CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ecaade2014_021
id ecaade2014_021
authors Aant van der Zee, Bauke de Vries and Theo Salet
year 2014
title From rapid prototyping to automated manufacturing
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 455-461
summary In this paper we present an outline of a newly started project to develop a tool which connects BIM to a manufacturing technique like 3D printing. First we will look some promising manufacturing techniques. We will design a small dwelling and export it into a BIM, from which we will extract our data to generate the path the nozzle has to follow. The chosen path is constrained by the material properties, the design and speed of the nozzle. To validate the system we develop a small VR tool in which we mimic a manufacturing tool.
wos WOS:000361384700045
keywords Rapid prototyping; rapid manufacturing; robotics; automation; building information model (bim)
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id sigradi2006_c129b
id sigradi2006_c129b
authors Abad, Gabriel; Adriane Borde; Mónica Fuentes; Virginia Agrielav; Adriana Granero and Jacqueline Fernández
year 2006
title Producción colaborativa de material de enseñanza-aprendizaje de Gráfica Digital con aportes multidisciplinarios [Collaborative production for taught-learning materials for digital graphic with multidisciplinary contributions]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 117-121
summary For a contribution to problem solving processes at different areas, this paper presents the use of Digital Graphics as a knowledge object for a distance teaching/learning workshop. At the Learning Management System, different theoretical subjects with supporting tools were proposed, and exercises requiring collaborative work. An specific didactic situation using available technologies at Internet for 3D modelling, combined with satellite images and geographic information program was proposed. The final works were then shared by a 3D models repository. As a complement of this experience and in relation with their professional work, every student proposed a new didactic situation including Learning Objects, sharing them with the others members of the group, through conceptual maps built up in a co-operative way.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id b110
id b110
authors Abadi Abbo, Isaac and Cavallin Calanche, Humerto
year 1994
title Ecological Validity of Real Scale Models
source Beyond Tools for Architecture [Proceedings of the 5th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 90-6754-375-6] Wageningen (The Netherlands) 6-9 September 1994, pp. 31-40
summary Space simulation is a technique employed by architects, urban designers, environmental psychologists and other related specialists. It is used for academic and research purposes, as an aid to evaluate the impact that the built environment or that to be built would yield in potential or real users. Real Scale Model is organized as one of the models which represents more reliable spatial characteristics in space simulations. However, it is necessary to know the ecological validity of the simulations carried out, that is the degree in which laboratory results could be taken as reliable and representative of real situations. In order to discover which variables of the model used are relevant so that their perception results ecologically valid in respect to reality, a research has been designed in which simulations of specific spaces are appraised both in real space and in the real scale model. The results of both evaluations were statistically analyzed and it shows no significative differences in psychological impressions between the evaluation of real spaces and real scale model. These ecological validation of the real scale model could be of great use to estimate the validity of the results obtained in spaces simulated in the laboratory.
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2006/06/24 07:29

_id bacd
authors Abadí Abbo, Isaac
year 1999
source Full-scale Modeling and the Simulation of Light [Proceedings of the 7th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-167-5] Florence (Italy) 18-20 February 1999, pp. 75-82
summary Spatial Design Ability (SDA) has been defined by the author (1983) as the capacity to anticipate the effects (psychological impressions) that architectural spaces or its components produce in observers or users. This concept, which requires the evaluation of spaces by the people that uses it, was proposed as a guideline to a Masters Degree Course in Architectural Design at the Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes in Mexico. The theory and the exercises required for the experience needed a model that could simulate spaces in terms of all the variables involved. Full-scale modeling as has been tested in previous research, offered the most effective mean to experiment with space. A simple, primitive model was designed and built: an articulated ceiling that allows variation in height and shape, and a series of wooden panels for the walls and structure. Several exercises were carried out, mainly to experience cause -effect relationships between space and the psychological impressions they produce. Students researched into spatial taxonomy, intentional sequences of space and spatial character. Results showed that students achieved the expected anticipation of space and that full-scale modeling, even with a simple model, proved to be an effective tool for this purpose. The low cost of the model and the short time it took to be built, opens an important possibility for Institutions involved in architectural studies, both as a research and as a learning tool.
keywords Spatial Design Ability, Architectural Space, User Evaluation, Learning, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 09:27

