CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 100 of 115

_id 6b1d
authors Porada, Mikhael
year 1994
title Architectural Briefing Data Representation and Sketch Simulation Computer Environment
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 55-59
summary Reflection about the architectural programme starts with the analysis of its writing, its "style" which bears not only the "griffe" of the programmer but as well the structure, methodology, codes of reading, etc. particular to a programming approach. The programme structure corresponds in most cases to the different levels in the text's format and the composition modes of representing data and their relations. The choice made can either facilitate or impede the reading as interpretation of the programme. The programmer’s aim should be to open the text to reading towards a "synthetic schematic" summary, a sort of cognitive threshold which allows the reader to understand both the client's objectives and the designer's intentions enhanced by his experience. Articulating a designer's experience means focusing on his knowhow and memory. The designer's recollected knowledge and heuristic approaches to the solution of a basic design problem - types, his readings and spatial evaluations permanently feed the knowhow. It is important for the architect to have access to past examples, to the collective memory of his workplace, and a repertoire of readings, notes, sketches, influences and citations. It is therfore equally important that a computer environment also have a multimodal "architect's memory" or "project memory" module in which different forms of representation are classified, and made accessible as memory components. It is also necessary to have the possibility to access at any moment in an interactive manner to the recomposition, addition and adaptation of these mnemonic components. The information coming from the programme, classified as descriptive, prescriptive and quantitative types of data, must be able to be interrogated in different modes of representation : text, matrices, nets, diagrams, and so on, so that the pertinent information can be extraded at any given design process stage. Analysis of competition programmes show that often the description of an activity, for example, the Great Stadium competition in Paris, is described by several pages of text, a circulation diagram with arrows and legend, a topological proximity diagram with legend and as table activity - areas . These different representations, which are supposed to be complementary and give the most pertinent view of the client needs, show in fact after analysis, many description problems, incoherance, and which result in a reading difficulty.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:20

_id 6105
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Fenves, Stephen J.
year 1986
title Constraint Enforcement in a Structural Design Database
source Journal of the Structural Division. American Society of Civil Engineers, December, 1986. vol. 112: pp. 2565-2577
summary During the design of a commercial structure, large amounts of information pertaining to all aspects of the design must be stored, accessed, and operated upon. A database management system (DBMS), composed of a central repository of data and the associated software for controlling accesses to it, provides one way to generate, represent, manage, and use this information. However, DBMSs are not presently structured in such a way that they can flexibly represent complex engineering constraint relationships, including those defined by codes, standards, and specifications. This paper examines structural design constraints and addresses the question of how they can be incorporated into DBMSs. It presents four representations of engineering constraints: the text of a design specification, the equations extracted from the specification, the dependency network among the constrained data items, and a relational DBMS model. The database model was implemented using a commercially available DBMS and the limitations of the implementation are explored. What is new in this DBMS model is that a constraint dependency subnetwork is associated directly with the stored data that it constrains. The implemented result is a new abstraction, consisting of a relation and a set of computations and checks, that enforces the relationships embodied in the dependency network. The database user need only initially define a set of rules and computed attributes. These are then used by the DBMS to automatically perform the appropriate checks and assignments. The database user is, to a significant degree, free of constraint checking concerns because the system itself knows what to do
keywords constraints management, civil engineering, database, DBMS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 66e5
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Wang, TsoJen E.
