CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id caadria2013_030
id caadria2013_030
authors Adamantidis, Ermis; Madhav Kidao and Marios Tsiliakos
year 2013
title Siphonophore – A Physical Computing Simulation of Colonial Intelligence Organisms
source Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013) / Singapore 15-18 May 2013, pp. 355-364
summary This paper sets out to document the procedural design and implementation of “Siphonophore” a multisensory digital ecology, mimicking colonial-ordered behaviour systems. The exploration of the notion of “self” in a complex system of highly integrated individuals with reference to the emergence of behaviours from the human-machine-context interaction, is engaged by this open system’s hierarchical articulation of electronics, Arduino boards, sensors and programming routines. User interaction and recorded statistics from the system’s core algorithm are assessed, in relation to the capacity of this prototype to provide an alternative methodology of describing collective intelligence, while presenting a non-standard perspective of body-space interaction and design as entertaining art. The overall impact is discussed in relation to the examined observations, towards a potential advancement to a system of superior contextual understanding.  
wos WOS:000351496100035
keywords Colonial intelligence, Multisensory installation, Physical computing, Spatial sensing, Human-machine interaction 
series CAADRIA
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 4805
authors Bentley, P.
year 1999
title Evolutionary Design by Computers Morgan Kaufmann
source San Francisco, CA
summary Computers can only do what we tell them to do. They are our blind, unconscious digital slaves, bound to us by the unbreakable chains of our programs. These programs instruct computers what to do, when to do it, and how it should be done. But what happens when we loosen these chains? What happens when we tell a computer to use a process that we do not fully understand, in order to achieve something we do not fully understand? What happens when we tell a computer to evolve designs? As this book will show, what happens is that the computer gains almost human-like qualities of autonomy, innovative flair, and even creativity. These 'skills'which evolution so mysteriously endows upon our computers open up a whole new way of using computers in design. Today our former 'glorified typewriters' or 'overcomplicated drawing boards' can do everything from generating new ideas and concepts in design, to improving the performance of designs well beyond the abilities of even the most skilled human designer. Evolving designs on computers now enables us to employ computers in every stage of the design process. This is no longer computer aided design - this is becoming computer design. The pages of this book testify to the ability of today's evolutionary computer techniques in design. Flick through them and you will see designs of satellite booms, load cells, flywheels, computer networks, artistic images, sculptures, virtual creatures, house and hospital architectural plans, bridges, cranes, analogue circuits and even coffee tables. Out of all of the designs in the world, the collection you see in this book have a unique history: they were all evolved by computer, not designed by humans.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id af53
authors Boyer, E. and Mitgang, L.
year 1996
title Building community: a new future for architecture education and practice
source Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
summary Internships, before and after graduation, are the most essential link connecting students to the world of practice. Yet, by all accounts, internship is perhaps the most troubled phase of the continuing education of architects. During this century, as architectural knowledge grew more complex, the apprenticeship system withered away and schools assumed much of the responsibility for preparing architects for practice. However, schools cannot do the whole job. It is widely acknowledged that certain kinds of technical and practical knowledge are best learned in the workplace itself, under the guidance of experienced professionals. All state accrediting boards require a minimum period of internship-usually about three years-before a person is eligible to take the licensing exam. The National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB) allows students to earn up to two years of work credit prior to acquisition of an accredited degree. The Intern Development Program (IDP), launched by NCARB and the American Institute of Architects in 1979, provides the framework for internship in some forty states. The program was designed to assure that interns receive adequate mentoring, that experiences are well-documented, and that employers and interns allocate enough time to a range of educational and vocational experiences to prepare students for eventual licensure. As the IDP Guidelines state, "The shift from school to office is not a transition from theory to pragmatism. It is a period when theory merges with pragmatism.... It's a time when you: apply your formal education to the daily realities of architectural practice; acquire comprehensive experience in basic practice areas; explore specialized areas of practice; develop professional judgment; continue your formal education in architecture; and refine your career goals." Whatever its accomplishments, however, we found broad consensus that the Intern Development Program has not, by itself, solved the problems of internship. Though we found mutually satisfying internship programs at several of the firms we visited or heard about around the country, at many others interns told us they were not receiving the continuing education and experience they needed. The truth is that architecture has serious, unsolved problems compared with other fields when it comes to supplying on-the-job learning experiences to induct students into the profession on a massive scale. Medicine has teaching hospitals. Beginning teachers work in actual classrooms, supported by school taxes. Law offices are, for the most part, in a