CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ijac201210104
id ijac201210104
authors Ambrose, Michael A.
year 2012
title Agent Provocateur - BIM In The Academic Design Studio
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 10 - no. 1, 53-66
summary Building Information Modeling challenges academia to question the fundamental roles of abstraction and simulation in design education. Architectural education and practice assume a traditional set of visual conventions at varied scales and levels of detail, that when taken in concert signifies a whole, complete idea of a building, a correspondence between design intent and interpretation, between the representation of ideas and the design of buildings. BIM viewed as provocateur to these assumptions provides potential critical analysis of how architectural design is taught. Academia must seek out new design methodologies for exploring architecture that reflect the representational shift of BIM by developing teaching methods that reprioritize ways of seeing, thinking and making. This paper describes a studio model that seeks out new active methods for exploring architecture that embrace this shift by developing processes that provoke novel ways to reconcile the traditions of abstraction and the opportunities of synthetic simulation.
series journal
last changed 2019/07/30 08:55

_id sigradi2008_103
id sigradi2008_103
authors Baltazar, Ana Paula; Maria Lucia Malard, Silke Kapp, Pedro Schultz
year 2008
title From physical models to immersive collaborative environments: testing the best way for homeless people to visualise and negotiate spaces
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This paper describes an experiment to investigate the best way for lay people to use representation to visualise and negotiate space. It was motivated by our observations in workshops for digital inclusion in the context of a housing project for a homeless association. Computers were used to make it easier for the community to understand and change the spaces in real time. The first workshops proved that our approach was efficient as an exercise but not certainly effective concerning the understanding of spatial qualities. So we have designed an experiment to compare the usability of different media in participatory design processes. For that we have adapted the ‘Usability’ methodology, which is fully described in the paper. We started with three main questions. The first concerned the effectiveness of different media to represent spatial quality; the second concerned the best way for novices to approach space, whether by refurbishing a pre-existing space or by starting from the scratch; and the third concerned the effectiveness of negotiation by means of discourse and by means of or action. We also had two main hypothesis: one coming from research on digital environments and stereo visualisation, indicating that the more people feel immersed in the represented environment the more they are able to correlate it with physical space; and the other coming from our own observations in the participatory design workshops, in which the collective decision-making was manipulated by those people with more advanced communication skills who use their ability in an authoritative way regardless of the relevance of what they have to say. This paper describes the whole experiment, which was an exercise of spatial negotiation in 5 versions. In the first version we provided fixed digital views of a room in plan and axonometry; for another two versions we provided a physical model of the room in 1:10 scale, with some pieces of the existing furniture in different scales. This was done to check if people were just playing with a puzzle or actually grasping the correspondence between representation and the object or the space represented. One version proposes refurbishment and the other starts from the scratch. And the last two versions repeated the same task made with the physical model, but this time using a 3D interactive digital model. People were required not only to organise the furniture in the space but also to build a full scale cardboard structure and organise the real furniture reproducing their proposed model. Their comments on the spaces they had built confronted with what they had imaged when working with the model has enabled us to compare the different models, as also the different ways of negotiating spaces. This paper describes this experiment in detail concluding that 3D digital interactive models are far more effective than physical models and 2D drawings; when negotiation happens by means of action it provides more creative results than when the discoursive practice prevails; people are more creative when they start something from scratch, though they spend more time. The results of this experiment led us to formulate a new hypothesis leading to the development of an immersive collaborative environment using stereoscopy.
