CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ijac201412407
id ijac201412407
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif M.
year 2014
title An Inquiry into Designing in Context using Generative Systems
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 12 - no. 4, 477-494
summary The use of generative systems has been widely investigated in the architectural design process through different procedures and levels of autonomy to generate form.The digression from abstract pre- existing notions of vocabulary and rules – even when resulting in emergent forms – to address complex real- world contexts is yet a challenging undertaking.This paper explores incorporating context in the process of designing using generative systems from ideation to fabrication, and explores the relationship between the emergent nature of generative design and the situated act of designing while using generative design tools.A course offered for 3rd year architecture students at the Department of Architecture, Ain Shams University, Egypt, was designed for this purpose. 110 students employed systems including shape grammars, L- systems, fractals and cellular automata, to design and fabricate 8 group projects.A discussion around emergence and situatedness is presented, with special attention to the designing process from ideation to fabrication.
series journal
last changed 2015/02/20 13:40

_id caadria2005_a_7b_a
id caadria2005_a_7b_a
authors Abdullah, A.Q.M. ; Md. Emran Hossain, Md. Shabab Habib Khan
year 2005
title Digital Perception, Development and Presentation in Architecture: a study of Bangladesh with global context
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 255-267
summary In the recent past the computer has become an important tool in both the design and presentation media/method in architecture. In this paper digitalization in architectural practice and architectural education in both the global and Bangladesh contexts have been studied. A survey questionnaire was carried out to find how and to what extent available software are being used in Bangladesh for this purpose. Opinion, views, expectations of architects from leading architectural firms of Bangladesh were studied to understand the future prospect of this field in Bangladesh.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2007/07/23 05:08

_id caadria2009_018
id caadria2009_018
authors Ambrose, Michael; Benjamin G. Callam, Joseph Kunkel and Luc Wilson
year 2009
title How To Make A Digi-Brick
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 5-12
summary This project examines a non-traditional method of construction generated through a digital design process that leverages digital fabrication techniques related to masonry construction. Where as architects’ use of computers first affected shape and structure, it is now additionally affecting material, construction, and craft. This design proposal explores these concepts through the production of a wall using simple configuration and reconfiguration of a repeated module adaptable to differing and unique contexts and site conditions. The masonry module is designed and built through the exploration of a CAD-CAM process. The prototypes produced investigate the repetition of a single module unit, manipulated and interlocked resulting in a continuous surface that is more than just the sum of its individual parts. The material, construction and craft of each unit informs and challenges the entire project to question the making of the masonry module into a wall.
keywords Digital fabrication, design theory, digital design methods
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id acadia17_82
id acadia17_82
authors Andreani, Stefano; Sayegh, Allen
year 2017
title Augmented Urban Experiences: Technologically Enhanced Design Research Methods for Revealing Hidden Qualities of the Built Environment
source ACADIA 2017: DISCIPLINES & DISRUPTION [Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-96506-1] Cambridge, MA 2-4 November, 2017), pp. 82-91
summary The built environment is a complex juxtaposition of static matter and dynamic flows, tangible objects and human experiences, physical realities and digital spaces. This paper offers an alternative understanding of those dichotomies by applying experimental design research strategies that combine objective quantification and subjective perception of urban contexts. The assumption is that layers of measurable datasets can be afforded with personal feedback to reveal "hidden" characteristics of cities. Drawing on studies from data and cognitive sciences, the proposed method allows us to analyze, quantify and visualize the individual experience of the built environment in relation to different urban qualities. By operating in between the scientific domain and the design realm, four design research experiments are presented. Leveraging augmenting and sensing technologies, these studies investigate: (1) urban attractors and user attention, employing eye-tracking technologies during walking; (2) urban proxemics and sensory experience, applying proximity sensors and EEG scanners in varying contexts; (3) urban mood and spatial perception, using mobile applications to merge tangible qualities and subjective feelings; and (4) urban vibe and paced dynamics, combining vibration sensing and observational data for studying city beats. This work demonstrates that, by adopting a multisensory and multidisciplinary approach, it is possible to gain a more human-centered, and perhaps novel understanding of the built environment. A lexicon of experimented urban situations may become a reference for studying different typologies of environments from the user experience, and provide a framework to support creative intuition for the development of more engaging, pleasant, and responsive spaces and places.
