CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 16 of 16

_id acadia12_199
id acadia12_199
authors Beorkrem, Chris ; Corte, Dan
year 2012
title Zero-Waste, Flat-Packed, Tri-Chord Truss: Continued Investigations of Structural Expression in Parametric Design"
source ACADIA 12: Synthetic Digital Ecologies [Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-62407-267-3] San Francisco 18-21 October, 2012), pp. 199-208
summary The direct and rapid connections between scripting, modeling and prototyping allow for investigations of computation in fabrication. The manipulation of planar materials with two-dimensional CNC cuts can easily create complex and varied forms, volumes, and surfaces. However, the bulk of research on folding using CNC fabrication tools is focused upon surfaces, self-supporting walls and shell structures, which do not integrate well into more conventional building construction models. This paper attempts to explain the potential for using folding methodologies to develop structural members through a design-build process. Conventional building practice consists of the assembly of off-the-shelf parts. Many times, the plinth, skeleton, and skin are independently designed and fabricated, integrating multiple industries. Using this method of construction as an operative status quo, this investigation focused on a single structural component: the truss. Using folding methodologies and sheet steel to create a truss, this design investigation employed a recyclable and prolific building material to redefine the fabrication of a conventional structural member. The potential for using digital design and two-dimensional CNC fabrication tools in the design of a foldable truss from sheet steel is viable in the creation of a flat-packed, minimal waste structural member that can adapt to a variety of aesthetic and structural conditions. Applying new methods to a component of the conventional ‘kit of parts’ allowed for a novel investigation that recombines zero waste goals, flat-packing potential, structural expression and computational processes. This paper will expand (greatly) upon previous research into bi-chord truss designs, developing a tri-chord truss, which is parametrically linked to its structural moment diagram. The cross section of each truss is formed based on the loading condition for each beam. This truss design has been developed through a thorough series of analytical models and tests performed digitally, to scale and in full scale. The tri-chord truss is capable of resisting rotational failures well beyond the capacity of the bi-chord designs previously developed. The results are complex, and elegant expressions of structural logics embodied in a tightly constrained functional design.
keywords Parametric Design , Structural Expression , Material constraints
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email cbeorkrem@uncc.edu
last changed 2013/01/09 10:06

_id acadia11_138
id acadia11_138
authors Buell, Samantha; Shaban, Ryan; Corte, Daniel; Beorkrem, Christopher
year 2011
title Zero-waste, Flat Pack Truss Work: An Investigation of Responsive Structuralism
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 138-143
summary The direct and rapid connections between scripting, modeling and prototyping allow for investigations of computation in fabrication. The manipulation of planar materials with two-dimensional CNC cuts can easily create complex and varied forms, volumes, and surfaces. However, the bulk of research on folding using CNC fabrication tools is focused upon surfaces, self-supporting walls and shell structures, which do not integrate well into more conventional building construction models.This paper attempts to explain the potential for using folding methodologies to develop structural members through a design-build process. Conventional building practice consists of the assembly of off-the-shelf parts. Many times, the plinth, skeleton, and skin are independently designed and fabricated, integrating multiple industries. Using this method of construction as an operative status quo, this investigation focused on a single structural component: the truss. A truss is defined as: “A triangulated arrangement of structural members that reduces nonaxial external forces to a set of axial forces in its members.” (Allen and Iano 2004)Using folding methodologies and sheet steel to create a truss, this design investigation employed a recyclable and prolific building material to redefine the fabrication of a conventional structural member. The potential for using digital design and two-dimensional CNC fabrication tools in the design of a foldable truss from sheet steel is viable in the creation of a flat-packed, minimal waste structural member that can adapt to a variety of aesthetic and structural conditions. Applying new methods to a component of the conventional ‘kit of parts’ allowed for a novel investigation that recombines zero waste goals, flat-packing potential, structural expression and computational processes.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email srbuell2@gmail.com
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id a336
authors Calvo, Charles M.