better financial position to support young lawyers and pay them living wages. The architecture profession, by contrast, must support a required system of internship prior to licensure in an industry that has neither the financial resources of law or medicine, the stability and public support of teaching, nor a network of locations like hospitals or schools where education and practice can be seamlessly connected. And many employers acknowledged those problems. "The profession has all but undermined the traditional relationship between the profession and the academy," said Neil Frankel, FAIA, executive vice president of Perkins & Will, a multinational firm with offices in New York, Chicago, Washington, and London. "Historically, until the advent of the computer, the profession said, 'Okay, go to school, then we in the profession will teach you what the real world is like.' With the coming of the computer, the profession needed a skill that students had, and has left behind the other responsibilities." One intern told us she had been stuck for months doing relatively menial tasks such as toilet elevations. Another intern at a medium-sized firm told us he had been working sixty to seventy hours per week for a year and a half. "Then my wife had a baby and I 'slacked off' to fifty hours. The partner called me in and I got called on the carpet for not working hard enough." "The whole process of internship is being outmoded by economics," one frustrated intern told us. "There's not the time or the money. There's no conception of people being groomed for careers. The younger staff are chosen for their value as productive workers." "We just don't have the best structure here to use an intern's abilities to their best," said a Mississippi architect. "The people who come out of school are really problems. I lost patience with one intern who was demanding that I switch him to another section so that he could learn what he needed for his IDP. I told him, 'It's not my job to teach you. You are here to produce.'" What steps might help students gain more satisfying work opportunities, both during and after graduation?
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ijac201210405
id ijac201210405
authors Braumann, Johannes; Sigrid-Brell Cokcan
year 2012
title Digital and Physical Tools for Industrial Robots in Architecture: Robotic Interaction and Interfaces
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 10 - no. 4, 541-554
summary The development of digital and physical tools is highly dependent on interfaces, which define the terms of interaction both between humans and machines, as well as between machines and other machines.This research explores how new, advanced human machine interfaces, that are built upon concepts established by entertainment electronics can enhance the interaction between users and complex, kinematic machines. Similarly, physical computing greatly innovates machine-machine interaction, as it allows designers to easily customize microcontroller boards and to embed them into complex systems, where they drive actuators and interact with other machines such as industrial robots.These approaches are especially relevant in the creative industry, where customized soft- and hardware is now enabling innovative and highly effective fabrication strategies that have the potential to compete with high-tech industry applications.
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

_id 3287
authors Cheng, Nancy Yen-wen
year 2001
title Evolution of Digital Design Teaching: A Course as Microcosm for Educational Issues
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 20, pp. 13-17
summary Despite widespread use of computers in the architectural profession, computer use in architectural education remains uneven. The challenge to educators becomes apparent in examining the evolution of an introductory course. In four years, the teaching initiatives illuminate the crucial issues:* Content focus (what): computer techniques supporting design concepts, selection of design and communication applications / * Delivery techniques (how): - Organizing framework: staffing, course format - Teaching tools: web resources, online bulletin boards, online quizzes and gradebook. These efforts have produced gradual progress. Major successes include development of successful assignments and resources, balance of exercise types, and skill improvement through competency exams. On the other hand, addressing different skill levels, providing personal attention in an efficient way and overcoming equipment impediments remain a challenge. Outside the course, the overall curricular framework needs to be adjusted to prepare for and reinforce learning within the course. Results from initiatives inside and outside of the classroom are discussed.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id 403f
authors Clark, Steve and Maher, Mary Lou
year 2001
title The Role of Place in Designing a Learner Centred Virtual Learning Environment
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 187-200
summary There are numerous approaches and tools for creating a virtual learning environment. The most common approach is to provide a repository of learning materials on a network to facilitate the distribution of the course content and to supplement this material with communications software such as email and bulletin boards. In this paper we highlight the role of place in creating a learning experience and its relevance to current learning theories. Architectural design becomes an important consideration when virtual learning environments are considered places. We present a framework for guiding the development of virtual learning environments that shows how place and design can combine with learning theories and technology. Finally, we draw on our experience in developing a virtual campus and virtual design studios to demonstrate how place and design can be the basis for virtual learning environments.
keywords Virtual Place, Virtual Learning Environments, Design Studio
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:23

_id ecaade03_000
id ecaade03_000
authors Dokonal, Wolfgang and Hirschberg, Urs (Eds.)
