or hard constraint. The procedure identifies the minimum displacement of the two objects, propagates the column displacement to the other structural elements connected to it and checks the feasibility of the new configuration of the structural schema both with regard to the possible rise of new conflicts and with the compliance to previous structural criteria.
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id ee5c
id ee5c
authors D Gunaratnam, T Degroff and JS Gero
year 2003
source Journal of Applied Soft Computing 2(4): 283-296.
summary The paper presents a technique for generating concise neural network models of physical systems. The neural network models are generated through a two-stage process. The first stage uses information embedded in the dimensions or units in which the data is represented. Dimensional analysis techniques are used initially to make this information explicit, and a limited search in the neural network architecture space is then conducted to determine dimensionless representations of variables/parameters that perform well for a given model complexity. The second stage uses information available in the numerical values of the data to search for high-level dimensionless variables/parameters, generated from simple combinations of dimensionless quantities generated in the first stage and which result in concise neural network models with improved performance characteristics. The search for these high-level dimensionless variables/parameters is conducted in an enhanced representation space using functional link networks with flat or near flat architectures. The use and effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated for three applications. The first is the design and analysis of reinforced concrete beams, which is representative of the class of problems associated with the design and analysis of composites. The second is the classical elastica problem, for predicting non-linear post-buckled behaviour of columns and the third, the analysis of a bent bar under a specified combination of loads.
keywords neural networks, dimensional analysis
series journal
type normal paper
last changed 2004/04/09 23:57

_id 8fa8
authors Dolinsek, B. and Duhovnik, J.
year 1998
title Robotic assembly of rebar cages for beams and columns
source Automation in Construction 8 (2) (1998) pp. 195-207
summary In the paper, the design and method of operation of a robot cell for the assembly of rebar cages for beams and columns is described. The input elements are pre-manufactured rebars, and the output consists of rebar cages. Inside the robot cell, assembly is performed by robots equipped with tools for grasping the rebars, tools for bending the stirrups, and tools for welding the stirrups to the longitudinal bars. Various mechanisms for supplying the robots with rebars and supporting them during the assembly process have also been designed. Because of the specific nature of the assembly process, where robots have to successfully avoid various obstacles, mass-produced robots cannot be used for the assembly of rebar cages. For this reason, special robot configurations have to be designed. The robot cell described in this paper is at present at the design stage. It was modelled and simulated using the program 3 for robot simulation, which makes it possible to study, optimise, and design in detail the proposed robot systems. The figures in the paper describing how such a system works have also been taken from this simulation.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 5689
authors Garcia Alvarado, Rodrigo, Hempel Holzapfel, Ricardo and Parra, Juan Carlos
year 1999
title Virtual Design for Innovative Timber Structures
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 319-326
summary The major timber structures have great efficiency and beauty, but not many use in buildings due difficulties to represent and resolve theirs geometrical complexity, regulated by several constructive rules. The spatial richness and attractive of these structures can be a contribution in architecture, and encourage the use of wood. For aid the design and impels innovative solutions we are developing a computer system to program the geometrical regulations and allow a tridimensional visualization of different models with virtual-reality devices. First we are studing the architectural morphology and design process of structures more typically used; beams, trusses, frames and arcs. Establishing theirs proportions, distribution, shapes alternatives and the computational algorithm. In other hand we are evaluating the 3D-visualization in the innovation of designs. Some students of architecture developed in a virtual- system small projects based on other projects designed with traditional media. The models were compare by a panel of professors, considering overall quality and creativity. The results of that experience shows advantages in geometrical innovation, specially in organic shapes user-centered instead of orthogonal compositions. But also some constructive fails, which is necessary to support with related procedures.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ecaade2018_314
id ecaade2018_314
authors Gheorghe, Andrei, Hornung, Philipp, Reiss, Sigurd and Vierlinger, Robert
year 2018
title Architecture Challenge 16 - Robotic Contouring - Researching Robotic Bending of Straight Profile Plastic Beams for Full Scale Production
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 165-172
summary This paper provides insight into a new robotic plastic forming process through the prototypical construction of a full scale structure. The process explored the potential development of an automated setup, which utilizes robotic movement to create three-dimensional components from straight profile plastic beams. Polyethylene beams with a rectangular profile were bent with the help of an infrared heating ring and a 6 axis robotic arm. The digital process with custom-created Rhino/Grasshopper components allows the creation of forms with a high degree of customization in relation to the needed construction time, therefore providing for a highly flexible and quickly developable structural formwork without the need of a mold.
keywords plastic beams forming; 6 axis robotic fabrication; profile contouring; computational optimization; structural formwork; light weight structures
series eCAADe
last changed 2018/07/24 10:22