year 1993
title SOME EPISTEMOLOGICAL CONCERNS REGARDING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACHES TO ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN - A RENEWED AGENDA
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 155-162
summary It has been noted that designers - when confronted with computers - have, by and large, refused to accept the introduction of apparently new design methodologies, and it has been speculated that this is the result of a failure of those methodologies to address the cognitive processes which take place in the course of designing. This position is somewhat suspect in that such innovations as computer-aided drafting -which also fail to recognize these processes have been widely accepted. It is perhaps more likely that the lack of acceptance results from a perception on the part of designers that the new methodologies either do not reflect some or all of those concerns that designers consider fundamental to design, or that they actively interfere with the designer's ability to accomplish what he/she sees as the goals of design. Given that the application of artificial intelligence and related work to architecture is still in its infancy, all of this suggests the need for a reassessment of the role of computing in design in order to clarify and strengthen those roles deemed appropriate.

Two approaches to the integration of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based systems into architectural design practice are currently dominant. One attempts to create systems which can on their own produce designs, the other provides intelligent support for those doing design. It was, in part, the recognition of limitations in the ability of traditional CAD systems and building modelers to reflect what designers actually do that led to explorations into the idea of intelligent assistants. Development of such assistants was aided by research into the act and process of design through protocol and other studies. Although some work is currently being done in the development of artificial intelligence and knowledge based applications in architecture, and work continues to be done on the study of design methodologies, the bulk of available information in each of these areas remains in the realm of design disciplines related to but outside of architecture and do not reflect the explicit role of architectural design in the embodiment and expression of culture.

The relationship of intelligence to culture has resulted in some skepticism regarding the ultimate capacity of neural nets and symbolically programmed computers in general. Significant work has been done questioning the rational tradition in computer development for its failure to address phenomena which are not easily subject to scientific analysis. Further skepticism regarding the role of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based or expert systems in architectural design has been emerging recently. Such criticism tends to focus on two issues: the nature of drawing as an activity which involves both the generation and interpretation of graphic artifacts, and the nature of the human designer as an active agent in the design process.

series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2006/03/14 20:20

_id sigradi2006_e172c
id sigradi2006_e172c
authors Donath, Dirk and González Böhme, Luis Felipe
year 2006
title A Constraint-Based Building Bulk Design Support
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 278-282
summary We introduce an architecture practice-oriented implementation strategy of constraint-based methods called BDS (Building Bulk Design Support) to supporting bulk analysis during the architectural programming phase. We examine the optmization problem of site coverage and building massing according to a set of standard planning and zoning regulations, and try a problem solving approach based on the paradigm of constraint satisfaction problems. The case study, which is focused on the paticipatory planning of very low-income dwellings within the Latin American context, serves as testbed for a prototypical application of the adopted methodology. The BDS constitutes a novel approach on computer-aided bulk analysis, regarding this particularly relevant context of application. In the case of participatively planned low-income housing projects, efficiency regarding time and cost of planning directly affects dwellers’ quality of life, whereas elementary programming tasks such as bulk analysis lack appropriate state-of-the-art technological support. Traditional architectural planning methods demand a large domain-specific knowledge base and skillful planners. A planning process, which is mainly driven by the formulation of planning-relevant constraints and sets of solution alternatives, suggests to avoid architects’ traditional procedure of: 1. Create an (yet not necessarily valid) instance of the eventual design solution by directly choosing specific values for its shape parameters. 2. Evaluate its validity by confronting the designed model to a set of applicable constraints, which have to be satisfied. Instead, the constraint-based design methodology poses a search procedure that operates in a space of pertinent constraint sets. A computer-aided interactive search procedure to find more valid design solution alternatives in less time and with less effort is particularly qualified to supply efficient support for participatory planning activities carried out between dwellers and planners. The set of solutions for a building-bulk design problem is constrained by both a large complex system of planning and zoning regulations and the geometry of the eventual design solution itself. Given a considerable amount of such regulations, a regular size geometric constraint satisfaction system proved to be capable of providing a highly efficient, interactive modeling and evaluation tool for the formulation in real time of valid solution alternatives for an ordinary building-bulk design problem. A BDS implementation will constitute one system module of a larger integrated system model called Esther. A BDS tool shall interact with other functional modules, like e.g. the FLS (Floor plan Layout Support), which also uses constraint-based design methods.