year 2003
title Digital Design
source 21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings [ISBN 0-9541183-1-6], Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, 677 p.
summary Digital Design is not only the title of the 21st eCAADe conference 2003 in Graz but also one of the main keywords in Architectural Education nowadays. Information Technology has managed to influence all fields of the “architectural process” and has developed straight from the calculation tools of the engineers over the CAD drafting boards of big architectural firms to every architectural professional and student. This process was incredibly quick in terms of the architectural chronology but very slow in terms of architectural education at universities (at least in Austria). Not very long ago it was sometimes forbidden to deliver CAD drawings for design projects at our faculty. In fact, the early experiments in using the computer in the design process quite often failed because of the restrictions of the available (and affordable) hard-and software. Today, even our first year students start some of their earliest design experiences quite naturally with the computer. However, there are still many questions to be answered and maybe some new questions to be asked in the relationship between architectural design and the computer. Architectural design is mainly a “game of imagination” and today computer tools start to enhance and support the architects visions after a longer period where they were often reduced by the limitations of the tools. Still, there are many different ways to design because every designer has a different approach towards architectural design and there is no such thing as “the perfect digital design tool” for everyone. We hope that this conference with all the different approaches documented in this book plays a major role in the discussion and development of all these aspects and brings us “one step further”.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id ecaade2015_119
id ecaade2015_119
authors Dokonal, Wolfgang; Knight, Michael W. and Dengg, Ernst Alexander
year 2015
title New Interfaces - Old Models
source Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds.), Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16-18 September 2015, pp. 101-106
summary The rapid development of new Virtual Reality (VR) devices such as the Oculus Rift and Google Cardboard together with Augmented Reality (AR) applications such as 3Dplus (by the Finnish company advice) or gaming software such as Unity3D and Unreal Engine 4 raises the question of how we can use these new interfaces and applications to access our increasingly data-rich models. In this paper we will summarise the results of a joint international workshop where students explored the use of these new interfaces on existing models. During the course of the workshop, the students built their own VR environments to test spatial perception and then used different types of housing models with these interfaces to find out what kind of information inside those data rich models is best suited to be accessed using these new interfaces. The question will be if there is any added value - besides the novelty factor - in using these new devices in combination with old models. To give an extra dimension to the virtual nature of the workshop, students collaborated with some of the tutors primarily digitally using the virtual models and other online tools (Skype/Twitter/discussion boards). By having collaboration through the medium of the virtual interactive model as the core communication method, the amount, type and methods of presenting the information is tested and evaluated. This is work in progress and we had to experience several problems that we could not overcome in the available time.
wos WOS:000372317300011
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ascaad2012_003
id ascaad2012_003
authors Elseragy, Ahmed
year 2012
title Creative Design Between Representation and Simulation
source CAAD | INNOVATION | PRACTICE [6th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2012 / ISBN 978-99958-2-063-3], Manama (Kingdom of Bahrain), 21-23 February 2012, pp. 11-12
summary Milestone figures of architecture all have their different views on what comes first, form or function. They also vary in their definitions of creativity. Apparently, creativity is very strongly related to ideas and how they can be generated. It is also correlated with the process of thinking and developing. Creative products, whether architectural or otherwise, and whether tangible or intangible, are originated from ‘good ideas’ (Elnokaly, Elseragy and Alsaadani, 2008). On one hand, not any idea, or any good idea, can be considered creative but, on the other hand, any creative result can be traced back to a good idea that initiated it in the beginning (Goldschmit and Tatsa, 2005). Creativity in literature, music and other forms of art is immeasurable and unbounded by constraints of physical reality. Musicians, painters and sculptors do not create within tight restrictions. They create what becomes their own mind’s intellectual property, and viewers or listeners are free to interpret these creations from whichever angle they choose. However, this is not the case with architects, whose creations and creative products are always bound with different physical constraints that may be related to the building location, social and cultural values related to the context, environmental performance and energy efficiency, and many more (Elnokaly, Elseragy and Alsaadani, 2008). Remarkably, over the last three decades computers have dominated in almost all areas of design, taking over the burden of repetitive tasks so that the designers and students can focus on the act of creation. Computer aided design has been used for a long time as a tool of drafting, however in this last decade this tool of representation is being replaced by simulation in different areas such as simulation of form, function and environment. Thus, the crafting of objects is moving towards the generation of forms and integrated systems through designer-authored computational processes. The emergence and adoption of computational