keywords Visualisation, negotiation, immersive environment, digital interfaces, homeless people
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id acadia18_366
id acadia18_366
authors Baseta, Efilena; Bollinger, Klaus
year 2018
title Construction System for Reversible Self-Formation of Grid Shells. Correspondence between physical and digital form
source ACADIA // 2018: Recalibration. On imprecisionand infidelity. [Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-17729-7] Mexico City, Mexico 18-20 October, 2018, pp. 366-375
summary This paper presents a construction system which offers an efficient materialization method for double-curved gridshells. This results in an active-bending system of controlled deflections. The latter system embeds its construction manual into the geometry of its components. Thus it can be used as a self-formation process. The two presented gridshell structures are composed of geometry-induced, variable stiffness elements. The latter elements are able to form programmed shapes passively when gravitational loads are applied. Each element consists of two layers and a slip zone between them. The slip allows the element to be flexible when it is straight and increasingly stiffer while its curvature increases. The amplitude of the slip defines the final deformation of the element. As a result, non-uniform deformations can be obtained with uniform cross sections and loads. When the latter elements are used in grid configurations, self-formation of initially planar surfaces emerges. The presented system eliminates the need for electromechanical equipment since it relies on material properties and hierarchical geometrical configurations. Wood, as a flexible and strong material, has been used for the construction of the prototypes. The fabrication of the timber laths has been done via CNC industrial milling processes. The comparison between the initial digital design and the resulting geometry of the physical prototypes is reviewed in this paper. The aim is to inform the design and fabrication process with performance data extracted from the prototypes. Finally, the scalability of the system shows its potential for large-scale applications, such as transformable structures.
keywords full paper, material & adaptive systems, flexible structures, digital fabrication, self-formation
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2019/01/07 11:22

_id ddssar0206
id ddssar0206
authors Bax, M.F.Th. and Trum, H.M.G.J.
year 2002
title Faculties of Architecture
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary In order to be inscribed in the European Architect’s register the study program leading to the diploma ‘Architect’ has to meet the criteria of the EC Architect’s Directive (1985). The criteria are enumerated in 11 principles of Article 3 of the Directive. The Advisory Committee, established by the European Council got the task to examine such diplomas in the case some doubts are raised by other Member States. To carry out this task a matrix was designed, as an independent interpreting framework that mediates between the principles of Article 3 and the actual study program of a faculty. Such a tool was needed because of inconsistencies in the list of principles, differences between linguistic versions ofthe Directive, and quantification problems with time, devoted to the principles in the study programs. The core of the matrix, its headings, is a categorisation of the principles on a higher level of abstractionin the form of a taxonomy of domains and corresponding concepts. Filling in the matrix means that each study element of the study programs is analysed according to their content in terms of domains; thesummation of study time devoted to the various domains results in a so-called ‘profile of a faculty’. Judgement of that profile takes place by committee of peers. The domains of the taxonomy are intrinsically the same as the concepts and categories, needed for the description of an architectural design object: the faculties of architecture. This correspondence relates the taxonomy to the field of design theory and philosophy. The taxonomy is an application of Domain theory. This theory,developed by the authors since 1977, takes as a view that the architectural object only can be described fully as an integration of all types of domains. The theory supports the idea of a participatory andinterdisciplinary approach to design, which proved to be awarding both from a scientific and a social point of view. All types of domains have in common that they are measured in three dimensions: form, function and process, connecting the material aspects of the object with its social and proceduralaspects. In the taxonomy the function dimension is emphasised. It will be argued in the paper that the taxonomy is a categorisation following the pragmatistic philosophy of Charles Sanders Peirce. It will bedemonstrated as well that the taxonomy is easy to handle by giving examples of its application in various countries in the last 5 years. The taxonomy proved to be an adequate tool for judgement ofstudy programs and their subsequent improvement, as constituted by the faculties of a Faculty of Architecture. The matrix is described as the result of theoretical reflection and practical application of a matrix, already in use since 1995. The major improvement of the matrix is its direct connection with Peirce’s universal categories and the self-explanatory character of its structure. The connection with Peirce’s categories gave the matrix a more universal character, which enables application in other fieldswhere the term ‘architecture’ is used as a metaphor for artefacts.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 00f3
authors Baybars, Ilker and Eastman, Charles M.