keywords constraint-based design; bulk analysis; participatory planning; low-income housing; design theory; design proces
series SIGRADI
email luis-felipe.gonzalez@archit.uni-weimar.de
last changed 2016/03/10 08:50

_id ecaade2007_050
id ecaade2007_050
authors Donath, Dirk; Böhme, Luis Felipe González
year 2007
title Constraint-Based Design in Participatory Housing Planning
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 687-694
summary The research presented in this paper deals with the yet unexplored development of a constraint-based design strategy to support participatory housing planning processes in Latin America. The article discusses the implementation criteria of a constraint satisfaction approach to solving the building bulk design problem. This elementary problem to the architecture practice, is concerned with the synthesis of the boundary geometry from the volume, shape and allocation of the building and any part thereof located inside a given zoning lot. A legal solution to a building bulk design problem is a building cubature that complies with all the applicable bulk regulations. The case study applies to the common class of single-family house units produced in Chile and the regulatory framework implemented there. Two different computer implementation criteria are being tested in an ongoing series of trials. The first, and most extensively developed, makes use of Maxon’s XPresso® visual scripting environment to set up a semi-automated controllable design environment that allows to create parametric feature-based 3D models of building bulk solutions. The second approach is currently being tested by using Ilog’s OPL Studio® constraint programming environment to achieve fully automated search and 2D graphic visualization of the complete set of solutions to separate subdomains of the bulk problem.
keywords Constraint-based design, constraint satisfaction problems, building bulk design, participatory planning, low-income housing
series eCAADe
email caad@archit.uni-weimar.de, luisfelipe.gonzalez@usm.cl
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id ecaaderis2018_109
id ecaaderis2018_109
authors Fereos, Pavlos and Tsiliakos, Marios
year 2018
title Lucid Foam - Multi-Axis Robotic Hot-Wire Cutting for Translucency
source Odysseas Kontovourkis (ed.), Sustainable Computational Workflows [6th eCAADe Regional International Workshop Proceedings / ISBN 9789491207143], Department of Architecture, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus, 24-25 May 2018, pp. 123-130
keywords Hotwire cutting of Styrofoam or Polystyrene has been a popular tool for developing fast prototypes by the architectural community. The introduction of multi-axis industrial robots in the architectural curriculum, and the enhancement of the design to fabrication process by software bridging the gap, provided an alternative meaning to the traditional mostly representational process of hotwire cutting.This paper sets out to document and assess the procedural methodology and the results of a series of integrated design to fabrication experiments that took place in the Institut für Experimentelle Architektur-Hochbau. By channelling design intention towards a component assembly for a translucent effect, students were asked to utilise industrial robots to fabricate and prototype via hotwire cutting, designs that refer to architectural elements. These elements, mainly due to their scale and the commercial availability of bulk Styrofoam panels, can lead to functional or ornamental representations of discrete elements, which can be assembled together as part of a greater design.