year 1987
title Generic Design Standards Processing in a Knowledge-based expert system Environment
source Design Process, National Science Foundation Workshop Proceedings. 1987. pp. 267-291. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Standards, codes, and specifications play an important role in the design of buildings, bridges, and other engineering systems. A design configuration must be checked against all standards to ensure that it is acceptable. This process of design conformance checking using standards is often very tedious. The successful automation of conformance checking is one of the components of a comprehensive computer-aided design system. In the past, standards were interpreted and converted into application program written in procedural programming languages such as FORTRAN. This approach is extremely inflexible and often error prone. To support a fully automated computer-aided design system, standards must be incorporated into the design process in a more generic and flexible manner. This paper investigates the feasibility of alternatively casting standards in a form suitable for processing in a knowledge-based expert system environment. The emergence of expert systems from artificial intelligence research has provided a technology that readily lends itself to the automation of design standards. Knowledge-based expert systems have become a powerful tool in tackling domains like design where some of the problem-solving knowledge is diverse and ill-structured. Using an expert system tool, a standard can be represented and processed independent of a CAD application program. Two prototype standards processing systems utilizing the production system approach have been constructed and are presented herein. Although the obvious direct translation casting the provisions of a standard as rules in a production system has its advantages, a more generic and flexible representation scheme is proposed herein. The approach advocated in this paper is to represent standards as databases of facts which can be readily and generically processed by an expert system. The database representation is derived from a unified view of standards obtained by using the standards modeling tools proposed by previous researchers in this field during the past decade. Building on this existing technology resulted in a knowledge- based standards processing architecture which is generic, modular, and flexible. An implementation of this architecture is presented and described
keywords knowledge base, standards, expert systems, civil engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6683
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Wang, TsoJen E.
year 1987
title Spike : A Generic Design Standards Processing Expert System
source Southampton, UK: Computational Mechanics Publications, pp. 241-257. Also published in : Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Engineering International Conference Proceedings (2nd. : 1987 : Boston, MA.)
summary Standards, codes, and specifications play an important role in the design of buildings, bridges, and other engineering systems. A design configuration must be checked against all standards to ensure that it is acceptable. This process of design conformance checking using standards is often very tedious. The successful automation of conformance checking is one of the components of a comprehensive computer-aided design system. In that past, standards were interpreted and converted into application programs written in procedural programming languages such as FORTRAN. This approach is extremely inflexible and often error-prone. To support a fully automated computer-aided design system, standards must be incorporated into the design process in a more generic and flexible manner. This paper investigates the feasibility of alternatively casting standards in a form suitable for processing in a knowledge-based expert system environment. The emergence of expert systems from artificial intelligence research has provided a technology that readily lends itself to the automation of design standards. Knowledge-based expert systems have become a powerful tool in tackling domains like design where some of the problem-solving knowledge is diverse and ill-structured. Using an expert system tool, a standard can be represented and processed independent of a CAD application program. Two prototype standards processing systems utilizing the production system approach have been constructed and are presented herein. Although the obvious direct translation casting the provisions of a standard as rules in a production system has its advantages, a more generic and flexible representation scheme is proposed herein. The approach advocated in this paper is to represent standards as databases of facts which can be readily and generically processed by an expert system. The database representation is derived from a unified view of standards obtained by using the standards modeling tools proposed by previous researchers in this field during the past decade. Building on this existing technology resulted in a knowledge- based standards processing architecture which is generic, modular, and flexible. An implementation of this architecture is presented and described
keywords standards, civil engineering, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ecaade03_103_23_reichard
id ecaade03_103_23_reichard
authors Reichard, Georg and Papamichael, Konstantinos
year 2003
title Decision-making through performance simulation and code compliance from the early, schematic phases of building design
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 103-110
summary This paper is about the merging of two software applications that allows building decision makers to consider code compliance and to use performance simulation tools from the early, schematic phases of building design. By making the capabilities of a code compliance tool available at the early schematic phases of building design, the hope and expectation is that users will use this software to address the mandatory code compliance issues and thus have an opportunity to address other performance issues as well.