year 1979
title Generating the Underlying Graphs for Architectural Arrangements
source 10 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: School of Urban and Public Affairs, Carnegie Mellon University, April, 1979. Research report No.79. Includes bibliography
summary The mathematical correspondence to a floorplan is a Metric Planar Graph. Several methods for systematic direct generation of metric planar graphs have been developed including polyominoes, March and Matela and shape grammars. Another approach has been to develop a spatial composition in two separate steps. The first step involves discrete variables, and consists of enumerating a defined set of non-metric planar graphs. The second step involves spatial dimensions, e.g. continuous variables, and maps the graphs onto the Euclidean plane, from which a satisfactory or optimal one is selected. This paper focusses on the latter 2-step process. It presents a general method of solving the first step, that is the exhaustive enumeration of a set of planar graphs. The paper consists of three sections: The first section is an introduction to graph theory. The second section presents the generation of maximal planar graphs. The last section summarizes the presentation and comments on the appropriateness of the method
keywords graphs, floor plans, architecture, design, automation, space allocation
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id e825
authors Baybars, Ilker and Eastman, Charles M.
year 1980
title Enumerating Architectural Arrangements by Generating Their Underlying Graphs
source Environment and Planning B. 1980. vol. 7: pp. 289- 310 : ill. includes bibliography. -- See also 'Enumerating Architectural Arrangements: Comment on a Recent Paper by Baybars and Eastman' by C.F. Earl
summary One mathematical correspondence to the partitioning of the plane is a Weighted Plane Graph (WPG). This paper first focuses on the systematic generation of WPGs, in a fashion similar to crystal growth. During this process, the WPGs are represented by adjacency matrices. The authors, thus, present a method for embedding the WPG in the plane, given its adjacency matrix. These graphs can, then, be mapped into floor plans. The common practice here is the use of the `geometric dual' of a WPG. The authors propose, instead, the use of the `Pseudogeometric dual' of a WPG directly to translate (part of) a design brief into alternative spatial layouts. Also discussed is the ability to create courtyards and/or circulation spaces given a specific WPG, without increasing the size of the problem
keywords enumeration, architecture, floor plans, graphs, design process, automation, algorithms, space allocation, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id cf2011_p157
id cf2011_p157
authors Boton, Conrad; Kubicki Sylvain, Halin Gilles
year 2011
title Understanding Pre-Construction Simulation Activities to Adapt Visualization in 4D CAD Collaborative Tools
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 477-492.
summary Increasing productivity and efficiency is an important issue in the AEC field. This area is mainly characterized by fragmentation, heterogeneous teams with low lifetimes and many uncertainties. 4D CAD is one of the greatest innovations in recent years. It consists in linking a 3D model of the building with the works planning in order to simulate the construction evolution over time. 4D CAD can fill several needs from design to project management through constructivity analysis and tasks planning (Tommelein 2003). The literature shows that several applications have been proposed to improve the 4D CAD use (Chau et al. 2004; Lu et al. 2007; Seok & al. 2009). In addition, studies have shown the real impact of 4D CAD use in construction projects (Staub-French & Khanzode 2007; Dawood & Sika 2007). More recently, Mahalingam et al. (2010) showed that the collaborative use of 4D CAD is particularly useful during the pre-construction phase for comparing the constructability of working methods, for visually identifying conflicts and clashes (overlaps), and as visual tool for practitioners to discuss and to plan project progress. So the advantage of the 4D CAD collaborative use is demonstrated. Moreover, several studies have been conducted both in the scientific community and in the industrial world to improve it (Zhou et al. 2009; Kang et al. 2007). But an important need that remains in collaborative 4D CAD use in construction projects is about the adaptation of visualization to the users business needs. Indeed, construction projects have very specific characteristics (fragmentation, variable team, different roles from one project to another). Moreover, in the AEC field several visualization techniques can represent the same concept and actors choose one or another of these techniques according to their specific needs related to the task they have to perform. For example, the tasks planning may be represented by a Gantt chart or by a PERT network and the building elements can be depicted with a 3D model or a 2D plan. The classical view (3D + Gantt) proposed to all practitioners in the available 4D tools seems therefore not suiting the needs of all. So, our research is based on the hypothesis that adapting the visualization to individual business needs could significantly improve the collaboration. This work relies on previous ones and aim to develop a method 1) to choose the best suited views for performed tasks and 2) to compose adapted multiple views for each actor, that we call “business views”. We propose a 4 steps-method to compose business views. The first step identifies the users’ business needs, defining the individual practices performed by each actor, identifying his business tasks and his information needs. The second step identifies the visualization needs related to the identified business needs. For this purpose, the user’s interactions and visualization tasks are described. This enables choosing the most appropriate visualization techniques for each need (step 3). At this step, it is important to describe the visualization techniques and to be able to compare them. Therefore, we proposed a business view metamodel. The final step (step 4) selects the adapted views, defines the coordination mechanisms and the interaction principles in order to compose coordinated visualizations. A final step consists in a validation work to ensure that the composed views really match to the described business needs. This paper presents the latest version of the method and especially presents our latest works about its first and second steps. These include making more generic the business tasks description in order to be applicable within most of construction projects and enabling to make correspondence with visualization tasks.
