CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id cf2011_p051
id cf2011_p051
authors Cote, Pierre; Mohamed-Ahmed Ashraf, Tremblay Sebastien
year 2011
title A Quantitative Method to Compare the Impact of Design Mediums on the Architectural Ideation Process.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 539-556.
summary If we compare the architectural design process to a black box system, we can assume that we now know quite well both inputs and outputs of the system. Indeed, everything about the early project either feasibility studies, programming, context integration, site analysis (urban, rural or natural), as well as the integration of participants in a collaborative process can all be considered to initiate and sustain the architectural design and ideation process. Similarly, outputs from that process are also, and to some extent, well known and identifiable. We are referring here, among others, to the project representations or even to the concrete building construction and its post-evaluation. But what about the black box itself that produces the ideation. This is the question that attempts to answer the research. Currently, very few research works linger to identify how the human brain accomplishes those tasks; how to identify the cognitive functions that are playing this role; to what extent they operate and complement each other, and among other things, whether there possibly a chain of causality between these functions. Therefore, this study proposes to define a model that reflects the activity of the black box based on the cognitive activity of the human brain. From an extensive literature review, two cognitive functions have been identified and are investigated to account for some of the complex cognitive activity that occurs during a design process, namely the mental workload and mental imagery. These two variables are measured quantitatively in the context of real design task. Essentially, the mental load is measured using a Bakan's test and the mental imagery with eyes tracking. The statistical software G-Power was used to identify the necessary subject number to obtain for significant variance and correlation result analysis. Thus, in the context of an exploratory research, to ensure effective sample of 0.25 and a statistical power of 0.80, 32 participants are needed. All these participants are students from 3rd, 4th or 5th grade in architecture. They are also very familiar with the architectural design process and the design mediums used, i.e., analog model, freehand drawing and CAD software, SketchUp. In three experimental sessions, participants were asked to design three different projects, namely, a bus shelter, a recycling station and a public toilet. These projects were selected and defined for their complexity similarity, taking into account the available time of 22 minutes, using all three mediums of design, and this in a randomly manner to avoid the order effect. To analyze the two cognitive functions (mental load and mental imagery), two instruments are used. Mental imagery is measured using eye movement tracking with monitoring and quantitative analysis of scan paths and the resulting number and duration of participant eye fixations (Johansson et al, 2005). The mental workload is measured using the performance of a modality hearing secondary task inspired by Bakan'sworks (Bakan et al.; 1963). Each of these three experimental sessions, lasting 90 minutes, was composed of two phases: 1. After calibrating the glasses for eye movement, the subject had to exercise freely for 3 minutes while wearing the glasses and headphones (Bakan task) to get use to the wearing hardware. Then, after reading the guidelines and criteria for the design project (± 5 minutes), he had 22 minutes to execute the design task on a drawing table allowing an upright posture. Once the task is completed, the subject had to take the NASA TLX Test, on the assessment of mental load (± 5 minutes) and a written post-experimental questionnaire on his impressions of the experiment (± 10 minutes). 2. After a break of 5-10 minutes, the participant answered a psychometric test, which is different for each session. These tests (± 20 minutes) are administered in the same order to each participant. Thus, in the first experimental session, the subject had to take the psychometric test from Ekstrom et al. (1978), on spatial performance (Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests Kit). During the second session, the cognitive style is evaluated using Oltman's test (1971). Finally, in the third and final session, participant creativity is evaluated using Delis-Kaplan test (D-KEFS), Delis et al. (2001). Thus, this study will present the first results of quantitative measures to establish and validate the proposed model. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the relevance of the proposed approach, considering that currently teaching of ideation in ours schools of architecture in North America is essentially done in a holistic manner through the architectural project.