keywords Decision-making, Energy, Codes, Simulation, EN832
series eCAADe
email kostas@ucla.edu
more http://eetd.lbl.gov/BT
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id ddss9846
id ddss9846
authors Rigatti, Decio
year 1998
title Rubem Berta Housing Estate: Order and Structure, Designand Use
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The main goal of this paper is to investigate, through some space configurational based tools, a quite common phenomenon found in many different locations in Brazil, concerning the process of urban changes individually introduced by dwellers of public housing estates. A significant number of housing estates, particularly those designed according to rationalist concepts, seem to be unable to support space related social requirements and are then widely transformed when compared to the original layouts. Beyond the quantitative features, the morphological changes that take place in those housing estates mean a fundamental new approach to understand how completely new urban structures can arisefrom the space produced by a comprehensive urban design, took as a starting point for the transformations made by the dwellers of those settlements. As a case study is analysed the Rubem Berta Housing Estate which was built in Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil, for 20,000 people in the late 70’s. Since the begining of its occupation in 1986 and the invasion that took place in 1987, the urban transformations there have never stopped. It’s possible to realize that the dwellers individually use some constant physical rules to define the new settlement which are very similar within the estate itself and, at the same time, very similar to those found in other transformed housing estates of this sort. The physical rules introduced change the features of the entire settlement in two different levels: a) locally, through the transformations introduced in order to solve individual needs; b) globally, the local rules of physical transformations produce a new overall structure for the whole urban complex. The knowledge of this process makes it possible to bring to the surface of architectural theory some generic configurational codes that can be used as a tool for designing public housing estates in Brazil.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id e01a
authors Rosenman, M.A., Coyne, R.D. and Gero, J.S.
year 1987
title Expert Systems for Design Applications
source pp. 74-91
summary Reprinted in J.R. Quinlan (ed.) Applications of Expert Systems. Sydney, Addison-Wesley, (1987) pp. 66-84. The suitability of expert systems to design is demonstrated through three classes of design applications. These are the interpretation of design codes, the interpretation of design specifications to produce designs and, thirdly, a method for conflict resolution applicable to more general classes of design
keywords design, knowledge, expert systems
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id 088e
authors Rosenman, M.A., Gero, J.S. and Oxman, Rivka E.
year 1986
title An Expert System For Design Codes and Design Rules
source Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1986. pp. 745-758
summary This paper demonstrates applicability of expert systems to design codes and design rules. Design codes and design rules contain knowledge based on experience of accepted practice. Design codes differ from design rules in that their knowledge is written down and available for perusal thus simplifying the knowledge acquisition process. However this knowledge is ill-structured and difficult to use for all but the experts. The paper demonstrates how the expert system shell BUILD may be used to construct expert systems for design codes and rules. Prototypical systems are shown for the Australian Model Uniform Building Code and for use in the preliminary design of kitchens. The examples show how the same knowledge may be used not only in an analysis mode but also in a design synthesis mode
keywords expert systems, design, codes, applications
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 6903
authors Rosenman, Michael A. and Gero, John S.
year 1985
title Design Codes as Expert Systems
source Computer Aided Design. 1985. vol. 17: pp. 399-409. includes bibliography ; appendix
summary An expert system shell written in Prolog has been implemented and examples of the use of the system with the Australian Model Uniform Building Code are presented to demonstrate its capabilities. Some ideas about the future development of a comprehensive expert system and its environment are presented
keywords expert systems, PROLOG, design, codes
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4918
authors Rychter, Zenon and Kozikowska, A.
year 1996
title Forms, Eigenforms, Structural Form
source CAD Creativeness [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-0-2] Bialystock (Poland), 25-27 April 1996 pp. 215-229
summary The paper advocates an iterative approach, whose cycle is synthesized in the title, towards integrating exploratory geometric design with fundamental structural validation. The approach is geared towards the creative architect seeking free yet buildable forms on his own, in a CAD environment, without the premature intervention of the structural analyst checking design codes. Extraction of natural modes of vibration (eigenforms), within the method of finite elements, is the proposed vehicle for structural form-finding. A string of evolving illustrative examples is given.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/09 13:30

_id sigradi2007_af38
id sigradi2007_af38
authors Saito, Keiko; Matías Röhmer Litzmann
year 2007
title Mouse driven slide show for the visualization of an architectural idea [Recorrido semi-libre para la visualizacion de una idea arquitectónica]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 69-73
summary From the conception of an architectonic object idea to the communication we can say the idea travels a long way. During this journey strategies are proposed to integrate and combine communication codes to digital and traditional resources to achieve a presentation that brings the major possible information of the occurrences that happen at the moment of the conception of the idea. For this purpose the "point-and-click interface" or "mouse driven slide show" are explored as they are considered optimum in the relation available technology-result obtained. However, the subsequent tasks of edition and data management with a lot of images are hard.