keywords Pre-construction, Simulation, 4D CAD, Collaboration, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Human-Computer Interface, Information visualization, Business view, Model driven engineering
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia05_156
id acadia05_156
authors Cabrinha, Mark
year 2005
title From Bézier to NURBS: Integrating Material and Digital Techniques through a Plywood Shell
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 156-169
summary The development of digital fabrication has reintroduced material processes with digital processes. There has been much discussion about the tool and the objects of the tool, but little discussion of the implication of the material process on the digital process. A brief historical review on the development of computer numerical control and the origins of the Bézier curve reveals an instrumental fact: computer numerical controlled tools necessitated advancements in computational surfaces which eventually led to NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) surfaces. In other words, the origins of NURBS surfaces resides in its relation to material processes, rather than many current approaches that develop free form surfaces and then force the tool onto the material without regard to the material properties. From this historical and mathematical review, this project develops toward more intelligent construction methods based on the integration of NURBS differential geometry paired with material qualities and processes. Specifically, a digital technique of developing conceptual NURBS geometry into piecewise surface patches are then flattened based on the material thickness and density. From these flattened patches, a material technique is developed to intelligently remove material to allow the rigid flat material to re-develop into physical surface patches. The goal of this research is to develop digital and material techniques toward intelligent construction based on the correspondence between digitally driven surface and digitally driven material processes. The application of this technique as a rational and flexible system is to support the dynamic response of form and material toward such performative aspects as structure, daylight, ventilation, and thermal properties.
series ACADIA
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id acadia05_114
id acadia05_114
authors Due Schmidt, Anne Marie
year 2005
title Navigating towards digital tectonic tools
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 114-127
summary The computer holds a great potential to break down the barriers between architecture and the technical aspects relating to architecture, thus supporting innovative architecture with an inner correspondence between form and technique. While the differing values in architecture and technique can seem like opposites, the term tectonics deals with creating a meaningful relationship between the two. The aim of this paper is to investigate what a digital tectonic tool could be and what relationship with technology it should represent. An understanding of this relationship can help us not only to understand the conflicts in architecture and the building industry but also bring us further into a discussion of how architecture can use digital tools. The investigation is carried out firstly by approaching the subject theoretically through the term tectonics and by setting up a model of the values a tectonic tool should encompass. Secondly the ability and validity of the model are shown by applying it to a case study of Jørn Utzon’s work on Minor Hall in Sydney Opera House - for the sake of exemplification the technical field focused on in this paper is room acoustics. Thirdly the relationship between the model of tectonics and the case will be compared and lastly a discussion about the characteristics of a tectonic tool and its implications on digital tectonic tools will be carried out.
series ACADIA
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id acadia03_036
id acadia03_036
authors Gerzso, J. Michael
year 2003
title On the Limitations of Shape Grammars: Comments on Aaron Fleisher’s Article “Grammatical Architecture?”