_id 6e0f
authors Goldstein, Laurence
year 1996
title Teaching Creativity with Computers
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 307-316
summary Using computers as an aid to architectural design promotes efficiency – of that there is no doubt – but its real merit must surely lie in provoking inventiveness. The medium makes possible the speedy creation and manipulation of images, a holistic, integrational approach to design, the exploration of virtual environments, the real time collaboration in design by individuals at remote sites and so on – these all fall under my heading of ‘efficiency’, since more or less the same ends can be achieved, albeit much more slowly and tediously, by traditional methods. But inventiveness, that’s something different. For comparison, think of the advent of reinforced concrete. In the early years, the new medium was used, roughly speaking, as a substitute for timber beams; but the genius of Le Corbusier was required to appreciate that concrete had fluid qualities which afforded completely different kinds of design opportunities. Can computers likewise revolutionise design? Will new kinds of building get constructed as a result of the advent of computers into the design arena?
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:31

_id ascaad2012_025
id ascaad2012_025
authors Hamani, Dalil and Jean Michel Olive
year 2012
title Information System to Improve the Building Production Management Cooperative Work in Design and Architectural Production
source CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE [6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2012 / ISBN 978-99958-2-063-3], Manama (Kingdom of Bahrain), 21-23 February 2012, pp. 253-270
summary Our work is to enable partners of a construction project (building owner, architect, engineer, etc.) to share all the technical data produced and manipulated during the building process, by setting up interfaces for an accessible information system via the internet. Our system would be able to deliver an answer to a user to a particular question asked. The system links databases and allows building partners to access and to manipulate specific information. This paper covers the information structure model based on building construction knowledge and the access to user-relevant information. First, the paper aims to establish the state of the art of the information systems available today in the building construction field. Second, we present the contribution of our research to the description of the building elements (foundations, ramps, stairs, etc.), where information is share by partners who are distant from one another and focused on fields of expertise that are distinct but concurrent. Our system links distributed databases and provides an updated building representation that is being enriched and refined all along the building life cycle. It consists of 3D representations of the building as well as data that are associated with each graphical entity (walls, slabs, beams, etc.).
series ASCAAD
last changed 2012/05/15 18:46

_id cf2013_084
id cf2013_084
authors Herr, Christiane M. and Thomas Fischer
year 2013
title Generative Column and Beam Layout for Reinforced Concrete Structures in China
source Global Design and Local Materialization[Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 978-3-642-38973-3] Shanghai, China, July 3-5, 2013, pp. 84-95.
summary This paper outlines generative strategies for the design of structural layout patterns of columns and beams in reinforced concrete structures based on contemporary local construction practice in China. Following an introduction to constraints and opportunities of this new potential context for generative design application, possible generative strategies are proposed and discussed, with a view to their viability within the local context. The proposed strategies are illustrated in terms of geometry, generative sequence and plausibility of construction and discussed in terms of visual and overall structural merit.
keywords generative design, algorithmic design, structural design, visual thinking, reinforced concrete structures, China
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2014/03/24 06:08