technologies has significantly changed design and design education beyond the replacement of drawing boards with computers or pens and paper with computer-aided design (CAD) computer-aided engineering (CAE) applications. This paper highlights the influence of the evolving transformation from Computer Aided Design (CAD) to Computational Design (CD) and how this presents a profound shift in creative design thinking and education. Computational-based design and simulation represent new tools that encourage designers and artists to continue progression of novel modes of design thinking and creativity for the 21st century designers. Today computational design calls for new ideas that will transcend conventional boundaries and support creative insights through design and into design. However, it is still believed that in architecture education one should not replace the design process and creative thinking at early stages by software tools that shape both process and final product which may become a limitation for creative designs to adapt to the decisions and metaphors chosen by the simulation tool. This paper explores the development of Computer Aided Design (CAD) to Computational Design (CD) Tools and their impact on contemporary design education and creative design.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2012/05/15 18:46

_id sigradi2007_af08
id sigradi2007_af08
authors Erebitis Gallardo, Carlos; Rodrigo Garcia Alvarado
year 2007
title Digital Constructions [Construcciones Digitales]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 270-274
summary Nowadays construction of industrial buildings has been intensively automated using numeric-control machines, with lower costs and shorter ranges of production, but these advantages have not been transferred to general architecture. In order to promote architectural alternatives, this paper identified digital modeling techniques targeted to automated constructive systems. The procedures defined are cutting boards, folded volumes, diverse repetition, shipped solids, subtractive mass, volumetric meshes and curved frames, besides a general procedure of development. These techniques demonstrated a closer relationship between design and material execution, and suggest innovative and efficient building possibilities.
keywords Digital Fabrication; Industrial Building; 3D-modeling; Architectural Design
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id ecaade2014_198
id ecaade2014_198
authors Erik Kjems
year 2014
title Data Fusion Using Geographic Managed Objects
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 495-504
summary The way we design our buildings and cities has not really changed a lot for decades. Drawing boards have been exchanged with relatively small 30” inch monitors, pens and rulers have been exchanged with advanced digital tools mostly though disturbing, making the creative process of design merely a frustrating one. So what have we gained from CAD. Certainly a lot, but mostly the possibility to combine and fuse projects. Simulating future use and behaviour, revealing design issues and failures before actually built. Still data fusion is a relatively new challenge albeit quite obvious trying to assemble models coming from different systems and vendors representing different professional domains. This paper discusses data exchange and data fusion in general and presents a new development, which gives the possibility to enhance data as intelligent objects opening a whole new paradigm for both data exchange and data fusion.
wos WOS:000361385100052
keywords Data fusion; cad; managed object; data exchange; virtual machine
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id sigradi2006_c091d
id sigradi2006_c091d
authors Garcia Alvarado, Rodrigo; fuentealba, Jessica and Guinez, Rodrigo
year 2006
title Suave Infinitud - Desfase Pasivo: Modelos Digitales como Comunicadores de Pensamiento Arquitectonico [Soft Infinity - Pasive Disruption: Digital Models for Communication of Architectural Though]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 355-358
summary This research studies the relationship between architectural language and thought, using digital models to communicate architectural concepts. It studies in particular two renowned buildings of contemporary architecture in Chile. A tower for insurance company in the downtown of the city of Concepcion, designed by architect Enrique Browne, well- known by his ecological approach. And offices for industry of timber boards close to the city of Arauco, designed by architect Jose Cruz Ovalle, whom applied sensitive background. Digital models of both buildings were developed to show different characteristic and parts. A group of students evaluate semantic interpretation of these digital models, when other evaluates same conditions with pictures of the buildings. The results showed high understanding of language, but low appreciation of meaning and thoughts, close to general values than particular approaches, supporting basic architectural concepts and use of diverse digital models.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id sigradi2010_384
id sigradi2010_384
authors García, Alvarado Rodrigo; Turkienicz Benamy
year 2010
title Generative House: Exploration of Digital Fabrication and Generative System for Low - cost Housing in Southern Brazil
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 384-387
summary Generative House is a collaborative exploration of advanced technologies for lower - and working - class housing carried out by industrial and academic partners in southern Brazil. It seeks to test generative procedures and digital manufacturing to develop a flexible building system for low - cost sustainable housing in order to inspire future developments in this field by developing an urban grammar through manufacturing models and generative programming, as well as parametric design of panels assembled using digital fabrication. Scale models and full - scale prototype with timber boards have been built, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach proposed. However, further refinement of the adopted procedures and technical applications is required.