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 279-287
summary Shape grammars were introduced by Gips and Stiny in 1972. Since then, there have been many articles and books written by them and their associates. In 1992, Aaron Fleisher, a professor at the School of Planning, MIT, wrote a critique of their work in an article titled “Grammatical Architecture?” published in the journal Environment and Planning B. According to him, Gips, Stiny and later Mitchell, propose a hypothesis that states that shape grammars are presumed to represent knowledge of architectural form, that grammars are “formable,” and that there is a visual correspondence to verbal grammar. The strong version of “the hypothesis requires that an architectural form be equivalent to a grammar.” Fleisher considers these hypotheses unsustainable, and argues his case by analyzing the differences between language, and architecture, and by dealing with the concepts of lexicons, syntax and semantics. He concludes by stating that architectural design is negotiated in two modalities: the verbal and the visual, and that equivalences are not at issue; they do not exist. If there is such thing as a language for design, it would provide the means to maintain a discussion of the consequences in one mode, of the state and conditions of the other. Fleisher’s observations serve as the basis of this paper, a tribute to him, and also an opportunity to present an outline to an alternate approach or hypothesis to shape grammars, which is “nonlinguistic” but “generative,” in the sense that it uses production rules. A basic aspect of this hypothesis is that the only similarity between syntactic rules in language and some rules in architecture is that they are recursive.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/10/30 15:20

_id fa1b
authors Haapasalo, H.
year 2000
title Creative computer aided architectural design An internal approach to the design process
source University of Oulu (Finland)
summary This survey can be seen as quite multidisciplinary research. The basis for this study has been inapplicability of different CAD user interfaces in architectural design. The objective of this research is to improve architectural design from the creative problem-solving viewpoint, where the main goal is to intensify architectural design by using information technology. The research is linked to theory of methods, where an internal approach to design process means studying the actions and thinking of architects in the design process. The research approach has been inspired by hermeneutics. The human thinking process is divided into subconscious and conscious thinking. The subconscious plays a crucial role in creative work. The opposite of creative work is systematic work, which attempts to find solutions by means of logical inference. Both creative and systematic problem solving have had periods of predominance in the history of Finnish architecture. The perceptions in the present study indicate that neither method alone can produce optimal results. Logic is one of the tools of creativity, since the analysis and implementation of creative solutions require logical thinking. The creative process cannot be controlled directly, but by creating favourable work conditions for creativity, it can be enhanced. Present user interfaces can make draughting and the creation of alternatives quicker and more effective in the final stages of designing. Only two thirds of the architects use computers in working design, even the CAD system is being acquired in greater number of offices. User interfaces are at present inflexible in sketching. Draughting and sketching are the basic methods of creative work for architects. When working with the mouse, keyboard and screen the natural communication channel is impaired, since there is only a weak connection between the hand and the line being drawn on the screen. There is no direct correspondence between hand movements and the lines that appear on the screen, and the important items cannot be emphasized by, for example, pressing the pencil more heavily than normally. In traditional sketching the pen is a natural extension of the hand, as sketching can sometimes be controlled entirely by the unconscious. Conscious efforts in using the computer shift the attention away from the actual design process. However, some architects have reached a sufficiently high level of skill in the use of computer applications in order to be able to use them effectively in designing without any harmful effect on the creative process. There are several possibilities in developing CAD systems aimed at architectural design, but the practical creative design process has developed during a long period of time, in which case changing it in a short period of time would be very difficult. Although CAD has had, and will have, some evolutionary influences on the design process of architects as an entity, the future CAD user interface should adopt its features from the architect's practical and creative design process, and not vice versa.
keywords Creativity, Systematicism, Sketching
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ecaade2007_100
id ecaade2007_100
authors Houtkamp, Joske M.; Spek, Erik D. van der; Toet, Alexander
year 2007
title The influence of Lighting on the Affective Qualities of a Virtual Theater
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 77-84
summary In the development of 3D models of buildings, much time and effort is spent on enhancing lighting effects, to improve the perceived realism and quality of the models, and to create ambience. In an experimental setup, two versions of a 3D model of the Royal Carré Theater with different lighting conditions were presented to viewers, to assess the influence of lighting effects on their affective appraisals. A small group visited the real theater. The differences between the affective qualities of the models are smaller than expected, and participants seem to infer affective qualities and dimensions of an environment without paying attention to the specific lighting information. The affective qualities of the real theater show a correspondence to both versions.