_id ecaade2017_042
id ecaade2017_042
authors Hitchings, Katie, Patel, Yusef and McPherson, Peter
year 2017
title Analogue Automation - The Gateway Pavilion for Headland Sculpture on the Gulf
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 347-354
summary The Waiheke Gateway Pavilion, designed by Stevens Lawson Architects originally for the 2010 New Zealand Venice Biennale Pavilion, was brought to fruition for the 2017 Headland Sculpture on the Gulf Sculpture trail by students from Unitec Institute of Technology. The cross disciplinary team comprised of students from architecture and construction disciplines working in conjunction with a team of industry professionals including architects, engineers, construction managers, project managers, and lecturers to bring the designed structure, an irregular spiral shape, to completion. The structure is made up of 261 unique glulam beams, to be digitally cut using computer numerical control (CNC) process. However, due to a malfunction with the institutions in-house CNC machine, an alternative hand-cut workflow approach had to be pursued requiring integration of both digital and analogue construction methods. The digitally encoded data was extracted and transferred into shop drawings and assembly diagrams for the fabrication and construction stages of design. Accessibility to the original 3D modelling software was always needed during the construction stages to provide clarity to the copious amounts of information that was transferred into print paper form. Although this design to fabrication project was challenging, the outcome was received as a triumph amongst the architecture community.
keywords Digital fabrication; workflow; rapid prototyping; representation; pedagogy
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:31

_id 9a6b
authors Hofmeyer, Herm Combined
year 2000
title Combined web crippling and bending moment failure of first-generation trapezoidal steel sheeting : experiments, finite element models, mechanical models
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary Cold-formed trapezoidal sheeting of thin steel plate is a very popular product for building construction. It combines low weight and high strength and is economical in use. Current design rules, which predict sheeting failure for an interior support, do not provide sufficient insight into the sheeting behaviour, and can differ up to 40% in their predictions. To develop a new design rule, this thesis presents new experiments in which first-generation sheeting behaviour is studied for practical situations. The experiments show that after ultimate load, three different post-failure modes arise. Mechanical models have been developed for the three post-failure modes. These models can help to explain why a certain post-failure mode occurs. Finite element models were used to simulate the experiments. Studying stress distributions with finite element simulations, it can be seen that there are only two ultimate failure modes at ultimate load. One of these ultimate failure modes is not relevant for practice. A mechanical model has been developed for the other ultimate failure mode. This model performs as well as the current design rules, and it provides insight into the sheeting behaviour.
keywords Steelstructures; Constructive Design; Thin Walled Beams; Local Buckling; Steel Profiles
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id cf2015_370
id cf2015_370
authors Kang, Julian; Campagnol, Gabriela;Caffey, Stephen and Clayton, Mark
year 2015
title 4D Construction Simulation Model of MASP
source The next city - New technologies and the future of the built environment [16th International Conference CAAD Futures 2015. Sao Paulo, July 8-10, 2015. Electronic Proceedings/ ISBN 978-85-85783-53-2] Sao Paulo, Brazil, July 8-10, 2015, pp. 370-379.
summary Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an effective tool students can use to learn how building components work together to secure necessary structural stability in the course of construction. In Summer 2014, students enrolled in the BIM class at Texas A&M University created a 4-dimensional construction simulation model of the Museu de Arte de São Paulo (MASP) to understand how the entire building is sustained by two huge concrete beams connected with four external columns. For this class project, students analyzed the building system while creating a 3-dimensional model of the museum. They also came up with a construction sequence that would best maintain structural integrity of the building in the course of construction, and then produced a short animation video explaining the MASP construction process. This paper presents how the MASP project helped students learn a unique building system and its construction sequence.
keywords BIM, 4D Construction Simulation, MASP
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2015/06/29 05:55

_id ijac201715102
id ijac201715102
authors Klemmt, Christoph and Klaus Bollinger
year 2017
title Angiogenesis as a model for the generation of load-bearing networks
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 14 - no. 1, 18-36
summary This research suggests an algorithm to generate structural networks based on discreet elements for given locations of support points and point loads. Previous research attempted to achieve this by using a computational growth simulation of venation systems, which form the structure of leaves. However, such networks always start from a single point and therefore cannot be used to form arches or beams. In order to generate networks that are based on two or three support points, an algorithm has been developed that is inspired instead by angiogenesis, the process by which vascular systems develop. The algorithm is based on a spring system with a variable network graph that connects the support points and is pulled upwards and split sideways into multiple veins by a given set of load points. The algorithm has been used to grow architectural structures. Different networks have been tested using finite element analysis and compared with both venation and column-and-beam structures. The angiogenesis networks as well as the venation network are shown to perform well and may be suitable as architectural structural systems.
keywords Architecture, angiogenesis, structure, network, growth
series journal
last changed 2017/12/11 12:30