series eCAADe
email pavlos.fereos@uibk.ac.at
last changed 2018/05/29 12:33

_id sigradi2006_e171c
id sigradi2006_e171c
authors González Böhme, Luis Felipe and Vargas Cárdenas, Bernardo
year 2006
title Foundations for a Constraint-Based Floor Plan Layout Support in Participatory Planning of Low-Income Housing
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 283-287
summary We introduce the foundations of a novel approach that deals with constraint-based design methods to supporting participatory planning processes of low-income dwellings. We examine the space allocation problem inside the architectural domain on the basis of graph theory and combinatorics, providing a concise mathematical background for an implementation strategy called FLS (Floor plan Layout Support), which is analyzed here for the first time regarding this particular context of application. The philosophy underlying a design method that is mainly driven by the formulation of distinct constraints suggests to avoid the traditional procedure of first to create a yet not necessarily valid instance of the eventual design solution by directly choosing specific parameter values of its shape, and later on to evaluate its validity by confronting the designed model to a set of applicable constraints. Instead, constraint-based design poses a search procedure that operates in a space of planning-relevant constraint sets. The FLS methodology integrates some few principles of constraint-based automated reasoning with high user interactivity, into a design environment where as much dwellers as planners can collaboratively work in solving spatial organization problems of housing projects. The FLS model of application makes use of a combination of dweller-specified constraints, planning and zoning regulations, and a small library of modular space units. Constraint-based design ! methods are particularly capable of supplying efficient support for the collaborative involvement of dwellers into the architectural programming process of her/his own home. Mainly, because dwellers themselves tend to describe their space need and design intentions as a set of constraints on room quantity, space utilization, circulation system, allocation of available furniture, available budget, construction time, and so forth. The goal is to achieve an integrated tool for finding and modelling topologically valid solutions for floor plan layout alternatives, by combining user-driven interactive procedures with automatic search and generative processes. Thus, several design alternatives can be explored in less time and with less effort than using mainstream procedures of architectural practice. A FLS implementation will constitute one system module of a larger integrated system model called Esther. A FLS tool shall interact with other functional modules, like e.g. the BDS (Building Bulk Design Support), which also uses constraint-based design methods. A preliminary procedural model for the FLS was tested on Chile’s official social housing standards (Chilean Building Code – OGUC. Art. 6.4.1) which are very similar to most Latin American housing programs currently in operation.
keywords constraint-based design; floor plan layout; participatory planning; low-income housing; design theory; design proces
series SIGRADI
email bernardo.vargas@bauing.uni-weimar.de
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 2c17
authors Junge, Richard and Liebich, Thomas
year 1997
title Product Data Model for Interoperability in an Distributed Environment
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 571-589
summary This paper belongs to a suite of three interrelated papers. The two others are 'The VEGA Platform' and 'A Dynamic Product Model'. These two companion papers are also based on the VEGA project. The ESPRIT project VEGA (Virtual Enterprises using Groupware tools and distributed Architectures) has the objective to develop IT solutions enabling virtual enterprises, especially in the domain of architectural design and building engineering. VEGA shall give answers to many questions of what is needed for enabling such virtual enterprise from the IT side. The questions range from technologies for networks, communication between distributed applications, control, management of information flow to implementation and model architectures to allow distribution of information in the virtual enterprises. This paper is focused on the product model aspect of VEGA. So far modeling experts have followed a more or less centralized architecture (central or central with 4 satellites'). Is this also the architecture for the envisaged goal? What is the architecture for such a distributed model following the paradigm of modeling the , natural human' way of doing business? What is the architecture enabling most effective the filtering and translation in the communication process. Today there is some experience with 'bulk data' of the document exchange type. What is with incremental information (not data) exchange? Incremental on demand only the really needed information not a whole document. The paper is structured into three parts. First there is description of the modeling history or background. the second a vision of interoperability in an distributed environment from the users coming from architectural design and building engineering view point. Third is a description of work undertaken by the authors in previous project forming the direct basis for the VEGA model. Finally a short description of the VEGA project, especially the VEGA model architecture.
