CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ascaad2004_paper11
id ascaad2004_paper11
authors Abdelfattah, Hesham Khairy and Ali A. Raouf
year 2004
title No More Fear or Doubt: Electronic Architecture in Architectural Education
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary Operating electronic and Internet worked tools for Architectural education is an important, and merely a prerequisite step toward creating powerful tele-collabortion and tele-research in our Architectural studios. The design studio, as physical place and pedagogical method, is the core of architectural education. The Carnegie Endowment report on architectural education, published in 1996, identified a comparably central role for studios in schools today. Advances in CAD and visualization, combined with technologies to communicate images, data, and “live” action, now enable virtual dimensions of studio experience. Students no longer need to gather at the same time and place to tackle the same design problem. Critics can comment over the network or by e-mail, and distinguished jurors can make virtual visits without being in the same room as the pin-up—if there is a pin-up (or a room). Virtual design studios (VDS) have the potential to support collaboration over competition, diversify student experiences, and redistribute the intellectual resources of architectural education across geographic and socioeconomic divisions. The challenge is to predict whether VDS will isolate students from a sense of place and materiality, or if it will provide future architects the tools to reconcile communication environments and physical space.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id ecaade2010_040
id ecaade2010_040
authors Akdag, Suzan Girginkaya; Cagdas, Gulen; Guney, Caner
year 2010
title Analyzing the Changes of Bosphorus Silhouette
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.815-823
wos WOS:000340629400087
summary Due to improving technology and global competition today sky is the only limit for high towers of metropolitan areas. The increase in number of high rise has been ruining the silhouette of cities all over the world like Istanbul, whose identity and image have also been destroyed by skyscrapers dominating the seven slopes on which it was once built. The urbanization in Istanbul has somehow become homogenous and destructive over the topography. Despite of raising debates on the critical issue now and then, no analytical approach has ever been introduced. The research therefore, aims to analyze the change of Bosphorus silhouette caused by the emergence of high rise blocks in Zincirlikuyu-Maslak route since it was defined as a Central Business District and a high rise development area by Bosphorus Conservation Law in 1991. ArcGIS Desktop software and its analyst extensions are used for mapping, analyzing and evaluating the urban development within years. The application is considered to be the initial step for a decision support system which will assist in assigning ground for high rise buildings in Istanbul.
keywords GIS; Bosphorus; Silhouette analysis; High rise buildings
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ga0230
id ga0230
authors Annunziato, Mauro and Pierucci, Piero
year 2002
title Human-Artificial Ecosystems: Searching for a Language
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The most recent advances of artificial life scientific research are opening up a new frontier: the creation of simulated life environments populated by autonomous agents. In these environments artificial beings can interact, reproduce and evolve [4, 6, 15], and can be seen as laboratories toexplore the emergence of social behaviors like competition, cooperation, relationships and communication [3, 5, 7] . It is still not possible to approach a reasonable simulation of the incredible complexity of human or animal societies, but these environments can be used as a scientific orartistic tools to explore some basic aspects of the evolution [1, 2, 3, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16].
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ga0118
id ga0118
authors Annunziato, Mauro and Pierucci, Piero
year 2001
title Learning and Contamination in Virtual Worlds
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The most recent advances of artificial life scientific research are opening up a new frontier: the creation of simulated life environments populated by autonomous agents. In these environments artificial beings can interact, reproduce and evolve [4, 6, 15], and can be seen as laboratories whereto explore the emergence of social behaviors like competition, cooperation, relationships and communication [5, 7] . It is still not possible to approach a reasonable simulation of the incredible complexity of human or animal societies, but these environments can be used as a scientific orartistic tool to explore some basic aspects of the evolution [1, 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14]. The combination of these concepts with robotics technology or with immersive-interactive 3D environments (virtual reality) are changing quickly well known paradigms like digital life, manmachineinterface, virtual world. The virtual world metaphor becomes interesting when the artificial beings can develop some form of learning, increasing their performances, adaptation, and developing the ability to exchange information with human visitors. In this sense the evolution enhances the creative power and meaningful of these environments, and human visitors experience an emotion of a shift from a simplified simulation of the reality to a real immersion into an imaginary life. We may think that these realization are the first sparks of a new form of life: simulated for the soft-alife thinkers, real for the hard-alife thinkers, or a simple imaginary vision for the artists.
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id acadia17_118
id acadia17_118
authors As, Imdat; Nagakura, Takehiko
year 2017
title Crowdsourcing the Obama Presidential Center: An Alternative Design Delivery Model: Democratizing Architectural Design
source ACADIA 2017: DISCIPLINES & DISRUPTION [Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-96506-1] Cambridge, MA 2-4 November, 2017), pp. 118-127
summary In this article, we present crowdsourcing as a design delivery method for publicly funded buildings, and compare it to the traditional Request for Proposals (RFP). We explore the potential of crowdsourcing through the use of an online design competition for the Obama Presidential Center in Chicago, IL, which the authors administered at, a crowdsourcing platform. Competition procedures have been applied in architectural practice since antiquity, from the Parthenon and the Hagia Sophia to thousands of seminal buildings around the globe. However, with the advent of digital technologies and outreach to a more interconnected world, crowdsourcing allows even the most mundane design challenges to go through the fair competition protocol. We argue that crowdsourcing can help democratize architectural design acquisition by giving a level playing field to designers, and produce a more just, competitive, and creative design product.
keywords design methods; information processing; hybrid practices; crowdsourcing
series ACADIA
last changed 2017/10/17 09:12