keywords Architecture; Digital Applications; Method of Visualization; Mouse Driven Slide Show
series SIGRADI
email Kesaito3@yahoo.com.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id c5c4
authors Samet, Hanan
year 1980
title Region Representation : Quadtrees from Boundary Codes
source Communications of the ACM. March, 1980. vol. 23: pp. 163-170 : some ill. includes bibliography
summary An algorithm is presented for constructing a quadtree for a region given its boundary in the form of a chain code. Analysis of the algorithm reveals that its execution time is proportional to the product of the perimeter and the log of the diameter of the region
keywords representation, data structures, quadtree, image processing
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id ascaad2007_048
id ascaad2007_048
authors Satti, H.M.
year 2007
title Automation of Building Code Analysis: Characteristics, Relationships, Generation of Properties and Structure of Various Models
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 607-622
summary This paper is considered as the second part of what has been presented in ASCAAD 2005, titled "Issues of Integrating Building Codes in CAD", that discussed the conceptual framework of automating the building code analysis process. The proposed framework was composed of three digital interrelated models; Building Code Model (BCM), Building Data Model (BDM) and Computer Aided Building Code Analysis of Design (CABCAD) Program. The International Building Code (IBC) has been selected to understand the characteristics of building codes and to develop the BCM. This paper aimed to discuss the concepts behind the building code requirements, characteristics of building code analysis process, hierarchical relationship between various objects in the BCM and BDM.
series ASCAAD
email hassan.satti@gmail.com
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id ascaad2004_paper7
id ascaad2004_paper7
authors Satti, Hassan M. and Robert J. Krawczyk
year 2004
title Issues of Integrating Building Codes in CAD
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary In this age of information revolution, design professionals are looking forward to exploring new methods and tools that could help them in delivering better designs and particularly understanding and incorporating of code-compliant design provisions in their projects. Automation of building code analysis is a vital factor in leveraging building codes from what is as a textual legal document to more graphical interactive source of building criteria. The argument of the paper will be based on the International Building Code (IBC) which is issued by the International Code Council (ICC) and considered as the most comprehensive and coordinated national model code in the US and is currently commonly used and enforced in 44 states. The paper will also examine and report on the purpose, types, interpretation, understanding and use of building codes applied in the United States; evaluation of recent research activities on automation of building code analysis; evaluation of current building code analysis tools; and a conceptual framework of a Computer-Aided Analysis of Design (CAAnD) program for building codes that could assist design professionals during project design development.
series ASCAAD
email krawczyk@iit.edu
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id ddss9480
id ddss9480
authors Schipper, Roel and Augenbroe, Godfried
year 1994
title An Information Model of Energy Performance in Early Building Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Design is a creative and dynamic process. The level to which a future generation of Intelligent Integrated Building Design Systems will be able to support this process depends on the power of the underlying conceptual models to cover the semantics of design. In the definition of generic building models, the concept of constraints appears to be a powerful means to formalize those semantics. Both design performance goals, and rules and relations in design composition can be described as constraints. The Engineering Data Model (EDM), recently developed at UCLA, acknowledges this fact. It allows the formal definition of object oriented building models, using constraints as the central concept for describing relations. This paper will discuss the development of an EDM building model for the integrated design for energy performance, and the implementa-tion of this model in a small prototype system. We will specifically deal with modelling informati-on in the early design stages. This information typically consists of multiple global design alternatives on one hand, and a wide range of conflicting design goals on the other hand. In the paper, it is demonstrated that integration of these conflicting views on building performance in one coherent model is the key to obtaining an optimal design result. Using the Dutch building codes for energy performance (NEN 2916) as an example of design goals, the concepts and relations of these building codes were translated to a formal EDM model. A small shell was built on top of this computer-interpretable model, to demonstrate the useability of the model during the solving of a concrete design problem. It is shown that the EDM building model is able to provide the designer with integrated information through combining different sets of performance constraints and design alternatives in one environment.