keywords 3D models, virtual environments, affective appraisal, lighting
series eCAADe
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id ed8d
authors Hui, K.C. and Li, Yadong
year 1998
title A feature-based shape blending technique for industrial design
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 30 (10) (1998) pp. 823-834
summary Blending or averaging of two-dimensional shapes usually operates on sets of discrete points or polygons approximating the objects. This relies on a series of evenlydistributed or properly positioned points on the boundary of the objects. Features or characteristics of the objects are not well considered. This paper presents asimple but effective technique for blending 2D shapes composed of curve segments. Features that are essential for shape blending are extracted. Correspondencebetween features of the objects are then established. The correspondence between points on a pair of corresponding features are finally established for theinterpolation process. This allows characteristic features of the objects to be retained in the blending operation which is essential in industrial design. An experimentalsystem was developed for blending 2D contours with curved boundary. Test results showed that the proposed approach produces results suitable for industrialdesign.
keywords Morphing, Form Features, Industrial Design, Shape Blending, In-Betweening, Feature, Industrial Design
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id acadia10_203
id acadia10_203
authors Jaskiewicz, Tomasz
year 2010
title (In:)forming Interactive Architectural Systems, Case of the xMAiA Meta-model
source ACADIA 10: LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture [Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-4507-3471-4] New York 21-24 October, 2010), pp. 203-210
summary This paper positions the domain of interactive architecture (iA) and searches for an appropriate model for structure and processing of information in the design and operation of such architecture. It is shown that there are different approaches to ways in which iA system models can be defined, each with numerous advantages and disadvantages. However, due to complexity of encountered problems, application of such models can be only partially validated by simulation and hence their design is inherently dependent on creation of operational and experiential full-scale prototypes of the systems these models represent. Another observation is the lack of correspondence between existing iA models and other contemporary models of computation for architectural geometry, fabrication and engineering. A meta-model for extensible multi-agent interactive architecture (xMAiA) is consequently proposed as a remedy to this situation. xMAiA meta-model is aimed to provide an open framework for integrated evolution, development and operation of interactive architectural systems. It delivers an extensible platform, in which diverse, project-specific models and approaches can be implemented, tested, and further evolved. Such a platform has the potential to empower agile development and operation of interactive architectural ecologies, as well as to substantially facilitate integration of creative design and experiential prototyping from day-1 of project design and development cycle. An example application conforming to the xMAiA meta-model is consequently presented and illustrated with a case study project performed in the university education context.
keywords multi agent systems, interactive architecture, responsive architecture, design tools
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2010/11/10 06:27

_id sigradi2004_383
id sigradi2004_383
authors Juan Puebla Pons
year 2004
title La representación innovadora del proyecto actual. El papel de las neovanguardias [The Innovative Representation of Contemporary Design. The Role of the Neovanguards]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary From final of the last decade of the sixties, graphic positions have gone appearing in the representation of the architecture despite the traditional operability. This has happened, especially, in the environment of what has understood each other as architectural neo-avant-gardes, the tendency characterized by the experimentation starting from different aspects of a modern space and the most renovating in what concerns to the architectural representation . and in the context of the new representation technologies. Starting from here an investigation line has been created . that has generated publications, subjects, etc,... . in which has shown that, through this current, it has been reflecting the open character of the representation and its capacity of current renovation, in correspondence with the architectural contents, at the same time as the bases of the introduced expression of the contemporary architectural project have settled down.
