CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ecaade2020_131
id ecaade2020_131
authors Gortazar-Balerdi, Ander and Markusiewicz, Jacek
year 2020
title Legible Bilbao - Computational method for urban legibility
source Werner, L and Koering, D (eds.), Anthropologic: Architecture and Fabrication in the cognitive age - Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 209-218
summary Legibility is a core concept in spatial cognition theories since Kevin Lynch published The Image of the City in 1960. It is the ability of a city to be interpreted and easily used, travelled and enjoyed, from the pedestrian's perspective. Following a proposal in the participatory budget process of the city of Bilbao, we wrote a technical report to improve the urban legibility of the city and facilitate wayfinding through innovations in signage. This paper aims to present this project, which is an application of computational methods to measure urban legibility that resulted in a proposal for a new wayfinding strategy for Bilbao. The method is based on GIS data, and it simulates urban processes using dedicated algorithms, allowing us to perform two analyses that resulted in two overlapping maps: a heat map of decision points and a map of visual openings. It allowed us to perceive common urban elements that can help to decide both the location of the wayfinding signage and how it should provide the relevant information. In addition, the research introduces the concept of anticipation points, as a complement to the existing idea of decision points.
keywords Wayfinding; Urban legibility; Spatial cognition
series eCAADe
last changed 2020/09/09 09:50

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 6707
authors Jakimowicz, A., Barrallo, J. and Guedes, E.M.
year 1997
title Spatial Computer Abstraction: From Intuition to Genetic Algorithms
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 917-926
summary Many of the emblematic buildings constructed at present shows many formal and technological innovations that have not been satisfactorily resolved by the existing CAAD software. Frank 0. Gehry's Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao is a good example of architecture whose shapes and design are very advanced from the concepts and tools used by CAAD. The search for new creative resources, from the educational and professional point of view, must be a priority. This will be the only way to get that CAAD contributes essentially in the process of architectural innovation, instead of merely being a reproduction tool. From this viewpoint the computer exploration of the three dimensional form is presented in here. The concept of abstract art, that has been successfully applied to painting and sculpture in this century is used as a way to experiment, design and create architecture. This paper juxtaposes three approaches, three different ways of understanding the abstract character, with the purpose to create new objects and environments, which are exclusively characteristic for computer space. This juxtaposition shows how creative and innovative activities in the field of CAAD can be developed using different intellectual bases: intuition, mathematical formulas and genetic algorithms.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id fe63
authors Lindsey, B.
year 2001
title Digital Gehry
source Princeton, NJ: Princeton Architectural Press
summary Frank O. Gehry, born in 1929, founded his own architectural firm in Los Angeles in 1962, and since the building of the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, he is undoubtedly among the ranks of international architecture superstars. His buildings are complex constructions, with curves and distortions, skilful plastic shapes which never cease to surprise with their breath-taking spatial effects. To create these daring designs, Gehry makes extensive use of the latest electronic tools, physical models are transformed into digital models using software and hardware which has been adapted from the space industry and medical research. This book provides a colourful insight into Gehry's design methods and the creative process behind his fantastic buildings.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id acadia04_202
id acadia04_202
authors Matsushima, Shiro
year 2004
title Technology-mediated process: case study--MIT Stata Center
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 202-219
summary Gehry Partners’ (GP) sculptural approach to tectonic form, with its dramatic curves, complex geometry, and idiosyncratic application of materials, seems to have redefined the limits of architecture. The development of a strong formal vocabulary has been achieved by advanced use of information technologies, including CATIA, which allows translation among various tectonic representations, both in physical and digital forms. In addition, the nature of the office has much to do with other changes in the project delivery system, such as the relationships with associate architect, manufacturers, and subcontractors. This paper discusses how new technology changes the design and fabrication process, which has evolved from GP’s milestone project, Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, and how organizational efforts to involve the industry in the design process facilitate the project. Unlike at Bilbao, in the newly-completed Stata Center GP produced all the construction documents. This shift coincided with a gradual change in which GP was becoming involved in the technical aspects of their projects much earlier in the design process. Therefore they had to invest in new working relationships with the construction team, including fabricators, manufacturers, and contractors. The approach of Gehry and his team suggests that architectural practice can be liberated from its conventional arrangements. Although it is still evolving, Gehry has achieved a holistically integrated organizational system where the architect has far more direct interaction with all aspects of design and fabrication.
keywords design technology, fabrication process, communication protocol
series ACADIA
last changed 2010/05/16 07:09