series CAAD Futures
email richard.junge@lrz.tu-muenchen.de
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id 8e5c
authors Khemlani, Lachmi and Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1997
title An Integrated Computing Environment for Collaborative, Multi-Disciplinary Building Design
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 389-416
summary The increasing complexity of the built environment requires that more knowledge and experience be brought to bear on its design, construction and maintenance. The commensurate growth of knowledge in the participating disciplines-architecture, engineering, construction management, facilities management, and others-has tended to diversify each one into many sub-specializations. The resulting fragmentation of the design-built-use process is potentially detrimental to the overall quality of built environment. An efficient system of collaboration between all the specialist participants is needed to offset the effects of fragmentation. It is here that computers, with their ubiquitous presence in all disciplines, can serve as a medium of communication and form the basis of a collaborative, multi- disciplinary design environment. This paper describes the ongoing research on the development of such an integrated computing environment that will provide the basis for design and evaluation tools ranging across the many building-related disciplines. The bulk of the discussion will focus on the problem of a building representation that can be shared by all these disciplines, which, we posit, lies at the core of such an environment. We discuss the criteria that characterize this shared building representation, and present our solution to the problem. The proposed model has been adapted from geometric modeling, and addresses explicitly the difficult Problem of generality versus completeness of the represented information. The other components of the integrated environment that are under development are also described. The paper concludes with some implementation details and a brief look at two evaluation tools that use the proposed building representation for their task.
series CAAD Futures
email lahmi@ced.berkeley.edu
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id caadria2007_057
id caadria2007_057
authors Kouide, Tahar; G. Paterson
year 2007
title BIM as a Viable Collaborative Working Tool: A Case Study
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary For the majority of design practices in the construction industry the use of CAD systems have been used to merely automate hand drafting (Cohen 2003). This is the traditional way of working that has changed very little since the introduction of commercial CAD systems. These practices as means of communication are being replaced by a virtual building model environment which encapsulates all of the information for an entire construction project and thereby enables computer-supported co-operative working practices. (Newton 2003) This study aims to determine whether Building Information Modelling (BIM) can, and whether it will, replace traditional communication media as the standard in the industry for computersupported co-operative working practices in the Architecture Engineering and construction (AEC) sector. The bulk of the research comprises an extensive literature review looking at the principal reasons behind the development of BIM, the potential advantages and drawbacks of the technology, and the barriers and obstacles which inhibit its adoption as a means of computer-supported co-operative working. The findings of the study have been validated and analysed against current practice in the field through a live case study analysis of the on-going Heathrow airport Terminal 5 Project in London (UK). The Terminal 5 case study demonstrates that present software tools, although usable, still present significant implicit technical constraints to wider implementation among Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The case study has also shown that in practice, the success of BIM depends just as much on the working practices and ethos of participants in the project chain as it does on the capabilities of the software itself, in particular the willingness of practitioners to change traditional working practices. The case study has shown that the present investment, in terms of time, cost, and effort required to implementing the technology means that BIM is unlikely to be adopted on small simple projects where conventional CAD is still adequate. It also highlighted that BIM tools currently available are not yet adequately developed to satisfy the requirements of the many procurement and especially contractual arrangements which presently exist and many firms will be frightened off by the unresolved legal issues which may arise from implementing BIM in their practices.