_id 14ee
authors Lorenc, S.J., Handlon, B.E. and Bernold, Leonhard E.
year 2000
title Development of a robotic bridge maintenance system
source Automation in Construction 9 (3) (2000) pp. 251-258
summary This paper will expand on the Robotic Bridge Maintenance System (RBMS) developed by the Construction Automation and Robotics Laboratory (CARL) at North Carolina State University (NCSU). The system consists of a 4-dof robot, designed and built at NCSU, mounted on the end of a truck-mounted peeper crane. Additionally, a containment system is mounted in front of the robot to contain the toxic waste created by the removal of the lead-based paint from the bridge beams and trusses.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id ecaade2013_087
id ecaade2013_087
authors Mostafavi, Sina; Morales Beltran, Mauricio and Biloria, Nimish
year 2013
title Performance Driven Design and Design Information Exchange
source Stouffs, Rudi and Sariyildiz, Sevil (eds.), Computation and Performance – Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference – Volume 2, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 18-20 September 2013, pp. 117-126
wos WOS:000340643600011
summary This paper presents a performance driven computational design methodology through introducing a case on parametric structural design. The paper describes the process of design technology development and frames a design methodology through which engineering, -in this case structural- aspects of architectural design could become more understandable, traceable and implementable by designers for dynamic and valid performance measurements and estimations. The research further embeds and customizes the process of topology optimization for specific design problems, in this case applied to the design of truss structures, for testing how the discretized results of Finite Elements Analysis in topology optimization can become the inputs for designing optimal trussed beams or cantilevers alternatives. The procedures of design information exchange between generative, simulative and evaluative modules for approaching the abovementioned engineering and design deliverables are developed and discussed in this paper.
keywords Performance driven design; design information; design technology; topology optimization; parametric design.
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id acadia15_203
id acadia15_203
authors Ross, Elissa; Hambleton, Daniel
year 2015
title Exact Face-Offsetting for Polygonal Meshes
source ACADIA 2105: Computational Ecologies: Design in the Anthropocene [Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-53726-8] Cincinnati 19-25 October, 2015), pp. 203-210
summary Planar-faced mesh surfaces such as triangular meshes are frequently used in an architectural setting. Face-offsetting operations generate a new mesh whose face planes are parallel and at a fixed distance from the face planes of the original surface. Face-offsetting is desirable to give thickness or layers to architectural elements. Yet, this operation does not generically preserve the combinatorial structure of the offset mesh. Current approaches to this problem are to restrict the geometry of the original mesh to ensure that the combinatorial structure of the underlying mesh is preserved. We present a general algorithm for face-offsetting polygonal meshes that places no restriction on the original geometry. The algorithm uses graph duality to describe the range of possible combinatorial outcomes at each vertex of the mesh. This approach allows the designer to specify independent offset distances for each face plane. The algorithm also produces a "perpendicular" structure joining the original mesh with the offset mesh, that consists of only planar elements (i.e. beams).
keywords Mesh offsetting, face-offsetting, architecture, dual graph, polygonal mesh, triangular mesh
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2016/08/05 11:37

_id 0d41
authors Shaviv, Edna
year 1973
title Continuous Modular Surface Structures : A Computer Graphics Approach
source IASS - International Symposium on Prefabricated Shells. September, 1973. pp. 201-217 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The conditions for obtaining modular surface structures with minimal ribs and edge beams are derived. The general membrane equation is solved for the geometry assuming known stresses distribution. Several solutions obtained by a digital computer and plotter are presented
keywords curved surfaces, construction, computer graphics, architecture, structures, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:20

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