keywords low - cost housing, generative programming, parametric design, digital manufacturing, collaborative development
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 6745
authors Giraud, Christian and Hanrot, Stephane
year 1988
title Elements for Spatial Reasoning in Construction
source Robotics in Construction, International Symposium (5th : 1988 : Tokyo, Japan). pp. 105- 113 : ill. includes bibliography
summary According to AI techniques, spatial reasoning is seen in construction as generation and solving of goals involving a spatial representation model of buildings defining a rich taxonomy of parts and elements, and spatial relationships between these parts and elements. The authors define spatial representation model and spatial relationship from previous experiments in architect knowledge representation and automated surveying. The aim is to enable very abstract and short descriptions of building component assemblies, from designers at drawing-boards or from workers on sites, which can be processed and transformed in basic geometrical properties
keywords reasoning, representation, construction, automation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id acadiaregional2011_005
id acadiaregional2011_005
authors Griffiths, Jason
year 2011
title Repurposed Political Ply
source Parametricism (SPC) ACADIA Regional 2011 Conference Proceedings
summary This paper describes a building envelope that has been formed from recycled political campaign boards. It explores its formation as a deviation from one cycle of production and consumption (manufacture, implementation, removal and disposal of the campaign board) to another i.e. a re-purposed shade canopy.
series ACADIA
last changed 2011/07/08 09:17

_id ecaade2016_083
id ecaade2016_083
authors Hansen, Ellen Kathrine, Mullins, Michael Finbarr and Triantafyllidis, Georgios
year 2016
title Dynamic Light as a Transformational Tool in Computer-aided Design
source Herneoja, Aulikki; Toni Österlund and Piia Markkanen (eds.), Complexity & Simplicity - Proceedings of the 34th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 22-26 August 2016, pp. 275-282
summary New lighting technologies may fulfill a need for holistic design methods by offering opportunities for both architects and engineers to apply methods and knowledge from media technology that combine daylight and interactive light, in order to complement and deepen an understanding of context. The framework combines daylight and interactive light and includes human needs analysis, spatial understanding, qualitative analysis, qualitative tests and visual assessments. A transdisciplinary model termed the "Architectural Experiment" is applied in a specific case by combining serial, parallel and iterative processes which include contextual analysis, architectural design, simulation, C++ programming, implementation of the dynamic smart-film diffuser, programming of voltage ranges on Arduino boards, rapid prototype construction and lighting technology.
wos WOS:000402063700031
keywords Design Tools, CAAD Education, Design Concepts ; Lighting Design
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/06/28 08:46

_id 6e99
authors Hoffer, Erin Rae
year 1992
title Creating the Electronic Design Studio: Development of a Heterogeneous Networked Environment at Harvard's Graduate School of Design
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 225-240
summary The migration of design education to reliance on computer-based techniques requires new ways of thinking about environments which can effectively support a diverse set of activities. Both from a spatial standpoint and a computing resource standpoint, design studios must be inevitably reconfigured to support new tools and reflect new ways of communicating. At Harvard's GSD, a commitment to incorporating computer literacy as a fundamental component of design education enables us to confront these issues through the implementation of a heterogeneous network imbedded in an electronic design environment. This evolving prototype of a new design studio, its development and its potential, will be the subject of this paper. A new style design environment is built upon an understanding of traditional techniques, and layered with an awareness of new tools and methods. Initially we borrow from existing metaphors which govern our interpretation of the way designers work. Next we seek to extend our thinking to include allied or related metaphors such as the library metaphor which informs collections of software and data, or the laboratory metaphor which informs workspace groupings, or the transportation metaphor which informs computer-based communications such as electronic mail or bulletin boards, or the utility services metaphor which informs the provision of network services and equipment. Our evaluation of this environment is based on direct feedback from its users, both faculty and students, and on subjective observation of the qualitative changes in communication which occur between and among these groups and individuals. Ultimately, the network must be judged as a framework for learning and evaluation, and its success depends both on its ability to absorb our existing metaphors for the process of design, and to prefigure the emerging metaphors to be envisioned in the future.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:15

_id ed78
authors Jog, Bharati
year 1993
title Integration of Computer Applications in the Practice of Architecture
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 89-97
summary Computer Applications in Architecture is emerging as an important aspect of our profession. The field, which is often referred to as Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) has had a notable impact on the profession and academia in recent years. A few professionals have predicted that as slide rules were replaced by calculators, in the coming years drafting boards and parallel bars will be replaced by computers. On the other hand, many architects do not anticipate such a drastic change in the coming decade as present CAD systems are supporting only a few integral aspects of architectural design. However, all agree that architecture curricula should be modified to integrate CAAD education.