series DDSS
email roel@dutct05.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id sigradi2018_1315
id sigradi2018_1315
authors Schmitt Soster, Sandra; Pratschke, Anja; do Nascimento Inocêncio, Maria Vitória; Cardoso, Maria Clara
year 2018
title Virtual Paths: Collaborations in Narratives of Cultural Heritage of São Carlos-SP
source SIGraDi 2018 [Proceedings of the 22nd Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISSN: 2318-6968] Brazil, São Carlos 7 - 9 November 2018, pp. 955-960
summary The "Virtual Paths: Collaborations in Narratives of Cultural Heritage of São Carlos" Extension Project sought to analyze the use of the QR Code, which directs the user to an online portal containing information about historical buildings in São Carlos, to complement the dissemination of the city's cultural heritage. As a pilot case, during the year of research, QR Codes were developed for the São Carlos Railway Station. This process seeks to diversify the dissemination of information on heritage and promote greater engagement of the local community, as an invitation to an augmented tour through the monuments of the city.
keywords Cultural heritage; Digital media; QR Code
series SIGraDi
email soster@sc.usp.br
last changed 2019/05/20 09:11

_id 58cd
authors Schnoedt, Heinrich
year 1991
title Cultural Parametrics
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 223-234
summary The human desire for automation of repetitive processes offers opportunities for the employment of binary computing for these procedures. Architecture and the design of buildings is no exception. With an increase in industrial prefabrication of moderately variable building components, the focus of the practising architect shifts from the individual design process toward a selection process of parts or components with a defined parametric extent. While this concept of parameterized parts has been used by architects since the first repetitive part was available, the advent of modern CAAD systems, with a growing number of parametric components and parts already integrated, is likely to greatly amplify the impact of predefined parts on buildings. Both industry and research institutions continue to make a great effort to utilize building codes and organizational structures as the basis to develop sophisticated algorithms of rule based design. Their purpose of the parameterization of parts or concepts is twofold: to reduce the time frame of human labor on the design of pieces and concepts which are considered repetitive,. and, to install a control mechanism to eliminate mistakes which lay outside of the parametric framework. The implementation of these algorithms in architectural practice and in the educational environment suggests consequences on many levels. In the following, an attempt is made to cast some light on the history of parametrics in respect to computing and the problems associated with a predominantly numerically encoded parametric approach.
series ACADIA
email schnoedt@vt.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id cf2011_p060
id cf2011_p060
authors Sheward, Hugo; Eastman Charles
year 2011
title Preliminary Concept Design (PCD) Tools for Laboratory Buildings, Automated Design Optimization and Assessment Embedded in Building Information Modeling (BIM) Tools.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 451-476.
