CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ascaad2006_paper8
id ascaad2006_paper8
authors Abdullah, Sajid; Ramesh Marasini and Munir Ahmad
year 2006
title An Analysis of the Applications of Rapid Prototyping in Architecture
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary Rapid prototyping (RP) techniques are widely used within the design/manufacturing industry and are well established in manufacturing industry. These digital techniques offer quick and accurate prototypes with relatively low cost when we require exact likeness to a particular scale and detail. 3D modeling of buildings on CAD-systems in the AEC sector is now becoming more popular and becoming widely used practice as the higher efficiency of working with computers is being recognized. However the building of scaled physical representations is still performed manually, which generally requires a high amount of time. Complex post-modernist building forms are more faithfully and easily represented in a solid visualization form, than they could be using traditional model making methods. Using RP within the engineering community has given the users the possibility to communicate and visualize designs with greater ease with the clients and capture any error within the CAD design at an early stage of the project or product lifecycle. In this paper, the application of RP in architecture is reviewed and the possibilities of modeling architectural models are explored. A methodology of developing rapid prototypes with 3D CAD models using methods of solid freeform manufacturing in particular Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is presented and compared against traditional model making methods. An economical analysis is presented and discussed using a case study and the potential of applying RP techniques to architectural models is discussed.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id 63e6
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1996
title Visualisation for Clients - One Example of Educating CAAD for Practice
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 17-24
summary During the spring term 1996, 13 students of the 3rd and 4th year at the School of Architecture at Lund University had the opportunity to make a one semester CAAD project. 11 students chose the individual exercise to use computer media for developing a small architectural design in interaction with a client. The focus was set more on visualization and the process of communicating ideas, feelings and practical solutions between architect and client and visa versa rather than concentrated on the final product.

This paper describes the process of the project and the reflections of the participants. It will discuss problems from the teachers point of view.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 6cb2
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1995
title Architects Early Sketching on Computer Using Multimedia
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 247-256
summary This paper presents a development work which aims at practical applications of ideas built on experiences in practise and education and the theoretical development in the BAS.CAAD project. The important difference between BAS.CAAD and CAD programs of today is the possibility to handle user organisation, building design and site in the same program. This means that design today has to be done in at least 3 separate programs with different ways of defining objects. It is then a computer technical problem to mix and study the relations between objects of separate origin. In a recent project our method to overcome this difficulty in CAAD computing was using a Multimedia program making visual simulations to analyse consequences of form etc. As the process went on and forms where more concrete it was possible to make simulations worth showing and discussing to involve colleagues, clients and users.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 0c8e
authors Ager, Mark Thomas and Sinclair, Brian R.
year 1995
title StereoCAD: Three Dimensional Representation
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 343-355
summary Concepts of stereoscopic vision have been around for more than two thousand years. Despite this long history, its application to the field to architecture and design seems relatively unexplored. Synthesis of two technologies, the stereoscope and the computer, was the focus of the present study. The goal of the research was to determine if computer-generated stereoscopic pairs hold value for architectural design. Using readily available computer technology (Apple Macintosh) the research team modelled and rendered an existing project to verify the degree of correlation between the physical construct, the computer 3D model and resultant correlation between the physical construct, the computer 3D model and resultant rendered stereo-paired representation. The experiments performed in this study have shown that producing stereo-paired images that highly correlate to reality is possible using technology that is readily available in the marketplace. Both the technology required to produce (i.e., personal computer and modelling/rendering software) and view (i.e., modified stereoscope) the images is unimposing. Both devices can easily fit in a studio or a boardroom and together can be utilized effectively to permit designers, clients and end-users to experience proposed spaces and projects. Furthermore, these technologies are familiar (clients and end-users have already experienced them in other applications and settings) and assume a fraction of the cost of more dynamic, immersive virtual reality systems. Working from this base, limitations of the process as well as future applications of computer-generated stereoscopic images are identified.
keywords Stereovision, Representation, Computers, Architects, Design
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id diss_anders
id diss_anders
authors Anders, P.