keywords design, ideation process, mental workload, mental imagery, quantitative mesure
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id caadria2012_029
id caadria2012_029
authors Dutt, Florina and Subhajit Dasd
year 2012
title Responsive achitectural surface design from nonlinear systems biology: Responsive architectural design by computational methods
source Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Chennai 25-28 April 2012, pp. 465–474
summary The fundamental processes in living systems can be a potential resource to derive nonlinear relationships that could find application in the design of responsive surface from an architectural standpoint. This research focuses on deriving a parametric relationship from a phenomenon in cell biology to generate an architectural expression of responsive surface/ façade. It further delineates the dynamic feedback mechanism from the environment and user as control factors. Through extensive investigation of cell-to-cell connections in the mammary epithelial cells and review of evident relay of communication across the entire system of cells, we could unfold the logical parameters of the biological system. Parametric modelling indicating the causality of the surface condition, changes with the change in extracellular matrix. This gives an opportunity to manoeuvre the surface parameters, contrary to the involuntary cell environment where the behaviours are under the control of a physiological process. Architecturally, the dynamic relationship of surface in a hybridised model, explains that interactivity is not a mere one to one response to a stimulus. Evidently, this interactive process can be a sophisticated loop of feedback through different materiality and componentry that play their effects (and are played back) by “active” surfaces.
keywords Computational design; responsive architecture; sustainable façade design; bio-inspired design; bio-mimicry
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/29 07:34

_id caadria2010_056
id caadria2010_056
authors Fischer, T.
year 2010
title The interdependence of linear and circular causality in CAAD research: a unified model
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 609-618
summary This paper discusses the relationship between linear and circular conceptions of causality and questions the common mutually-exclusive bivalent logic applied in distinguishing them. It argues that (circular) conversation and (linear) control both have their place in the design process. This calls for open minds and a reconsideration of value systems in CAAD practice and research, without which CAAD remains the futile attempt to deploy techniques developed to identify and enforce linear causation for the benefit of a practice that depends upon circular causality.
keywords Control; technique; novelty; predictability; surprise
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id caadria2009_082
id caadria2009_082
authors Fischer, Thomas
year 2009
title Reassessing rigour, Re-cycling Research
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 791-795
summary Circular causality, circular logic and subjectivity are rejected by many scientists while some designers regard them as keys to understanding the design process. With this paper I hope to stimulate a discussion about a largely unquestioned foundation of our field: the form of enquiry. Taking (as others before) this form to be circular, I examine the implications of and for research and education. Ideally, this discussion should inspire a new branch in our field: A philosophy of computeraided design research.
keywords Control; design; science; logic; causality
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id 0a78
authors McCalla, Gordon and Cercone, Nick
year 1983
title Approaches to Knowledge Representation
source IEEE Computer. October, 1983. vol. 16: pp. 12-18 : ill. includes bibliography
summary In contrast to conventional database systems, AI systems require a knowledge base with diverse kinds of knowledge. These include, but are not limited to knowledge about objects, knowledge about processes, and hard to represent common sense knowledge about goals, motivations, causality, time, actions etc. This article is an introduction to a special issue in which 15 articles contributed by a broad spectrum of researchers discuss various aspects of knowledge representation. It gives some background and context to these articles by mapping out the basic approaches to knowledge representation that have developed over the years
keywords knowledge, representation, AI
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 454f
authors Schultz, Margarita
year 2001
title CAMBIO DE PARADIGMA E INTERACTIVIDAD ARTÍSTICA. LOS NUEVOS MEDIOS DIGITALES (Change of Paradigm and Artistic Interactivity. The New Digital Means)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 240-242
summary Interactivity is a form in which the human being expands the self . Traditional causality contains a logic of previsible reactions; another type of causality takes place in virtual space. Digital art-works made for the Net have only a variable essence . A proposal promotes an answer and increases the meaning.Time in development is a key contributor to the process of interactivity in digital art-works, articulated with a non-forcible space. Hubert Reeves found out that the increase of interactions implies an enlargement of creativity in the universe. This is an argument to support interactivity in the digitalised creative intervention.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

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