_id ascaad2014_036
id ascaad2014_036
authors Assassi, Abdelhalim; Belal Taher and Samai Rachida
year 2014
title Intelligent Digital Craft to Recognize Spatial Installations for Residential Designs
source Digital Crafting [7th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2014 / ISBN 978-603-90142-5-6], Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), 31 March - 3 April 2014, pp. 195-196; 443-456
summary Architecture took an evolutionary context over time, where designers were interested in finding pragmatic spontaneous appropriate solutions and met the needs of people in urban and architectural spaces. Whereas, in modern architecture an intense and varied competition happens between architects through various currents of thoughts , schools and movements, however, that creativity was the ultimate goal , and a the same time we find that every architect distinguishes himself individually or collectively through tools of architectural expression and design representation adopting a school of thought, using , for example, the leaves of various sizes and diverse technical drawing tools to accurately show that he can be read by professionals or craftsmen outside the geographical scope to which it belongs .With the rapid technological development which accompanied the digital craft in the contemporary world , The digital craft summed up time, distance and tools , so they gave the concept more appropriate accuracy , as virtualization has become the most effective tool for Architecture To reach the ideal and typical results at the practical level, or pure research. At the level of residential design and on the grounds that housing plays an important role in the government policies and given that housing is a basic unit common to all urban communities on earth , the use of different programs to show its typicality in two dimensions or in the third dimension - for example, using software "AutoCAD " " 3D Max " , " ArchiCAD " ... etc. - gave virtualisation smart, creative and beautiful forms which lead to better understand the used /or to be used residential spaces, and thus the conclusion that the life system of dwelling under design or under study , as can specifically recognize spatial structure in housing design - using digital software applying "Space Syntax" for example - in the shadow of slowly growing digital and creative development with the help of high-speed computers . the morphological structure of the dwelling is considered to be the most important contemporary residential designs Investigation through which the researcher in this area aims to understand the various behavioral relations and social structures within the projected residential area, using Space Syntax techniques. Through the structural morphology of dwellings can be inferred quality networks, levels of connectivity and depth and places of openness or closure within the dwelling under study, or under design. How, then, have intelligently contributed this digital craft to the perception of those spatial fixtures ? The aim of this research is to apply an appropriate program in the field of vernacular residential design and notably Space syntax which relate to the understanding and analysis of spatial structures, and also demonstrate its role at the morphological and spatial structure aspects, and prove how effective it helps to understand the social logic of domestic space through social individual/collective relationships and behaviors projected on the spatial configurations of dwellings. The answer to the issue raised above and at the methodological aspect, the study discussed the application of space syntax techniques on the subject. The findings tend to prove the efficiency by comparing samples of Berber vernacular domestic spaces from the Mzab, the Aures and Kabilya in Algeria, and has also led to ascertain the intelligibility of space syntax techniques in reading the differences between the behaviors in domestic spaces in different areas of the sample through long periods of time .
series ASCAAD
last changed 2016/02/15 12:09