year 2003
title A Procedural Model for Integrating Physical and Cyberspaces in Architecture
source Doctoral dissertation, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, U.K
summary This dissertation articulates opportunities offered by architectural computation, in particular the digital simulation of space known as virtual reality (VR) and its networked, social variant cyberspace. Research suggests that environments that hybridize technologies call for a conception of space as information, i.e. space is both a product of and tool for cognition. The thesis proposes a model whereby architecture can employ this concept of space in creating hybrids that integrate physical and cyberspaces.The dissertation presents important developments in architectural computation that disclose concepts and values that contrast with orthodox practice. Virtual reality and cyberspace, the foci of this inquiry, are seen to embody the more problematic aspects of these developments. They also raise a question of redundancy: If a simulation is good enough, do we still need to build? This question, raised early in the 1990's, is explored through a thought experiment - the Library Paradox - which is assessed and critiqued for its idealistic premises. Still, as technology matures and simulations become more realistic the challenge posed by VR/cyberspace to architecture only becomes more pressing. If the case for virtual idealism seems only to be strengthened by technological and cultural trends, it would seem that a virtual architecture should have been well established in the decade since its introduction.Yet a history of the virtual idealist argument discloses the many difficulties faced by virtual architects. These include differences between idealist and professional practitioners, the failure of technology to achieve its proponents' claims, and confusion over the meaning of virtual architecture among both architects and clients. However, the dissertation also cites the success of virtual architecture in other fields - Human Computer Interface design, digital games, and Computer Supported Collaborative Work - and notes that their adoption of space derives from practice within each discipline. It then proposes that the matter of VR/cyberspace be addressed from within the practice of architecture, a strategy meant to balance the theoretical/academic inclination of previous efforts in this field.The dissertation pursues an assessment that reveals latent, accepted virtualities in design methodologies, instrumentation, and the notations of architectural practices. Of special importance is a spatial database that now pervades the design and construction processes. The unity of this database, effectively a project's cyberspace, and its material counterpart is the subject of the remainder of the dissertation. Such compositions of physical and cyberspaces are herein called cybrids. The dissertation examines current technologies that cybridize architecture and information technology, and proposes their integration within cybrid wholes. The concept of cybrids is articulated in seven principles that are applied in a case study for the design for the Planetary Collegium. The project is presented and critiqued on the basis of these seven principles. The dissertation concludes with a discussion of possible effects of cybrids upon architecture and contemporary culture.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id acadia14_317
id acadia14_317
authors Andrew, Mullenix, Ryan
year 2014
title Digitally Designing Collaboration: Computational Approaches to Process, Practice, and Product
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9781926724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 317-326
summary In this paper we present recent experiences, research and thinking at NBBJ on the topic of collaboration, and how parametric models and algorithmic tools can facilitate and shape the collaboration between designers, between designers and clients, and between the end users of architecture.
keywords Design Computation Best Practices, Collaborative Design Agency, Parametric Modeling, Architect-Client Relationships, Multi-User Parametric Modeling, Practice-based computational design research, Design Decision Making
series ACADIA
type Normal Paper
last changed 2014/09/29 05:51

_id 89bb
authors Ataman, Osman and Richey, Thomas
year 1999
title ArchiDATA: A Hypermedia Tool for Architecture
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 496-500
summary Design is a cooperative activity at several levels. At one level, clients, architects, financiers, and construction engineers and contractors, all play important roles in creating the design for the building. At another level, the design team may contain architects, interior and landscape designers, lighting experts, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning experts, etc. At a third level, individual architects cooperate with computer-based design tools in creating portions of a complex design. This paper describes an ongoing project called ArchiDATA, in which we are developing a computational Case-Based Design Aid (CBDA) for architectural design. This project, which is collaboration between cognitive scientists and architectural researchers, builds on an artificial intelligence paradigm called case-based reasoning and work in post-occupancy evaluation and other case study research in architecture.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2013_259
id sigradi2013_259
authors Barbosa Curi, Camila; Neander Furtado Silva
year 2013
title Habitação na Sociedade de Informação: Configurador de Design para o Mercado Imobiliário Brasileiro [Housing in the Information Society: Design Configurator for the Brazilian Real Estate Market]
source SIGraDi 2013 [Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Chile - Valparaíso 20 - 22 November 2013, pp. 76 - 80