_id ascaad2009_wael_abdelhameed
id ascaad2009_wael_abdelhameed
authors Abdelhameed, Wael
year 2009
title Assessment of a Physical Planning Project through Virtual Reality: A case study
source Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content [4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2009) / ISBN 978-99901-06-77-0], Manama (Kingdom of Bahrain), 11-12 May 2009, pp. 365-378
summary The study reports an application of VR models in the assessment of a part of physical planning project. The project outputs were different reports, GIS data and maps, and CAD drawings. The GIS data were used to create the VR models by importing Shpfiles of the GIS project outputs to VR software. The study presents VR models and the assessment of the physical planning project in terms of: 1) effect of the population increase, 2) effect of the required residential units, and 3) quality assurance for the current situation and future situation. The method used to build up the VR Models was through satellite images (by Google Earth Pro) and VR software (by UC Win/Road). Different models were built up to visualize and assess the alternative solutions and various influential factors. The study employed Virtual Reality in various urban and planning problems through models that are employed as tools of communication and design. The visualized environment and the associated models facilitated the evaluation of important areas, namely: impact of different factors and alternative solutions. The study concludes that the processes, such as decision making, visualization and representation, performed through VR manifest its importance to different design phases of urban and physical planning.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2009/06/30 06:12

_id cf2015_279
id cf2015_279
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif M. and Massoud, Passaint M.
year 2015
title Making Sense of those Batteries and Wires: Parametric Design between Emergence and Autonomy
source The next city - New technologies and the future of the built environment [16th International Conference CAAD Futures 2015. Sao Paulo, July 8-10, 2015. Electronic Proceedings/ ISBN 978-85-85783-53-2] Sao Paulo, Brazil, July 8-10, 2015, pp. 279-296.
summary This paper reports on the process and outcomes of a digital design studio that integrates parametric design and generative systems in architectural and urban design projects. It explores the interrelationship between the emergence of innovative formal representations using parametric design systems on the one hand, and design autonomy; more specifically the conscious process of generating and developing an architectural concept, on the other. Groups of undergraduate students working on an architectural project are asked to identify a specific conceptual parti that addresses an aspect of architectural quality, define strategies that satisfy those aspects, and computational methodologies to implement those strategies, such as rule-based systems, self-organization systems, and genetic algorithms. The paper describes the educational approach and studio outcomes, discusses implications for CAAD education and curricula, and addresses issues to be considered for parametric and generative software development.
keywords Parametric modeling, generative design, emergence, autonomy, design exploration, CAAD curriculum.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2015/06/29 05:55

_id ecaade2018_138
id ecaade2018_138
authors Abdulmawla, Abdulmalik, Schneider, Sven, Bielik, Martin and Koenig, Reinhard
year 2018
title Integrated Data Analysis for Parametric Design Environment - mineR: a Grasshopper plugin based on R
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 319-326
summary In this paper we introduce mineR- a tool that integrates statistical data analysis inside the parametric design environment Grasshopper. We first discuss how the integration of statistical data analysis would improve the parametric modelling workflow. Then we present the statistical programming language R. Thereafter, we show how mineR is built to facilitate the use of R in the context of parametric modelling. Using two example cases, we demonstrate the potential of implementing mineR in the context of urban design and analysis. Finally, we discuss the results and possible further developments.
keywords Statistical Data Analysis; Parametric Design
series eCAADe
last changed 2018/07/24 10:24

_id ecaade2016_048
id ecaade2016_048
authors Abramovic, Vasilija and Achten, Henri
year 2016
title From Moving Cube to Urban Interactive Structures - A case study
source Herneoja, Aulikki; Toni Österlund and Piia Markkanen (eds.), Complexity & Simplicity - Proceedings of the 34th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 22-26 August 2016, pp. 661-668
summary When thinking about the future vision of a city, having in mind recent development in digital technologies and digital design tools we are inclined to expect new building structures which incorporate this technology to better help us manage the complexity of life, and to simplify our daily lives and tasks. The idea behind this research paper lies in design of such structures, which could be put inside an urban context and engage in creating a built environment that can add more to the quality of life. For us Interactive architecture is architecture that is responsive, flexible, changing, always moving and adapting to the needs of today. The world is becoming more dynamic, society is constantly changing and the new needs it develops need to be accommodated. As a result architecture has to follow. Spaces have to become more adaptive, responsive and nature concerned, while having the ability for metamorphosis, flexibility and interactivity. Taken as a starting point of this idea is a specific module from graduation project in 2014 "The Unexpected city", where it was possible to test out first ideas about interactive and flexible objects in an urban environment.
wos WOS:000402063700071
keywords Flexible architecture; Interactive architecture; Responsive systems
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/06/28 08:46