In 1992-93, in the Department of Architecture of the 'School of Architecture and interior Design' at the University of Cincinnati, a curriculum committee was formed to review and modify the entire architecture curriculum. Since our profession and academia relate directly to each other, the author felt that while revising the curriculum, the committee should have factual information about CAD usage in the industry. Three ways to obtain such information were thought of, namely (1) conducting person to person or telephone interviews with the practitioners (2) requesting firms to give open- ended feed back and (3) surveying firms by sending a questionnaire. Of these three, the most effective, efficient and suitable method to obtain such information was an organized survey through a questionnaire. In mid December 1992, a survey was organized which was sponsored by the School of Architecture and Interior Design, the Center for the Study of the Practice of Architecture (CSPA) and the University Division of Professional Practice, all from the University of Cincinnati.

This chapter focuses on the results of this survey. A brief description of the survey design is also given. In the next section a few surveys organized in recent years are listed. In the third section the design of this survey is presented. The survey questions and their responses are given in the fourth section. The last section presents the conclusions and brief recommendations regarding computer curriculum in architecture.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/02/25 09:25

_id b5f3
authors Johnson, Brian R.
year 2000
title Sustaining Studio Culture: How Well Do Internet Tools Meet the Needs of Virtual Design Studios?
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 15-22
summary The Internet beckons seductively to students. The prospect of nearly instantaneous communication with acquaintances spread across the face of the earth is alluring. The ease with which rich graphical content can be made available to the world is stunning. The possibility of a design being seen by friends, family, and famous architects is tantalizing. Faculty are drawn by the potent synergy and learning that can be found in the opposition and cooperation of different cultural roots. It is probable that entire design studio sequences will be offered through distance-learning programs in the near future. Is that a good idea? Much has been written about "virtual design studios" in architecture schools and "virtual offices" in practice. Most offices have largely or totally abandoned drafting boards in favor of digital tools of production. Yet, regarding design, Ken Sanders, author of The Digital Architect, and Manager of Information Services at Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Partnership (ZGF), of Portland, Oregon, has written "we still make an effort to locate project teams together and always will". Production CAD work requires different kinds of interaction than design and design instruction. The experiments have been invaluable in developing strategies for use of the Internet as a component of a design studio series, but rarely depend entirely on use of the Internet for all course communications. In fact, most describe fairly isolated efforts to augment some aspect of traditional design environments using Internet tools (ftp, email, web). A few have implemented new pedagogic or collaboration paradigms (e.g., ETH’s phase(x)). This paper considers the traditional design studio in terms of formal and informal activities, characterizes the major Internet technologies with regard to the resulting interaction issues. In particular, it describes an area of informal work group communications that appears to be ill-supported with existing tools. The paper goes on to describe a web-based collaboration tool which was developed to address the need for less formal communication. The context for this development is the concept of a fully distributed collaboration environment with particular attention to questions of informal communication. Finally, it describes how the tool was deployed in an experimental "web studio" setting and student responses to use of the tool.
keywords Virtual Design Studio, Collaboration, Online Communities, Web Tools
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 8d90
authors Johnson, Brian R.
year 2000
title Between Friends: Support of Workgroup Communications
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 41-49
summary The web offers both business and academic users potential benefits from on-line collaboration. Online education presents universities with a means of handling the “baby boom echo” without expanding physical campuses (Carnevale 2000). Business “extranets” allow greater coordination amongst team members on projects where the cast of players involves experts in different locations. Both involve substituting computer-mediated communications (CMC) for traditionally face-to-face communications. Over the past several years, the author has deployed several of the available CMC technologies in support of small group interaction in academic and administrative settings. These technologies include email, video conferencing, web publication, web bulletin boards, web databases, mailing lists, and hybrid web BBS/email combinations. This paper reflects on aspects of embodied human interaction and the affordances of current CMC technology, identifying opportunities for both exploitation and additional development. One important but under-supported aspect of work group behavior is workspace awareness, or peripheral monitoring. The Compadres web-based system, which was developed to support workspace awareness among distributed workgroup members, is described. These findings are relevant to those seeking to create online communities: virtual design studios, community groups, distributed governance organizations, and workgroups formed as parts of virtual offices.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/08/03 05:50

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