summary In this paper, we present preliminary specifications for a computer design tool for the application of mass customization in middle class apartment design in Brazil. Believing that in the digital era, network communication and digital design tools combined may create a design environment that considers consumer needs and preferences, we present a simple drafting of a computer tool that makes use of those concepts. And therefore we believe to contribute for the future construction of a design system that redefines problem scenarios, rather than providing individual solutions, repositioning architects and clients in the design process.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 56
authors Barron, Alicia and Chiarelli, Julia
year 1998
title Proyecto Para la Red de un Estudio de Arquitectura (Project for the Network of a Studio of Architecture)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 418-425
summary A consequence of the globalization on information processes in the way in which new technologies influence on design and production processes. There is no doubt that there is an increasingly and a big change in the areas of architecture design concerning to the operational and working methodology on graphic and alphanumeric information. Now a day it is not a far away Utopia, but a soon to come reality that architects interact in a virtual manner with their individual or institutional clients in their own country, as well as in foreign countries. Keeping these considerations in mind, we elaborated this Paper in order to present one of the existing criteria for the organization of graphic information jointly with its spatial relationship. The work presented herewith shows the development of an informatic net for an ideal mega-studio which in its professional and entrepreneurial profile covers tasks such as design, construction, graphic design and representation of foreign concerns. In the net design and in the selection of equipment for computing design area are covered all the variables at every instance.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ddss2004_ra-69
id ddss2004_ra-69
authors Barton, J., B. Parolin, and V. Weiley
year 2004
title A Spatial Decision Support System for the Management of Public Housing
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 69-84
summary This paper is reporting on a research project undertaken jointly between the University of New South Wales (UNSW) and the NSW Department of Housing (DoH) to develop a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) to assist planning, management and evaluation in areas of high public housing concentration. In the paper we will describe the development of the SDSS, the specific spatial problems challenging the DoH and the potential for the system to incorporate a range of social, financial and physical data, both internal and from other sources, for interaction and presentation in a three dimensional environment. The prototype SDSS attempts to address the specific challenges of providing better service for clients of the DoH. An information audit and survey has been conducted of the department’s resources and needs. Issues identified include the management of high-rise and superlot areas, crime mapping, community interactivity, internal and intergovernmental information sharing, interoperability and maintaining confidentiality and security of data. Interactive 3D visualisation of the model is facilitated by use of the 3map free geospace platform. Use of open source code and open standards such as X3D for 3D graphics interchange allow the project to explore advanced visualisation techniques while ensuring interoperability and data longevity.
keywords Spatial Decision Support System, Public Housing, Community Renewal, Security, Open Source, Interoperability, Visualisation, 3D GIS, PPGIS, X3D
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id e100
authors Bermudez, Julio and King, Kevin
year 1995
title Architecture in Digital Space: Actual and Potential Markets
source Computing in Design - Enabling, Capturing and Sharing Ideas [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-04-7] University of Washington (Seattle, Washington / USA) October 19-22, 1995, pp. 405-423
summary As both the skepticism and 'hype' surrounding electronic environments vanish under the weight of ever increasing power, knowledge, and use of information technologies, the architectural profession must prepare for significant expansion of its professional services. To address the issue, this paper offers a survey of the professional services architects and designers do and may provide in digital space, and who the potential clients are. The survey was conducted by interviews with software developers, gaming companies, programmers, investigators, practicing architects, faculty, etc. It also included reviews of actual software products and literary research of conference proceedings, journals, books and newspapers (i.e. articles, classified ads, etc.). The actual and potential markets include gaming and entertainment developments, art installations, educational applications, and research. These markets provide architects the opportunity to participate in the design of 3D gaming environments, educational software, architecture for public experience and entertainment, data representation, cyberspace and virtual reality studies, and other digital services which will be required for this new world. We will demonstrate that although the rapidly growing digital market may be seen by some to be non-architectural and thus irrelevant to our profession, it actually represents great opportunities for growth and development. Digital environments will not replace the built environment as a major architectural market, but they will significantly complement it, thus strengthening the entire architectural profession.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cf2005_1_36_100
id cf2005_1_36_100
authors BILDA Zafer and GERO John S.
year 2005
title Do We Need CAD during Conceptual Design?