_id ecaade2017_054
id ecaade2017_054
authors Abramovic, Vasilija, Glynn, Ruairi and Achten, Henri
year 2017
title ROAMNITURE - Multi-Stable Soft Robotic Structures
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 327-336
summary The rise in robotics is not only changing fabrication research in architecture but increasingly providing opportunities for animating the materiality of architecture, offering responsive, performative and adaptive design possibilities for the built environment. A fundamental challenge with robotics is its suitability to safe, and comfortable use in proximity to the human body. Here we present the preliminary results of the Roamniture Project, a hybrid approach to developing kinetic architecture based on a combination of rigid and soft body dynamics.
keywords Kinetic Architecture; Soft Robotics; Soft Architecture; Furniture
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:21

_id eaea2015_t3_paper02
id eaea2015_t3_paper02
authors Acacia, Simonetta; Casanova, Marta
year 2015
title Recording and Publishing to Ensure Informed Choices for Future Generations
source ENVISIONING ARCHITECTURE: IMAGE, PERCEPTION AND COMMUNICATION OF HERITAGE [ISBN 978-83-7283-681-6],Lodz University of Technology, 23-26 September 2015, pp.290-298
summary The paper presents the practical example of an information system applied to the built heritage, in particular to the Albergo dei Poveri, a monumental complex in the city of Genoa. A huge number of data and information have been organized in one database, in order to provide a synthesis of the building, acquainted with its complexity, and at the same time allow an in-depth knowledge; the graphical visualization by means of GIS eases to query the database. The final purpose of this work is to publish the project as a web-GIS that will allow all the interested parts to easily access and consult the wide knowledge and use it to make well-informed decisions about the conservation of built heritage.
keywords GIS; knowledge; historical building
series EAEA
last changed 2016/04/22 09:52

_id caadria2016_777
id caadria2016_777
authors Aditra, Rakhmat F. and Andry Widyowijatnoko
year 2016
title Combination of mass customisation and conventional construction: A case study of geodesic bamboo dome
source Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing, Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2016) / Melbourne 30 March–2 April 2016, pp. 777-786
summary With the development of advance fabrication, several digi- tal fabrication approaches have been developed. These approaches en- able better form exploration than the conventional manufacturing pro- cess. But, the built examples mostly rely on advance machinery which was not familiar or available in developed country where construction workers are still abundant. Meanwhile, much knowledge gathers in the field practice. This research is aimed to explore an alternative con- struction workflow and method with the combination of mass custom- ization and conventional construction method and to propose the structure system that emphasized this alternative workflow and meth- od. Lattice structure was proposed. The conventional construction method was used in the struts production and mass customization method, laser cutting, and was used for connection production. The algorithmic process was used mainly for data mining, details design, and component production. The backtracking was needed to be pre- dicted and addressed previously. Considerations that will be needed to be tested by further example are on the transition from the digital pro- cess to the manual process. Next research could be for analysing the other engineering aspect for this prototype and suggesting other struc- tural system with more optimal combination of conventional construc- tion and mass customization.
keywords Mass customisation; algorithmic design; digital fabrication; geodesic dome; lattice structure
series CAADRIA
last changed 2016/03/11 09:21