keywords design methods; information processing; art and technology; hybrid practices
series ACADIA
last changed 2017/10/17 09:12

_id sigradi2014_077
id sigradi2014_077
authors Arango, Natalia Echeverri; Diana Patricia Cuellar
year 2014
title Configuraciones cambiantes en un mundo codificado [Changing configurations on a codified world]
source SIGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay - Montevideo 12 - 14 November 2014, pp. 205-208
summary The proposed work is a reflection on what brings and carries the displacement, the exile, from the Flusser perspective of the migrant. Being able to translate and link difficult situations in new contexts is going to help with feeding from these experiences to transform them into challenges for the survival itself and to provide other openings and other opportunities as creative practices.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ddssup9602
id ddssup9602
authors Arentze, T.A., Borgers, A.W.J. and Harry J.P.
year 1996
title A knowledge-based model for developing location strategies in a DSS for retail planning
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Most DSS for retail planning are based on impact assessment models to support the evaluation of plan scenario's. This paper introduces a complementary knowledge-based model to support also the earlier stage of formulating plan scenario's. An analysis of the retail planning problem reveals the main lines of the strategies adopted by most Dutch planners and retailers to achieve their goals. A basic strategy that seems to be appropriate in most problem contexts is formulated in the form of a set of decision tables. Each decision table or system of decision tables specifies for a problem area decision rules to identify and analyse problems and to formulate possible actions. The model is implemented in a DSS where it is used in combination with quantitative impact assessment models. A case study in the area of daily good facilities demonstrates the approach. The major conclusion is that the knowledge-based approach and in particular the decision table technique provides interesting possibilities to implement planning task structures in a DSS environment.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 452d
authors Arlati, E., Bottelli, V. and Fogh, C.
year 1996
title Applying CBR to the Teaching of Architectural Design
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 41-50
summary This paper presents an approach to the analysis and description of the nature of process knowledge in architectural design, the development of a conceptual model for Galathea, a case-based navigation tool for its support, and the application of this theoretical foundation to the teaching of design to a group of about 100 second-year architecture students. Design is assumed as a globally coherent information, memory and experience-intensive process in which professional skill is the capability to govern a large number of continually evolving variables in the direction of desired change. This viewpoint on design has guided the development of Galathea, the model of a tool aimed at describing architectural design through the description, mapping and management of the complete decision-making path of projects by means of the dynamic representation of the relationship between goals, constraints and the decisions/actions adopted at specific nodes and through the creation of a case-base aimed at the storage, retrieval and adaptation of relevant design moves in similar project contexts. This conceptual model is applied to educational activity at the faculty of Architecture of Milan, with the aim of teaching how to govern a project from the outset considering it as an evolving but coherent map of design moves, which allow the adoption of the correct decisions involving the most disparate types of information, experience and memory, and which altogether conduct to the desired goal. The resolution paths of the students, all applied to the same architecture problem, result in a design move case-base, the further utilisation and interest of which is open to collegial discussion.
keywords knowledge-based design; case-based reasoning; design process control, design moves
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ecaade2008_160
id ecaade2008_160
authors Aschwanden, Gideon; Halatsch, Jan; Schmitt , Gerhard
year 2008
title Crowd Simulation for Urban Planning
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 493-500
summary This paper presents a semi-automatic visualization method for the evaluation of urban environments that is based on artificial intelligence. It proposes the use of agent-based crowd simulation software on a mid-scale urban planning level for design evaluation. The information on agents’ movements is noted in standard raster images. The results are maps that are easy to understand. These maps show movement paths of the agents and density and give further conclusion on bottlenecks in planning contexts. Key measures, like the occupant movement in a given district, until now relied greatly on empirical knowledge or data that could be only gathered after an urban design had become built reality. Our method focuses on the adaptation of common software technology that is originally situated in film and TV productions. A practical workflow shows how our method can be easily integrated in daily design tasks.
keywords Artificial intelligence, agent-based, crowd simulation, urban planning, design evaluation, occupant movement
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id ecaade2017_101
id ecaade2017_101
authors Ayoub, Mohammed and Wissa, Magdi
year 2017
title Daylight Optimization - A Parametric Study of Urban Façades Design within Hybrid Settlements in Hot-Desert Climate
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 193-202
summary Unprecedented growth of hybrid settlements causes deterioration to the indoor environmental quality. Due to their narrow street-networks and fully packed urban fabric, lower floors are subjected to severe overshadow condition, which has adverse effects on the health of the inhabitants. This paper aims to investigate techniques to mitigate the under-lit indoor environment for a group of buildings with variable heights and orientations, with regard to the urban façades parameters. It reflects an intervention in an existing hybrid settlements, within hot-desert climate, to alter façades configurations for daylight optimization, and ultimately recover the lost indoor quality of users in such contexts.