_id 5779
authors Osman, Yasser S.
year 2001
title Shape studies: Remodeling Bilbao museum
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 337-341
summary This paper is a study of shape, attempting to understand the effect of computer-aided architectural drafting and design on the geometry of form. This study also is a part of larger question: When the tools of presentation change, does form generation necessarily change as well? The study is in two parts: Remodeling Bilbao Museum and Editing a Cube.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id 9e31
authors Osman, Yasser
year 2001
title The Use of Tools in the Creation of Form: Frank (L. Wright & O. Gehry)
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 044-051
summary This paper is a study of shape, attempting to understand the effect of Computer Aided Architecture Drafting and Design on the Geometry of Form. This is a part of a larger question: When the tool of presentation changes, does the form generated change as well? The study is in two main parts: 1 Comparing two Guggenheim Museums. 2 Re-Modeling Bilbao Museum. The final questions are: why does form become more complex? How do architects use tools to obtain more complexity? What Computer Aided Architecture Design programs let architects achieve more complexity? For an architect, is the motivation to demonstrate a set of 3D geometric operations sufficient to generate complex assemblies, and are there other possible operations needed?
keywords Form, Tool, Digital, Model
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id 1c67
authors Sanchez, S., Zulueta A., and Barrallo J.
year 1999
title Bilbao: The Revitalisation of a City
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 694-699
summary The city of Bilbao has suffered in the last decade a deep transformation. After a glorious industrial past, Bilbao was in 1990 a depressed city, and the strategies necessary to transform an industrial city into a service capital were no simple due to the high level of pollution and unemployment rate. The "Bilbao Metropoli-30" Association was created to coordinate the synergetic action of all the involved institutions: City Hall, Basque Country and Spanish Governments, financial institutions, transport companies, airport and port, etc. But it was also necessary the acceptance of the public opinion to recover the illusion and the lost pride of the city. The desolated social scene was not adequate for revolutionary designs like the winding Frank Gehry's Bilbao Guggenheim Museum, or the cavernous Norman Foster's underground. This work pretends to show the means and strategies, especially computational, that allowed the transformation of Bilbao with an enthusiastic citizen support.
keywords Metropolitan Bilbao, City Revitalisation, Architectural Computer Simulation
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 9ab2
authors Yun, Yong Gib
year 2001
title Structural Composite Members in Architecture Fabricated by CAD/CAE/CAM Technology
source Harvard University
summary The doctoral research in this dissertation is aimed at exploring new materials and innovative methods for fabricating complex-shaped buildings, which have surfaced as a prevailing trend in architecture today. Over the past few years, the field of architecture has witnessed revolutionary changes in design. The recent completion of Frank O. Gehry's new Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain, brought unprecedented attention to complex-shaped, non-conventional designs and its influence on the global architectural trend has been immense. In following these latest trends, the author was drawn to the issues concerning construction materials and methods that are being currently adopted in realizing these complicated designs. It is perhaps inevitable that the traditional steel construction methods, suitable for use in the conventional linear shapes, face tremendous challenges and limitations in building such complex-shaped designs. In the author's opinion, the next step to go from here is to seek joint efforts between the architectural field and the engineering field to search for a new methodology which will best serve the contemporary design style. This research first focused on examining the problems that traditional methods pose for the new complex-shaped buildings. Paying attention to Gehry's recent projects, the author was able to identify major difficulties in association with representing and constructing these complicated shapes, mainly in terms of the relationship between the primary structure and the envelope surface. The second part of the research moved on to proposing a new alternative to the traditional methods, by utilizing polymer composite materials (PCM) as construction material and employing advanced Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer Aided Engineering (CAE)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) technologies. More specifically, the author has attempted to present effective theories in support of the two following ideas: (1) circular tubes made of PCM are the most promising alternative to regular steel members, especially steel tubes, to follow the envelope surface of the complex shaped building. (2) state-of-the-art CAD/CAE/CAM technologies are the most essential tools to achieve the geometrical and functional quality of the proposed new material. In the second phase, the primary focus of the quantitative approach was on fabricating an experimental model (1:1 scale prototype) called “ a unit of boundary structures”, the basic unit of structure system that wraps a complex-shaped building's entire territory . (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

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