series CAADRIA
email g.j.paterson@rgu.ac.uk
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id ddss9452
id ddss9452
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 1994
title Recognition and Retrieval in Visual Architectural Databases
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The development of visual architectural databases is heavily constrained by two technically, practically and conceptually intricate problems, input and retrieval. Input of visual images indifferent forms and from a variety of sources results into computer documents which can only be reproduced and disseminated. Any other use requires extensive annotation of the images with respect to indexing terms and other conceptual structures that make the images identifiable. The bulk of even modest visual databases and the complexity of the images and of the conceptual schemes means that interactive processing is labour-intensive and unreliable. Retrieval also relies on the same processes of annotation and indexing, which make possible the correlation of database contents with user queries. The paper presents the potential of automated recognition for inputting architectural floor plans into visual databases. An optically digitized image is segmented and each segment recognized as an instance of a building element (wall, door, window, etc.). The array ofrecognized elements is then controlled for recognition and segmentation errors. Further processing allows identification of spaces in the floor plan and of their interrelationships. The output of the process is a symbolic array that is much more compact than the original pixel array and also amenable to abstract and /or specific user queries, such as "How many doors are there in the floorplan" or "Which floor plans contain a double loaded corridor". These queries can be input verbally or graphically. Identification of building and spatial elements in a floor plan also allows use of vocabulary control in retrieval: user queries are checked against a thesaurus of architectural terms for accuracy and precision. The user is then presented with options for the improvement of the query before proceeding with identifying relevant entries in the database. Use ofvocabulary control as a search intermediary improves performance and reduces user frustration by making explicit the relevance of a query.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id sigradi2005_333
id sigradi2005_333
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 2005
title Group design evaluation
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 333-337
summary Architectural visualization refers not only to the bulk of documents produced in the externalization of design representations but also to a major component of design communication and decision-taking. The paper focuses on the use of visualization in group design processes, i.e. processes typically involving the issues of common authorship, multi-actor design and intensive interaction between different aspects. It proposes that effective group design visualization requires hybrid environments that combine digital and analogue media in unobtrusive and efficient support structures. Registration of design information in group visualization refers primarily to two complementary dimensions: the syntagmatic (the sequence of actions that produce an image) and the paradigmatic (the collection of graphic primitives in the image). Recording syntagmatic information (i.e. who drew what and when) is essential for disentangling the usually dense results of group visualization and for distinguishing between actors, aspects and alternatives.
series SIGRADI
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id eacf
authors Lantz, Keith A. and Nowicki, William I.
year 1984
title Structured Graphics for Distributed Systems
source ACM Transactions on Graphics January, 1984. vol. 3: pp. 23-51 : ill.
summary includes bibliography: pp. 48-51. One of the most important functions of an intelligent workstation is to provide a state-of-the-art user interface to distributed resources. One aspect of such an interface is virtual terminal support for both local and remote applications with a range of requirements, including graphics. To ensure good response for remote applications in particular, the bulk of user interaction must be handled local to the workstation. Therefore, the terminal management software on the workstation must provide object modeling as well as viewing facilities, in contrast to most contemporary graphics systems. One way of doing this is to support structured display files. It is equally important to support simultaneous access to multiple applications ; thus the terminal management software must provide window system facilities. Lastly, since the terminal management software should present a common interface to both local and remote applications, the workstation itself should be regarded as a multifunction component of the distributed system and not strictly as a terminal or a personal computer. This paper presents the system architecture and protocols necessary to achieve these goals and evaluates an existing implementation
keywords user interface, windowing, computer graphics, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 430a
authors Rheingold, H.
year 2000
title The Virtual Community
source MIT Press
summary Cyberculture authority Howard Rheingold was the first to write about online communities in this style that is part-travelogue and part-anthropological guide. This groundbreaking classic explores the entire virtual community, beginning with a selective but probing look at the author's original online home, The Well. Rheingold relates plenty of anecdotes that demonstrate the upsides of online life, such as how he was able to get information on removing a tick from his child before his doctor could respond to his phone call. But the bulk of the material relates to how individuals interact online much as they do in a face-to-face community. Rheingold speaks to how both friendships and enmities are formed online and how people come together to support each other through misfortune. He gives the example of how computer-moderated communication enabled members of one Well community to send vital medical aid to a friend hospitalized halfway around the world. Rheingold goes on to show how communities can form by various electronic communication methods, using the conferencing system of The Well as one example. He also examines how people interact through mailing lists, live chat, and the fantasy cyberenvironments of online role-playing games. In the process, he questions what kind of relationships can really be formed in a medium where people can change their apparent identity at will. This book questions whether a distinction between "virtual" communities and "real-life" communities is entirely valid. The Virtual Community argues that real relationships happen and real communities develop when people communicate upon virtual common ground. Rheingold also shares his far-reaching knowledge of how technology effects our social constructs. If you are involved in an online community, here is your cultural heritage.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4ec6
authors Richens, P.