keywords Daylight Optimization; Urban Façade; Simulation; Hybrid Settlements ; Parametric Design
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:27

_id 4c8a
authors Ball, L.J., Maskill, L. and Ormerod, T.C.
year 1998
title Satisficing in engineering design: causes, consequences and implications for design support
source Automation in Construction 7 (2-3) (1998) pp. 213-227
summary We describe an approach to investigating design cognition which involved comparing prescriptive theories of good design practice with observations of actual design behaviour. The tenet of prescriptive theory which formed the focus of the research is the idea that designers should generate and evaluate multiple design alternatives in order to increase the chances of attaining better design solutions than might arise if they fixated upon an initial solution. Our study focused upon six professional electronic engineers attempting a novel integrated-circuit design problem. Verbal-protocol data revealed: (i) a failure to search for alternative solutions; (ii) a marked inclination to stick with early `satisficing' solution ideas even when these were showing deficiencies; and (iii) only superficial modelling and assessment of competing alternatives when such options were actually considered. We argue that while minimal solution search in design may sometimes be caused by motivational factors and working-memory limitations, its major determinant relates to inhibitory memory processes that arise subsequent to the recognition-based emergence of familiar design solutions. We conclude by exploring the implications of minimal solution search for design support, with particular reference to an agent-based indexing system which we are developing in order to facilitate the pursuit of design alternatives in engineering contexts.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id sigradi2010_298
id sigradi2010_298
authors Barcellos, Góes Mariza; David Maria Manuela
year 2010
title Visualization: The Contribution of a Mathematical Mediating Artefact for Creative Processes and Design Activities
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 298-300
summary Considering mathematical knowledge as an artefact that mediates social activities in the world, this paper emphasizes the contribution of visual thinking to mathematics education and extends it to the learning of design activities, especially in architectural contexts. Results from a previous research paper on architectural design, which focused on the work of some contemporary architects in their day - to - day office activities, showed the relevance of drawing in architectural practice. These results aroused our interest in researching the mediating role of drawing and its structuring effects on creative processes and design activities in architecture.
keywords visualization, mathematics education, architectural design education, activity theory
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2014_057
id sigradi2014_057
authors Barros, Diana Rodriguez; María Mandagarán
year 2014
title Pensamiento de diseño y construcción de narrativas visuales. Caso de prácticas didácticas disruptivas en entornos postdigitales [Design thinking and construction of visual narratives. Case teaching practices in disruptive postdigitals environments]
source SIGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay - Montevideo 12 - 14 November 2014, pp. 195-199
summary Design Thinking recognizes processes linked to empathy, creation, prototyping and storytelling, that condition design methodologies to solve complex problems with user participation. From this perspective, next to disruptive practices, we present learning experiences focus in management, design and production of graphic databases in Web 2.0 and 3.0 contexts. They are linked to photomontages and graphic communication pieces of urban-architectural works and narratives that give meaning and entity to those interventions. We recorded results that value spatial thinking with images. Also the presence of traditional skills with hybrid skills in students, that encourage fluency, creativity and innovation, self-learning, experimentation, teamwork and network integration.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 963b
authors Bartels, R.H., Beatty, J.C. and Barsky, B.A.
year 1987
title An Introduction to Splines for Use in Computer Graphics and Geometric Modeling
source Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos, CA
summary The most basic output primitives in every computer graphics library are "lineSegment()" and "Polygon()", ortheir equivalents. These are, of course, sufficent in the sense that any curved line or surface can be arbitrarrily well approximated by straight line segments or planar polygons, but in many contexts that is not enough. Such approximations often require large amounts of data to obtain satifactory smoothness, and they are awkward to manipulate. Then too, even with the the most sophisticated continous shading models, polygonaltechniques can resultin visually ojectionable images. Mach bands may be apparent at the borders between adjacent polygons, and there is always a telltale angularity to polygonal silhouettes. Hence many modeling systems are augmented by circles, spheres, cylinders, etc. and allow such simple primitives to be combined to form quite complex objects.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id cf2009_890
id cf2009_890
authors Beirão, José; Duarte José, Stouffs Rudi
year 2009
title Grammars of designs and grammars for designing - grammar-based patterns for urban design
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009, PUM, 2009
summary Analytical work has demonstrated the potential of shape grammars for capturing rules embedded in existing design styles, and generating designs within such styles that match given design contexts. However, the creation of grammars for new design styles, from exploratory rules to design synthesis, remains elusive. The combined use of patterns and discursive grammars is here proposed as a way of encoding the semantics behind recurrent urban design operations and enable the development of a tool to support the creation of new grammars. The idea is that by exploring the combination of generative patterns designers may arrive at new grammars.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2009/08/21 05:43

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia09_226
id acadia09_226
authors Benton, Sarah
year 2009
title reForming: Responding to Our Land in Crisis
source ACADIA 09: reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow [Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-9842705-0-7] Chicago (Illinois) 22-25 October, 2009), pp. 226-233
summary An environmental crisis in Australia in early 2009 prompted the architectural design work considered in this paper. Bushfires ravaged the Victorian hinterland, destroying lives and families. The crises inspired me to explore the ACADIA 2009 conference theme, reForm(): how technologies transform the ways in which buildings and spaces perform, act and operate. This paper explores architectural design in distressed contexts and some design technologies used to formalize new housing development and respond to the environmental crisis.