keywords Contemporary project, Architectural representation, Visual simulation, Neo-avant-gardes
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id 2647
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 1994
title Sun and Time in the Built Environment
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 248
summary At a time when requirements on the quality of the built environment are increasingly becoming explicit and specific, computer technology promises the ability to analyse and evaluate buildings during the design process. The computer can extract the necessary information from conventional geometric representations, generate comprehensive descriptions of the aspects to be analysed and use these to arrive at precise and accurate results that can be represented visually. Visual representations facilitate comprehension of the analyses and of their results because of their agreement with our predominantly visual perception of the built environment. The consequent close correspondences between geometric design representations and the visual representation of analyses and evaluations allow direct correlation of the results with the design as a whole. Such correlation is instrumental for imposing explicit and justifiable constraints on the further development of a design. One good example of visual analyses is daylighting. In many drafting and modelling programs a viewing point can be set on the basis the sun’s height and azimuth. The projection returned reveals the surfaces that are directly lit by the sun. In other programs the sun’s height and azimuth can be used to position a light source with parallel rays. This source gives rise to shading and shadows that correspond to the ones produced by the sun. In addition, several programs can calculate the position of the sun and hence the viewing point or the light source on the basis of the date, the time and the geographic coordinates of the place. The availability of computer-aided daylighting analysis has obvious advantages for practice. Efficiency and reliability of the analysis increase, while flexibility is superior to analog simulations. Unfortunately automation of daylighting analysis may also impede understanding of underlying principles, that is, of the issues at the focus of architectural education. Explaining how the analysis is performed and why becomes thus a necessity for computer-aided design education. Exercises that aim at more than just learning and using a computer program can enrich the student’s understanding of the analysis and its results. The efficiency and flexibility of the computer facilitate the study of aspects such as the comparison of local apparent time, local mean time, standard time and daylight saving time and their significance for daylighting, solar heating and cooling patterns and possibilities. Sundials with their explicit correspondence to solar movement can be instrumental in this respect. The efficiency and flexibility of the computer also support the investigation of the techniques by which the daylighting analysis is performed and explain the relationships between projective theory, sciagraphy and computer graphics. A better understanding of the principles and techniques for daylighting analysis has a generally positive influence on the students’ learning of the daylighting analysis software and more significantly on their correlation of daylighting constraints with their designs. This leads in turn to increased flexibility and adaptability of the designs with respect to daylighting and to a conscious and meaningful exploration of variations and alternative solutions.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 5509
authors Koutamanis, Alexandros
year 1990
title Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans
source Delft University of Technology
summary The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of architectural plans. This investigation can be summarized as an introduction of computer vision to the computerization of architectural representations: chap represents an attempt to automate recognition of the most essential among conventional architectural drawings, floor plans. The system accepts as input digitized images of architectural plans and recognizes their spatial primitives (locations) and their spatial articulation on a variety of abstraction levels. The final output of chap is a description of the plan in terms of the grouping formations detected in its spatial articulation. The overall structure of the description is based on an analysis of its conformity to the formal rules of its “stylistic” context (which in the initial version of chap is classical architecture). Chapter 1 suggests that the poor performance of computerized architectural drawing and design systems is among others evidence of the necessity to computerize visual / spatial architectural representations. A recognition system such as chap offers comprehensive means for the investigation of a methodology for the development and use of such representations. Chapter 2 describes a fundamental task of chap: recognition of the position and shape of locations, the atomic parts of the description of an architectural plan in chap. This operation represents the final and most significant part of the first stage in processing an image input in machine environment. Chapter 3 moves to the next significant problem, recognition of the spatial arrangement of locations in an architectural plan, that is, recognition of grouping relationships that determine the subdivision of a plan into parts. In the absence of systematic and exhaustive typologic studies of classical architecture that would allow us to define a repertory of the location group types possible in classical architectural plans, Chapter 3 follows a bottom-up approach based on grouping relationships derived from elementary architectural knowledge and formalized with assistance from Gestalt theory and its antecedents. The grouping process described in Chapter 3 corresponds both in purpose and in structure to the derivation of a description of an image in computer vision [Marr 1982]. Chapter 4 investigates the well-formedness of the description of a classical architectural plan in an analytical manner: each relevant level (or sublevel) of the classical canon according to Tzonis & Lefaivre [1986] is transformed into a single group of criteria of well-formedness which is investigated independently. The hierarchical structure of the classical canon determines the coordination of these criteria into a sequence of cognitive filters which progressively analyses the correspondence of the descriptions derived as in Chapter 3 to the constraints of the canon. The methodology and techniques presented in the dissertation are primarily considered with respect to chap, a specific recognition system. The resulting specification of chap gives a measure of the use of such a system within the context of a computerized collection of architectural precedents and also presents several extensions to other areas of architecture. Although these extensions are not considered as verifiable claims, Chapter 5 describes some of their implications, including on the role of architectural drawing in computerized design systems, on architectural typologies, and on the nature and structure of generative systems in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 4604
authors Laveau, S. and Faugeras, O.