_id 9c0c
authors Af Klercker, Jonas and HenrichsÈn, Jan
year 2001
title Can simulations in VE support architects in solving complex design problems?
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 77-82 [Book ordering info:]
summary Building design is facing development of industrialization of the production on the one hand and more complex 'One of a Kind' products on the other. This will be for rebuilding of a large stock of existing buildings and what can be left to new production. In both cases the results of the design process have to be solid to guarantee a successful product. In both cases an integrated and careful design process is absolutely crucial. The demands on the built environment make the systems of buildings more and more complex and have to be handled by a lot of different expertise. To avoid the 'Relay Race' of today the design teams of tomorrow must work much more integrated. To make integrated solutions, which means simultaneous constrains on all systems, the experts of different fields have to understand more of how all engaged systems relate and influence each other. Communication then consists of complex situations and processes that have to be understood and related to reality. In this aspect a multidimensional Virtual Environment interface has advantages and has been successfully used in design processes in other industries. In this paper the problems that have to be studied are for example Methodical, Conceptual, Technical and Process economical.
series other
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id 6cb2
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1995
title Architects Early Sketching on Computer Using Multimedia
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 247-256
summary This paper presents a development work which aims at practical applications of ideas built on experiences in practise and education and the theoretical development in the BAS.CAAD project. The important difference between BAS.CAAD and CAD programs of today is the possibility to handle user organisation, building design and site in the same program. This means that design today has to be done in at least 3 separate programs with different ways of defining objects. It is then a computer technical problem to mix and study the relations between objects of separate origin. In a recent project our method to overcome this difficulty in CAAD computing was using a Multimedia program making visual simulations to analyse consequences of form etc. As the process went on and forms where more concrete it was possible to make simulations worth showing and discussing to involve colleagues, clients and users.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ecaade2014_036
id ecaade2014_036
authors Afonso Maria de Castro Fernandes Abreu Gonçalves
year 2014
title A Grammar for Shelters - An exploration of rule-based designs in prefabricated and modular shelters.
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 327-336
summary This work explores the possible use of the shape grammar formalism in generating small/medium sized dwellings or shelters as a possible and effective solution for shelter shortages that usually follows in the wake of a natural disaster. The shelters are generated using a set of pre-fabricated elements that add up to form a coherent and functional dwelling. The grammar exemplified here, being a shape grammar, deals specially with generating the underlying functional diagram and the floor plan of one possible solution based on a set of typologies design a priori.
wos WOS:000361385100034
keywords Shape grammars; modular architecture; emergency architecture
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id eaea2015_t3_paper03
id eaea2015_t3_paper03
authors Agajew, Maria
year 2015
title The Prestige and the Money – the Main Goal and the Main Tool in Planning of the City Image in the 21st Century?
source ENVISIONING ARCHITECTURE: IMAGE, PERCEPTION AND COMMUNICATION OF HERITAGE [ISBN 978-83-7283-681-6],Lodz University of Technology, 23-26 September 2015, pp.299-308
summary This paper discusses the process of changing in the historical town – Baku in Azerbaijan in comparison to the achievements of European urban planners and architects (for example in: Paris, Vienna, Dublin). In Baku the fast and unlimited development and many investments in the public spaces have caused a lot of transformation not always to the better vision of the image of the city. At the same time, the development in some European cities is proceeding in other ways, preserving existing historical built environment.
keywords image of the city; revitalization; development
series EAEA
last changed 2016/04/22 09:52

_id ijac201715203
id ijac201715203
authors Agirbas, Asli and Emel Ardaman
year 2017
title Macro-scale designs through topological deformations in the built environment
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 15 - no. 2, 134-147
summary Design studies are being done on contemporary master-plans which may be applied in many locations worldwide. Advances in information technology are becoming the base model of design studies, and these may be more effective than the efforts of humans in the field of architecture and urban design. However, urban morphology variables and constants must be considered while designing contemporary master-plans in the existing built environment. The aims of this study were to extend the use of computer software for different applications and to make a topological work in the regional context. Accordingly, a case study was made using the nCloth simulation tools to create non-Euclidean forms while protecting the road system, which is one of the constant parameters of urban morphology in the built environment.
keywords Conceptual design, built environment, simulation, contemporary master-plans, urban morphology, topology
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2019/08/02 06:30