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 155-164
summary This paper presents the results of experiments to test whether a designer necessarily needs to produce and utilize external representations in the very early phases of conceptual design. Three architects are engaged in two separate design processes, one is the experiment condition where they were not allowed sketch, and the other, the control condition where they were allowed to sketch. In the experiment condition, architects were required to put on a blindfold and think aloud while designing. The results show that in both conditions the design outcomes fit in the given dimensions of the site, accommodate the space requirements and allow an effective use for the clients. Thus, when the participants were blindfolded, they were able to produce designs by using their cognitive resources to create and hold an internal representation of the design rather than by sketching, or using a CAD tool. We finally raise the question: do architects need CAD representations during the conceptual phase of the design activity?
keywords representations, protocol studies, conceptual design
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id ddss9808
id ddss9808
authors Boelen, A.J.
year 1998
title Pattern Matching for Decision Support
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary In this paper is discussed how we can use pattern matching techniques in combination with object orientation to support decision makers in arranging offices and industrial and commercial facilities in existing urban areas. The method used is based on the findings of a Ph.D. project almost finishedwhen writing this. The tool under development is specifically useful for rehabilitation of deteriorated industrial or commercial areas.I consider such an area already occupied and surrounded with all kinds of urban objects and connected to all kinds of infrastructure. I can describe this area in available objects and facilities. Furthermore we can describe the areas capacity left within the infrastructure, the capacity in forexample work force or clients and the available band width in noise or pollution. By describing the area in terms of availability of capacity to absorb or produce flows of people, goods, energy and information we sketch the room available for certain types of industrial or commercial facilities. I developed a technique to describe industrial and commercial facilities in such a way that we enable the match between these and the characteristics of an area available. Pattern matching techniquesenable the system to generate best matches between available areas, locations and facilities. This model can be adapted in several object oriented geographical information systems and be integrated with other information systems that for example calculate the pollution of certain kinds of facilities. The rules to match with are partly based on objective, measurable data like available capacity on the electricity network and needed electrical power for certain facilities. Other matching rules are based on political norms on for example acceptable pollution levels and suggested pollution of facilities. The paper presents the problem area of industrial area rehabilitation, describes the architecture of the modeling technique and presents the first findings of implementation studies.
keywords Pattern matching, Object GIS, Urban object modeling, Facility planning
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 2004_601
id 2004_601
authors Bourdakis, Vassilis
year 2004
title Developing VR Tools for an Urban Planning Public Participation ICT Curriculum; The PICT Approach
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 601-607
summary This paper is a work in progress report on the Planning Inclusion of Clients through e-Training (PICT) Leonardo funded project. The aim of the paper is to present the issues related to the development of appropriate Information Communication Technologies (ICT) material enabling Virtual Reality (VR) technologies in this particular context. The tools developed are organised in three distinct parts: the common core part, the public oriented and the planner oriented. The curriculum structure is analysed, the methods employed in developing the VR tools are presented and the initial experiments are discussed.
keywords Public Participation, ICT Curriculum, Urban Planning, VR
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id 3d67
authors Breen, J., Nottrot, R. and Stellingwerff, M.
year 2002
title Relating to the ‘real’ Perceptions of Computer Aided and Physical Modelling
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 134-138
summary Designing - giving form to new objects or environments - is largely a question of anticipating the workings of spatial and material environments, which can become ‘reality’ only by being built. Until ‘realized’ a design is essentially a figment of the designer’s imagination, although his or her ideas may be laid down and conveyed to others via specialized design media. In this way impressions of the design may be shared with clients, colleagues or other ‘actors’ in the design process. Such products of the designer’s imaging process can be relatively abstract or begin to approach - future - reality. Form & Media research can be ‘revealing’, stimulating insights concerning preferences, working processes and the effects of products of the designer’s imagination. In the past ten years we have gained considerable practical experience with both virtual and tangible (scale) models. We have compared different techniques in conference workshops, within educational settings and in our Form & Media research laboratory. The research projects ranged from the development of practical techniques and working methods to protocol analyses of designing architects. This contribution draws comparisons between different computer aided modelling techniques, with an indication of their perspectives, making use of the experience gained from various experiments in an educational context, and will highlight the potentials for different combinations of digital and physical modelling techniques.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id a469
authors Brown, Andre and Berridge, Phil
year 2001
title Games One : Two : Three A triangle of virtual game scenarios for architectural collaboration
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 95-120 [Book ordering info:]
summary This paper is split into three parts, each of which deals with different aspects of, and approaches to, the collaboration process. Each of the approaches shares a common root in an aspect of games or gaming. Together the three approaches represent a tripartite attack on the spectrum of problems that need to be addressed to achieve successful collaboration. The first technique is dealt with in Game One One. This deals with the issue of encouraging collaboration. It is based on work using a role playing game scenario and is intended to allow construction industry professionals and clients to develop a common framework for discussion. It originally existed as a paper based game and is now being tested in a web-based environment. Game Two is based on work that has evolved from contemporary game and meeting place environments that have been attracting attention recently. Here internet-based three-dimensional worlds are used as a virtual replacement of real spaces and participants meet as avatars. In the architectural context we have investigated the potential for application of such 3D worlds as meeting, and discussion places where architectural information and ideas can be exchanged. In Game Three we take the idea that currently, virtual environments are still rather uncomfortable and unnatural in terms of human interaction, and in particular in the way that we move around and display architectural scenes. We develop the idea that games software incorporates techniques that make the representation of animated, interactive 3D architectural environments computationally efficient. We have augmented the software used in games environments and have considered how we construct architectural models and man-machine interfaces to improve the effectiveness of such environments in an architectural context.