year 1994
title 3D Scene Representation as a Collection of Images and Fundamental Matrices
source INRIA Report
summary The problem we solve in this paper is the following. Suppose we are given N views of a static scene obtained from different viewpoints, perhaps with different cameras. These viewpoints we call reference viewpoints since they are all we know of the scene. We would like to decide if it is possible to predict ano- ther view of the scene taken by a camera from a viewpoint which is arbitrary and a priori di erent from all the reference viewpoints. One method for doing this would be to use these viewpoints to construct a three-dimensional repre- sentation of the scene and reproject this representation on the retinal plane of the virtual camera. In order to achieve this goal, we would have to establish some sort of calibration of our system of cameras, fuse the three-dimensional representations obtained from, say, pairs of cameras thereby obtaining a set of 3-D points, the scene. We would then have to approximate this set of points by surfaces, a segmentation problem which is still mostly unsolved, and then intersect the optical rays from the virtual camera with these sur- faces. This is the most straightforward way of going from a set of images to a new image using the current computer vision paradigm of rst building a three-dimensional representation of the environment from which the rest is derived. We do not claim that there does not exist any simpler way of using the three-dimensional representation than the one we just sketched, but this is just simply not our point. Our point is that it is possible to avoid entirely the explicit three-dimensional reconstruction process: the scene is represented by its images and by some ba- sically linear relations that govern the way points can be put in correspondence between views when they are the images of the same scene-point. These images and their algebraic relations are all we need for predicting a new image. This approach is similar in spirit to the one that has been used in trinocular stereo. Hypotheses of correspondences between two of the images are used to predict features in the third. These predictions can then be checked to validate or inva- lidate the initial correspondence. This approach has proved to be quite e cient and accurate. Related to these ideas are those develo- ped in the photogrammetric community under the name of transfer methods which nd for one or more image points in a given image set, the corresponding points in some new image set.
series report
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id a582
authors Marshall, Tony B.
year 1992
title The Computer as a Graphic Medium in Conceptual Design
source Mission - Method - Madness [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-01-2] 1992, pp. 39-47
summary The success CAD has experienced in the architectural profession demonstrates that architects have been willing to replace traditional drafting media with computers and electronic plotters for the production of working drawings. Its expanded use in the design development phase for 3D modeling and rendering further justifies CAD's usefulness as a presentation medium. The schematic design phase however, has hardly been influenced by the evolution of CAD. Most architects simply have not come to view the computer as a viable design medium. One reason for this might be the strong correspondence between architectural CAD and plan view graphics, as used in working drawings, compared to the weak correspondence between architectural CAD and plan view graphics, as used in schematic design. The role of the actual graphic medium during schematic design should not be overlooked in the development of CAD applications.

In order to produce practical CAD applications for schematic design we must explore the computer’s potential as a form of expression and its role as a graphic medium. An examination of the use of traditional graphic media during schematic design will provide some clues regarding what capabilities CAD must provide and how a system should operate in order to be useful during conceptual design.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/03/29 13:56

_id e0ee
authors Martens, Bob
year 1992
title Tools for Visual Simulation of Space and their Use by Students
source Architecture & Behaviour vol. 8, no. 3:175-187
summary Most visual representations of architectural space are still done using drawings of ground plan, section and view. Yet, when experience is lacking - as with students or laypeople these two-dimensional representations hardly show their correspondence to a three-dimensional reality. This article examines the various visual techniques for spatial simulation available today and their implementation by students involved with architectural projects.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

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