year 1997
title Computer-aided Art Direction
source F. Penz and M. Thomas (Eds.) , Cinema & Architecture: Méliès, Mallet-Stevens, Multimedia, British Film Institute, London
summary Computer-aided design for architects began to be possible about 25 years ago; in the last five it has become commonplace. In a few years time, it will be as ubiquitous as the word-processor is today. But the construction industry as a whole is not a sophisticated user of Information Technology. The state of affairs in the film industry is quite different; computer graphics of the utmost sophistication plays an increasingly important part in the production of film, but very little in their design. Is it possible that an opportunity is being missed? This paper is written from the standpoint of a designer of architectural CAD software, and seeks to explore the extent to which computer graphics techniques, which have proved useful in architecture, could be used in Production Design, and the simulation of Cinematography. Several experiments, using commercial software of the sort that architects find useful, have lead to the realisation that much is possible, but that a full realisation of the benefits would require software specially adapted to the task. The bulk of this paper describes the nature of this adaptation; it is in the nature of a preliminary specification for software for Computer-aided art direction. The initial investigation centred on the needs of film students; it has since broadened to look at the needs of established practitioners.
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/pdfs/rich97a.pdf
last changed 2003/03/05 12:10

_id 4664
authors Russell, Peter
year 2001
title Visualising Non-Visual Building Information
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 546-551
summary Architecture can be understood as a process and as an object. In both forms, it consists of a complex of mass, monetary, energy and information flows that occur over time scales ranging from hours and days to centuries. The parts or elements making up buildings and the processes involved in producing, maintaining, using and disposing of them are highly intertwined and multi-dimensional. The field of Architecture can range from complete building stocks down to individual buildings, their elements, and the materials and processes making up these elements. What is more, it is also necessary to introduce time as a dimension in order to model the complete life cycle of buildings. Current CAD systems concentrate primarily on the replication of the traditional drawing process (sometimes in three dimensions) and the visualisation of the finished building. While these models describe the geometry and visual appearance of buildings, the bulk of the information about the building remains unseen. Recently developed systems such as the German LEGOE system have combined a materials database with specification and CAD systems, which allows for a more comprehensive description of the building. However, this additional information is displayed either rudimentarily or as lists of numbers. The information describing the position or visual quality of building elements is, in fact, minuscule in comparison to that describing the properties of the materials involved, their production methods, the energy needed to produce, transport and install the elements, and information concerning toxicology and environmental issues. What is more, these materials are not simply in situ, but can be considered to flow through the building. These flows also occur at widely varying rates according to the type of material and the type of building. The view is taken that buildings are actually temporary repositories of various “flows” which occupy the building during its lifetime. Thus seen, the various aspects of a building at a certain stage of its life are taken to be the total sum of its inputs and outputs at any given time. Currently, its complexity and the lack of cognitive assistance in its presentation limit the understanding of this information. The author postulates that to better understand this information, visual displays of this “non-visual” building information are needed, at least for those who, like architects, are more visually inclined. The paper describes attempts made to go beyond conventional two-dimensional charts, which have tended to only complicate understanding. This is partly due to the need to display a high number of dimensions in one space. Examples are shown of experimental visual displays using three-dimensional graphs created in VRML as well as a “remodelling” of the building based on statistical rather than spatial information to form a building “artefact”. The remodelled artefacts are based on a null-value three-dimensional form and are then modified according to the specific database information without changing their topology. These artefacts are initially somewhat idiosyncratic, but become more useful when a large enough population has been created. With sufficient numbers, it is possible to compare and classify the artefacts according to their visually discernible attributes. The classification of the artefacts is useful in understanding building types independent of their formal “architectural” or spatial qualities, particularly with age-use-classes. The paper also describes initial attempts to create building information landscapes that unfold from the artefacts allowing detailed views of the summarised information displayed by the individual artefacts.
keywords Building Information, Visualisation, VRML, Life Cycle Analysis
series eCAADe
email peter.russell@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

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