series other
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id a4a1
authors Bukowski, Richard W. 
year 2001
title Interactive Walkthrough Environments for Simulation
source University of California at Berkeley
summary This thesis describes a second-generation walkthrough framework that provides extensive facilities for integrating many types of third-party simulation codes into a large-scale virtual environment model, and puts it in perspective with first-generation systems built during the last two decades. The framework provides an advanced model database that supports multiple simultaneous users with full consistency semantics, system independent storage and retrieval, and efficient prefetching and object reconstruction techniques to support second and third-generation walkthrough systems. Furthermore, our framework integrates support for scalable, distributed, interactive models with plug-in physical simulation to provide a large and rich environment suitable for architectural evaluation and training applications. A number of third-party simulations have been integrated into the framework, including dynamic physical interactions, fire simulation, multiple distributed users, radiosity, and online tapestry generation. All of these simulators interact with each other and with the user via a data distribution network that provides efficient, optimized use of bandwidth to transport simulation results to clients as they need them for visualization. These diverse simulators provide proof of concept for the generality of the framework, and show how quickly third-party simulations can be integrated into our system. The result is a highly interactive distributed architectural model with applications in research, training, and real-time data visualization. Finally, an outlook is given to a possible third generation of virtual environment architectures that are capable of integrating different heterogeneous walkthrough models.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id caadria2018_125
id caadria2018_125
authors Bungbrakearti, Narissa, Cooper-Wooley, Ben, Odolphi, Jorke, Doherty, Ben, Fabbri, Alessandra, Gardner, Nicole and Haeusler, M. Hank
year 2018
title HOLOSYNC - A Comparative Study on Mixed Reality and Contemporary Communication Methods in a Building Design Context
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 401-410
summary The integration of technology into the design process has enabled us to communicate through various modes of virtuality, while more traditional face-to-face collaborations are becoming less frequent, specifically for large scale companies. Both modes of communication have benefits and disadvantages - virtual communication enables us to connect over large distances, however can often lead to miscommunication, while face-to-face communication builds stronger relationship, however may be problematic for geographically dispersed teams. Mixed Reality is argued to be a hybrid of face-to-face and virtual communication, and is yet to be integrated into the building design process. Despite its current limitations, such as field of view, Mixed Reality is an effective tool that generates high levels of nonverbal and verbal communication, and encourages a high and equal level of participation in comparison to virtual and face-to-face communication. Being a powerful communication tool for complex visualisations, it would be best implemented in the later stages of the building design process where teams can present designs to clients or where multiple designers can collaborate over final details.
keywords Mixed Reality; Communication; Hololens; Collaboration; Virtual
series CAADRIA
last changed 2018/05/17 07:08

_id 79ec
authors Cabral Fihlo, J.
year 1997
title Formal Games and Interactive Design: Computers as Formal Devices for Informal Interaction between Clients and Architects
source University of Sheffield, School of Architectural Studies
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id cb04
authors Calderaro, V., Giangrande, A., Mirabelli, P. and Mortola, E.
year 1986
title Decision Support Systems (DSS) in Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD)
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 20-38
summary The paper describes a new procedure of design management and the results of its application to architectural design in an exercise developed in a didactic context. The procedure requires the participation of all “actors” (i.e. designers, experts, clients, users, etc.) involved in the design process and which contribute, directly or indirectly, to obtain the result. By generating and developing alternative design solutions, this procedure allows the exploration of a region of the performances space which is generally more vast than that explored by the traditional designer.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 07:58

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