_id 7436
authors Barría Chateau, H., Muñoz Viveros, C. and Cerda Brintrup, G.
year 1999
title Virtual Tour Through Modern Architecture in Conception
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 475-477
summary This paper describes the development of a project that was selected and sponsoured by the Regional Competition FONDART 1998 (Funds for the Development of Arts of the Regional Secretary of Education) that follows the aim of cultural diffusion. Towards the middle of the 30s, the city of Concepción developed an architecture distinctly colonial, neoclassical and eclectic. An earthquake in 1939 abruptly interrupted this scene, destroying the enterity of its most important buildings. The reconstruction of the city followed the manifestoes of Modern Architecture, consolidating the urban importance of buildings such us the Law Courts, the Railway Station and the Regional Government, that emerged as the new architectural and cultural heritage of the city. The project consisted on the modeling of eleven buildings of the modern architectural heritage, and on the generation of 42 virtual tours through the buildings that were finally edited on a 16' video. This video allows the spectator to make a virtual tour through the original modern heritage of the city, nowadays demolished, altered, and sometimes, even forgotten. This project pretends to widen the ways of comprehension of our cultural identity by using computer modelling and animation as a tool for the conservation of the architectural heritage; and creating a record that can be used as a reference and as an instrument of cultural difussion.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 438d
authors Bartnicka, Malgorzata
year 1996
title Who Uses Whom
source CAD Creativeness [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-0-2] Bialystock (Poland), 25-27 April 1996 pp. 21-26
summary For many years architects have been improving their tools in order to make their visions most comprehensible to the future customers - investor and building contractor. Not everyone is able to read the technical drawings of the designed building as it requires the spatial imagination to be developed. For such non-professional persons and also because of the innate need of convenience architect has decided to use a machine called computer. With the help of computer technical drawings, axonometries, perspectives and colourful pictures are being created. They show reality in a more or less precise way. Architects eagerly use such methods of presentation as perspective views, that is photographic images of objects which do not yet exist. All of these measures taken are just a kind of advertising. The architect wants to sell his vision in the most accessible way to beat the competition.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/09 13:30

_id ecaade2007_088
id ecaade2007_088
authors Bechthold, Martin
year 2007
title Teaching Technology: CAD/CAM, Parametric Design and Interactivity
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 767-775
summary The paper discusses a project-based approach to technology teaching, and examines the case of the mobile information unit (MIU) for Harvard University and its art museums. A student competition was held to explore design alternatives for this unit. The winning entry proposed an interactive, pixilated fiber-optics display as well as touch screens. Parametric digital modeling was used in the design and design development of the scheme. Research included the study of structural alternatives, fabrication methods and the modes of interaction between users and the MIU.
keywords Computer-aided design and manufacturing, fabrication, simulation, prototype, fiber optics
series eCAADe
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id acadiaregional2011_029
id acadiaregional2011_029
authors Bell, Brad; Kevin Patrick McClellan, Andrew Vrana
year 2011
title Reconfiguring Collaboration by Computational Means Tex-Fab: A new model for collaborative engagement
source Parametricism (SPC) ACADIA Regional 2011 Conference Proceedings
summary TEX-FAB is a non-profit organization founded between three universities in Texas with the primary function of connecting design professionals, academics, and manufactures interested in digital fabrication. The three co-directors established TEX-FAB as a collective action, one that attempts to combine divergent interests and capabilities, for the purpose of strengthening the regional discourse around digital fabrication and parametric design. The three primary avenues for accomplishing this goal are set out as Theoria (Lectures / Exhibitions), Poiesis (Workshops) and Praxis (Competition). We see this type of effort as a new paradigm focused on providing a network of affiliated digital fabrication resources, and a platform for education/ exchange on issues of parametric modeling. It is our position that TEX-FAB engages the new and growing awareness of a regional and global hybridization. We seek to leverage the burgeoning global knowledge base to produce a more specific and contextual dialogue within the region we operate, teach, and practice.
series ACADIA
last changed 2011/07/08 09:17

_id caadria2012_078
id caadria2012_078
authors Beorkrem, Christopher
year 2012
title Running Interference: Complex Systems Intervention as Design Process
source Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Chennai 25-28 April 2012, pp. 183–192
summary This paper presents a case study problem statement tested in the design studio with the intent of teaching methods for engaging systematic thinking as a process for deriving solutions to parametric design problems. The intent is to address the simulation environment developed through complex systems and interject a curve ball, or unexpected constraint delimiting the solution as part of the design process. This method was tested through the submittal of the projects to international design competitions. The students were asked to manipulate the competition criteria by appealing not only to the design criteria but also to the juries desire (whether conscious or unconscious) for novel sustainable processes of material usage and program. This material ecology is developed as a method for linking parametric modelling, not as a process for the application of a construction technique, but as a way to pre-rationalise material constraints and discover how program and form can operate within those constraints. In the first year of the studio two of six teams were selected as finalists and in the second year of the studio five of seven of the teams were selected as finalists.
keywords Studio pedagogy; computational instruction; parametrics; material constraints
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/29 07:34