_id 2005_083
id 2005_083
authors Agostinho, Francisco Santos
year 2005
title Architecture as Drawing, Perception and Cognition
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 83-90
summary This work is about realizing that human perception is inherent to architecture. It is an asset and a trait subject to training and development in an empirical way, involving physical and manual action. It cannot be taught literally through convention and logic reasoning. It is a human achievement of great significance built on intellectual and scientific knowledge. It is something, being physical and empirical, that is supported on instrumental procedure. The computer, as a machine and an instrument, does not shorten the empirical experience of manipulation; on the contrary, it enhances J.J. Gibson’s findings about the perception of space in relation to eye and body movement. Being a cybernetic machine the computer may, and shall, evolve, and become perceptive. In order for that to happen, it is important to keep in mind the mechanism of human perception. Through producing a computerized model of a major architectural work, we develop natural knowledge about its physical features and the thought that lies underneath. To be able to use the computer as an instrument provides a user with explicit knowledge about its ways and mechanism that has to be made available. It involves training, which is to a great extent self-explanatory, and also explicit knowledge about the conventions that are being used, such as programming, reasoning and trigonometry.
keywords Visualization; Environmental Simulation; Knowledge Modelling (KM); 3D Modeling
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id acadia17_28
id acadia17_28
authors Aguiar, Rita; Cardoso, Carmo; Leit?o,António
year 2017
title Algorithmic Design and Analysis Fusing Disciplines
source ACADIA 2017: DISCIPLINES & DISRUPTION [Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-96506-1] Cambridge, MA 2-4 November, 2017), pp. 28-37
summary In the past, there has been a rapid evolution in computational tools to represent and analyze architectural designs. Analysis tools can be used in all stages of the design process, but they are often only used in the final stages, where it might be too late to impact the design. This is due to the considerable time and effort typically needed to produce the analytical models required by the analysis tools. A possible solution would be to convert the digital architectural models into analytical ones, but unfortunately, this often results in errors and frequently the analytical models need to be built almost from scratch. These issues discourage architects from doing a performance-oriented exploration of their designs in the early stages of a project. To overcome these issues, we propose Algorithmic Design and Analysis, a method for analysis that is based on adapting and extending an algorithmic-based design representation so that the modeling operations can generate the elements of the analytical model containing solely the information required by the analysis tool. Using this method, the same algorithm that produces the digital architectural model can also automatically generate analytical models for different types of analysis. Using the proposed method, there is no information loss and architects do not need additional work to perform the analysis. This encourages architects to explore several design alternatives while taking into account the design’s performance. Moreover, when architects know the set of design variations they wish to analyze beforehand, they can easily automate the analysis process.
keywords design methods; information processing; simulation & optimization; BIM; generative system
series ACADIA
last changed 2017/10/17 09:12

_id acadia08_066
id acadia08_066
authors Ahlquist, Sean; Moritz Fleischmann
year 2008
title Material & Space: Synthesis Strategies based on Evolutionary Developmental Biology
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 66-71
summary A material system can be defined as a set of self-organized materials, defining a certain spatial arrangement. In architecture, this material arrangement acts as a threshold for space, though space often only appears as a by-product of the material organization. Treating space as a resulting, therefore secondary, independent product minimizes the capacity to generate architecture that is astutely aware of concerns of functionality, environment and energy. An effective arrangement of material can only be determined in relation to the spaces that it defines. When proposing a more critical approach, a material system can be seen as an intimate inter-connection and reciprocal exchange between the material construct and the spatial conditions. It is necessary to re-define material system as a system that coevolves spatial and material configurations through analysis of the resultant whole, in a process of integration and evaluation. ¶ With this understanding of material system comes an expansion in the number of criteria that are simultaneously engaged in the evolution of the design. The material characteristics, as well as the spatial components and forces (external and internal), are pressures onto the arrangement of material and space. ¶ This brings a high degree of complexity to the process. Biological systems are built on methods that resolve complex interactions through sets of simple yet extensible rules. Evolutionary Developmental Biology explains how growth is an interconnected process of external forces registering fitness into a fixed catalogue of morphological genetic tools. Translating the specific framework for biological growth into computational processes, allows the pursuit of an architecture that is fully informed by the interaction of space and material.
keywords Biology; Computation; Material; Parametric; System
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id ecaade2014_086
id ecaade2014_086
authors Ahmed Sarhan and Peter Rutherford
year 2014
title Integrating Sustainability in the Architectural Design Education Process - Taxonomy of Challenges and Guidelines
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 323-332
summary The last decade have seen substantial calls and increasing pressure for developing an integrated design teaching framework, where sustainability is an imperative priority. This paper focuses on presenting a taxonomy of the main challenges encountered within the educational domain, in the attempt to reach an effective integration. The paper also presents a set guidelines to address and try to resolve the noted challenges. As the use of Building Performance Simulation (BPS) applications is a central approach in this process aiming to reach energy efficient buildings, the paper focuses on the shortcomings noted as a result of the use of these applications in the design studios, with particular emphasis on the thermal and lighting aspects of the simulation. The taxonomy presented is a summary of the findings from literature review, as well as the surveys results which were part of the author's research project discussed in the paper.
wos WOS:000361384700032
keywords Environmental design; building performance simulation; architectural design education
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

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