summary The design of laboratory buildings entails the implementation of a variety of design constraints such as building codes; design guidelines and technical requirements. The application of these requires from designers the derivation of data not explicitly available at early stages of design, at the same time there is no precise methodology to control the consistency, and accuracy of their application. Many of these constraints deal with providing secure environmental conditions for the activities inside laboratories and their repercussions both for the building occupants and population in general, these constraints mandate a strict control over the building’s Mechanical Equipment (MEP), in particular the Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. Due to the importance of these laboratory designers are expected to assess their designs not only according spatial relationships, but also design variables such as HVAC efficiency, air pressure hierarchies, operational costs, and the possible implications of their design decisions in the biological safety of the facility. At this point in time, there are no practical methods for making these assessments, without having constant interaction with HVAC specialists. The assessment of laboratory design variables, particularly those technical in nature, such as dimensioning of ducts or energy consumption are usually performed at late stages of design. They are performed by domain experts using data manually extracted from design information, with the addition of domain specific knowledge, the evaluation is done mostly through manual calculations or building simulations. In traditional practices most expert evaluations are performed once the architectural design have been completed, the turn around of the evaluation might take hours or days depending on the methods used by the engineer, therefore reducing the possibility for design alternatives evaluation. The results of these evaluations will give clues about sizing of the HVAC equipment, and might generate the need for design reformulations, causing higher development costs and time delays. Several efforts in the development of computational tools for automated design evaluation such as wheel chair accessibility (Han, Law, Latombe, Kunz, 2002) security and circulation (Eastman, 2009), and construction codes (ww.Corenet.gov.sg) have demonstrated the capabilities of rule or parameter based building assessment; several computer applications capable of supporting HVAC engineers in system designing for late concept or design development exist, but little has been done to assess the capabilities of computer applications to support laboratory design during architectural Preliminary Concept Design(PCD) (Trcka, Hensen, 2010). Developments in CAD technologies such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) have opened doors to formal explorations in generative design using rule based or parametric modeling [7]. BIM represents buildings as a collection of objects with their own geometry, attributes, and relations. BIM also allows for the definition of objects parametrically including their relation to other model objects. BIM has enabled the development of automated rule based building evaluation (Eastman, 2009). Most of contemporary BIM applications contemplate in their default user interfaces access to design constraints and object attribute manipulations. Some even allow for the application of rules over these. Such capabilities make BIM viable platforms for automation of design data derivation and for the implementation of generative based design assessment. In this paper we analyze the possibilities provided by contemporary BIM for implementing generative based design assessment in laboratory buildings. In this schema, domain specific knowledge is embedded in to the BIM system as to make explicit design metrics that can help designers and engineers to assess the performance of design alternatives. The implementation of generative design assessments during PCD can help designers and engineers to identify design issues early in the process, reducing the number of revisions and reconfigurations in later stages of design. And generally improving design performance.
keywords Heating ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC), Building Information Models (BIM), Generative Design Assessment
series CAAD Futures
email hshewardga3@gatech.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ac52
authors Shih, Naai-Jung and Yan, Chie-Shan
year 1997
title A Study of the Location of Fire Egress Signs by VR Simulation
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 311-316
summary The purpose of this paper is to present a suggestion for the location of fire egress signs along a corridor in a building. The suggestion is made based on a virtual reality simulation of human behavior while rooms are on fire, particularly in a public Karaoka TV entertainment center (KTV). Both the rooms and smoke were modeled to simulate similar situations in which people were asked to find their routes to an egress. Case studies were made of the occurrence of two local severe fire disasters, the official investigation of damages, and related building codes. The simulation concluded that the traditional designation of egress signs at a higher location or just above the door frame may be not function appropriately in indicating the location of exit in case of fire. Since smoke is usually lighter than air and is accumulated closer to the ceiling level, either human vision or egress signs are very likely to be blocked by the darkness of smoke. Vision is additionally restricted because people are suggested to lower their body position to avoid smoke while escaping. Suggestion of alternate location of signage is also made in the research.
series CAAD Futures
email shihnj@mail.ntit.edu.tw
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id acadia06_550
id acadia06_550
authors SHoP Architects
year 2006
title Houston Street Project
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 550-552
summary The Houston Street Project poses a far greater challenge to information management than its relatively small size seems to imply. This high-end residential development, located in an up-and-coming New York neighborhood, negotiates an incredibly complex set of rules and relationships, such as: irregular site geometry, proximity to MTA tunnels, and ‘special district’ codes, where the use of masonry was required. Masonry implies a monolithic treatment of the facade, yet panelization, due to cost, demands that fabrication dictates the design. The model, then, required us to know the location of every brick on the facade, for not a one could overhang any of its adjacent neighbors by more than 3/4” at any given point.
series ACADIA
email kjh@shoparc.com
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

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