_id e531
authors Berk, Michael
year 1999
title CYBERjack
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 4, p. 10
summary Using a limited "kit of parts" [two 8 ft. 2x4's and one sheet of 1/2" birch plywood] students in teams of two are to design and construct an "interface" which joins the physical world to the virtual world of the web. The location for this piece of furniture [the CYBERjack] will be a local library in Okolona, Mississippi, where existing web computers are to be housed. The students modeled the design using formZ, then plotted full-size templates to be used in cutting the actual parts out of wood in the shop. The device was supposed to join the Body to the Machine. The project lasted 2 weeks and was part of a 4th year studio which participated in the ACADIA Library Competition last year.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id acadia14_199
id acadia14_199
authors Bieg, Kory
year 2014
title Caret 6 and the Digital Revival of Gothic Vaults
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9781926724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 199-208
summary Caret 6 in an installation and exhibition designed and curated by Kory Bieg and his students from the University of Texas at Austin Studio he taught in the fall of 2013. The installation supports prototypes and the winning project from the Tex-Fab 2013 SKIN Competition.
keywords Digital Fabrication and Construction, Vault, Kangaroo, Grasshopper, Parametric, Installation
series ACADIA
type Normal Paper
last changed 2014/09/29 05:51

_id acadia14projects_07
id acadia14projects_07
authors Bieg, Kory
year 2014
title Caret 6
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Projects of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9789126724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 07-10
summary Caret 6 in an installation and exhibition designed and curated by Kory Bieg and his students from the University of Texas at Austin Studio he taught in the fall of 2013. The installation supports prototypes and the winning project from the Tex-Fab 2013 SKIN Competition.
keywords Digital Fabrication and Construction, Vault, Kangaroo, Grasshopper, Parametric, Installation
series ACADIA
type Research Projects
last changed 2014/09/29 05:57

_id acfa
authors Brown, A., Knight, M. and Nahab, May
year 1996
title Computer Generated Architectural Images in Practice: what kind and when?
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 79-86
summary The production of near-photorealistic images of buildings is becoming increasingly common. The software to produce reasonably sophisticated images being available at affordable prices and the increasing power of generally affordable computers have contributed to this trend. It is also probably the case that the run-of-the-mill architectural practice sees the competition producing this kind of image with a superficially beguiling quality and follow suit. What we ask in this paper is whether we should be more thoughtful about the kind of image used? Should the kind of image chosen to suit the stage of the design that it applies to and the nature of the human agents viewing the image? Of course, in posing the question we imply our answer, that it should. What we do in this paper is to illustrate why we feel it should and what the consequences are for the education of architects who are about to join the world of practice.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/17 13:34

_id acadia14projects_63
id acadia14projects_63
authors Bruscia, Nicholas; Romano, Christopher
year 2014
title project 3XLP - Porous Skin Prototype
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Projects of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9789126724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 63-66
summary project 3xLP, the winning submission to the TEX-FAB SKIN competition, is a continuation of design research on the structural properties of textured stainless steel sheeting, which typically is used for skinning and other non-structural purposes. The team conducted performative analyses of the material, and verified the results through full-scale prototyping. Structural studies relied on scale shifts that began with molecular composition and culminated with large-sale geometric systems. The work provides evidence of the adaptability, rigidity, and high performance of thin-gauge, textured metals; it establishes the groundwork for new structurally-based design possibilities using sheet steel.
keywords Material Logics and Tectonics, industry collaboration, digital fabrication, large scale prototyping
series ACADIA
type Research Projects
last changed 2014/09/29 05:57