keywords Parametric design, environment, design logic, landscape, biomimicry
series ACADIA
type Normal paper
last changed 2009/11/26 16:44

_id c42a
authors Bermudez, J., Agutter, J., Brent, L., Syroid, N., Gondeck-Becker, D., Westenskow, D., Foresti, S. and Sharir, Y.
year 2000
title Cyberprint: Toward an Architecture of Being
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 8-12
summary This project involves the design, construction and performance of an “architecture of being” that expresses selfhood in virtual space and real time using: (1) physiological data as its building material, (2) architectural design as its expressive intent, (3) digital space as its medium, (4) screen projection as its enveloping and viewing technique, (5) user interactivity and performance as its partner, and (6) interdisciplinary collaborations among Architecture, Choreography, Modern Dance, Music, Bioengineering, Medicine and Computer Science as its creative and technical contexts. The paper presents the implementation of the cyberPRINT during a series of techno-media performances at the Rose Wagner Performing Art Center in Salt Lake City, USA, in May 2000. This work is believed to be the first of its kind in the world. The cyberPRINT is building a new area of creative inquiry in Architecture by means of collaborations with the Arts and Sciences.
keywords Performance; Data Visualization; Interdisciplinary; Virtual; Architecture
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 95b0
authors Bermudez, J., Agutter, J., Lilly,. B., Syroid, N., Westenskow, D., Gondeck-Becker, D. Foresti, S. and Sharir, Y.
year 2000
title CyberPRINT: Hacia una Arquitectura del Ser (CyberPRINT: Towards an Architecture of the Being)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 220-223
summary This project involves the design, construction and performance of an “architecture of being” that expresses selfhood in virtual space and real time using: (1) physiological data as its building material, (2) architectural design as its expressive intent, (3) digital space as its medium, (4) screen projection as its enveloping and viewing technique, (5) user interactivity and performance as its partner, and (6) interdisciplinary collaborations among Architecture, Choreography, Modern Dance, Music, Bioengineering, Medicine and Computer Science as its creative and technical contexts. // The paper presents the implementation of the cyberPRINT during a series of techno-media performances at the Rose Wagner Performing Art Center in Salt Lake City, USA, in May 2000. This work is believed to be the first of its kind in the world. The cyberPRINT is building a new area of creative inquiry in Architecture by means of collaborations with the Arts and Sciences.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2014_180
id sigradi2014_180
authors Bernardo, Marcus Vinicius Fernandes Rocha; Jose dos Santos Cabral Filho Correo
year 2014
title Fabricação digital e variedade fora do contexto industrial
source SiGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay - Montevideo 12 - 14 November 2014, pp. 320-323
summary This paper discusses issues raised during an experiment about the use of digital fabrication technologies in non-industrial contexts in three concurrent fronts: The first front was to get familiarized with the production ecology of a non-industrial building context, the favela. The second front was to verify the accessibility of digital fabrication technologies outside the industry by building a low cost CNC milling machine based on DIY instructions available in the internet. And the last front was to develop useful solutions with this technology to that context. Partial results are guidelines for improving the technology in order to fit the context
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 9f35
authors Bhavnani, S. K., Garrett, J.H., Flemming, U. and Shaw, D.S.
year 1999
title Towards Active Assistance
source Bridging the Generations. The Future of Computer-Aided Engineering (eds. J. H. Garrett and D. R. Rehak) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (1999), 199-203
summary The exploding functionality of current computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems has provided today’s users with a vast, but under-utilized collection of tools and options. For example, MicroStation, a popular CAE system sold by Intergraph, offers more than 1000 commands including 16 ways to construct a line (in different contexts) and 28 ways to manipulate elements using a “fence”. This complex array of functionalities is bewildering and hardly exploited to its full extent even by frequent, experienced users. In a recent site visit to a federal design office, we observed ten architects and three draftsmen using MicroStation.
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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