_id 465e
authors Burry, M.
year 1996
title The Generation and Degeneration of Form Using CAAD: Uncertain Certainty
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 71-90
summary Much contemporary architectural speculation is concerned with the exploration of 'free-form' composition, images located somewhere between the chimeric and the amorphous. While built manifestations are thin on the ground, the prevalence of 'formlessness' or 'inexactness' in competition entries and architecture schools may suggest a need for a critical response to develop at a similar rate as architectural software application. But how 'new' is the emergent free-form?
series other
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id ecaade2008_103
id ecaade2008_103
authors Chase, Scott; Schultz, Ryan; Brouchoud, Jon
year 2008
title Gather ’round the Wiki-Tree
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 809-816
summary The growth of internet based communication has facilitated the development of open source, collaborative projects. Here we describe the results of three ‘Wikitecture’ experiments in collaborative, open source architectural design within the virtual world Second Life. We describe the in-world platform developed and its use for a design competition entry. Issues such as contribution assessment and the role of open source collaborative design in architecture and construction are discussed, concluding with a wish list for future enhancements.
keywords Virtual worlds, wikis, open source architecture, collaborative design
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id cf_2003_000
id cf_2003_000
authors Chiu, M.-L., Tsou, J.-Y., Kvan, Th., Morozumi, M. and Jeng, T.-S. (Eds.)
year 2003
title Digital Design - Research and Practice
source Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1 / Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, 464 p.
summary The use of computers in the design of the built environment has reached a watershed. From peripheral devices in the design process, they have in recent years come to take centre stage. An illustration is immediately at hand. Just as the entries to the competition for the Chicago Tribune Tower in 1922 defined the state-of-the-art at the beginning of the twentieth century, we have a similar marker at the end of the century, the competition in 2002 to replace the World Trade Centre towers in Lower Manhattan offered us a range of architectural solutions that exemplified the state-of-the-art eighty years later, setting forth not only architectural statements but also illustrating clearly the importance of computers in the design of the built environment. In these entries of 2002, we can see that computers have not only become essential to the communication of design but in the investigation and generation of structure, form and composition. The papers in this book are the current state-of-the-art in computer-aided design as it stands in 2003. It is the tenth in a series sponsored by the CAAD Futures Foundation, compiled from papers presented at the biennial CAAD Futures Conferences. As a series, the publications have charted the steady progress in developing the theoretical and practical foundations for applications in design practice. This volume continues in that tradition; thus, this book is entitled Digital Design: Research and Practice. The papers are grouped into three major categories, reflecting thrusts of research and practice, namely: Data and information: its organisation, handling and access, including agents; Virtual worlds: their creation, application and interfaces; and Analysis and creation of form and fabric. The editors received 121 abstracts after the initial call for contributions. From these, 61 abstracts were selected for development into complete papers for further review. From these submissions, 39 papers were chosen for inclusion in this publication. These papers show that the field has evolved from theoretical and development concerns to questions of practice in the decade during which this conference has showcased leading work. Questions of theoretical nature remain as the boundaries of our field expand. As design projects have grasped the potentials of computer-aided design, so have they challenged the capabilities of the tools. Papers here address questions in geometric representation and manipulation (Chiu and Chiu; Kocaturk, Veltkamp and Tuncer), topics that may have been considered to be solved. As design practice becomes increasingly knowledge based, better ways of managing, manipulating and accessing the complex wealth of design information becomes more pressing, demanding continuing research in issues such as modelling (Yang; Wang; Zreik et al), data retrieval and querying (Hwang and Choi; Stouffs and Cumming; Zreik, Stouffs, Tuncer, Ozsariyildiz and Beheshti), new modes of perceiving data (Segers; Tan). Tools are needed to manage, mine and create information for creative work, such as agents (Liew and Gero; Smith; Caneparo and Robiglio; Ding et al) or to support design processes (Smith; Chase). Systems for the support and development of designs continue (Gero; Achten and Jessurun). As progress is made on some fronts, such as user interfaces, attention is again turned to previously research areas such as lighting (Jung, Gross and Do; Ng et al; Wittkopf; Chevier; Glaser, Do and Tai) or services (Garcia; Chen and Lin). In recent years the growth of connectivity has led to a rapid growth in collaborative experience and understanding of the opportunities and issues continues to mature (Jabi; Dave; Zamenopoulos and Alexiou). Increasing interest is given to implications in practice and education (Dave; Oxman; Caneparo, Grassi and Giretti). Topics new to this conference are in the area of design to production or manufacture (Fischer, Burry and Frazer; Shih). Three additional invited papers (Rekimoto; Liu; Kalay) provide clear indication that there is still room to develop new spatial concepts and computer augmented environments for design. In conclusion, we note that these papers represent a good record of the current state of the evolving research in the field of digital design.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/09/22 10:21

_id ec84
authors Cote, Pierre
year 1999
title Québec City Churches
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 13-14
summary The following pictures come from a work in progress at the School of Architecture of Laval University, done in collaboration with the "Centre de développement économique et urbain de la Ville Québec" (CDEU). The 3D models from which the pictures were generated, have been created by students at the School of architecture (part of this work is illustrated). The project started at the beginning of the summer 97 by the modeling competition of Notre-Dame-de-Grâce Church, located in Québec City Saint-Sauveur neighborhood. The works continued during the summers of 1997 and 1998 and will resume this summer. To date, this ongoing project has given to nine students the opportunity to model 19 churches to a level of details useful to professionals.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

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