CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ac12
id ac12
authors Akin, Ö.; R. Krishnamurti, K.P. Lam (eds)
year 2005
title Generative CAD Systems
source Singapore: Carnegie Mellon University, 2005
summary In the new millennium, Computer Aided Design has emerged as the most potent technological innovation in design. As BIM promises to integrate design tasks vertically and horizontally through graceful data exchange, new frontiers appear to researchers and practitioners as potential watershed events of the next decade. Generative approaches, a venerable engagement of computational design, is emerging as one of these. The proceedings of the Generative CAD Symposium held at Carnegie Mellon University, both summarizes the three decades of work in this area and reveals the beginnings of research and application expected in this domain. After all, will designers be able to effortlessly and intelligently generate potential design solutions that respond to appropriate design requirements and designers’ intentions?

series book
type normal paper
last changed 2008/09/04 05:18

_id 2005_331
id 2005_331
authors Al-Douri, Firas A., Clayton, Mark J. and Abrams, Robin F.
year 2005
title The Impact of 3D Digital Modeling on the 3D Design Aspects in Urban Design Plans
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 331-340
summary Some experts suggest that urban design plans in US cities may lack adequate coverage of the three-dimensional design aspects of the built environment. 3D digital models may help designers visualize and interact with design alternatives, large urban data sets, and 3D information more effectively, thus correcting this problem. Case studies of recent urban design plans that have used 3D digital models may indicate whether these technologies can increase the quality of the plan. This research discusses the role 3D urban models can play in supporting designers in addressing the 3D design aspects. A literature review focused on reviewing secondary sources to construct or adopt theoretical propositions against which the empirical data can be compared and contrasted. A case study involved investigating the methods with which 3D models have been used in developing a selected urban design plan. The content analysis of the case study refuted the premise that the plan would inadequately address 3D aspects and utilize 3D information, and indicated an effective usage of 3D modeling to analyze and represent most of the 3D and 2D information elements and issues. The results are consistent with a hypothesis that the effective usage of 3D modeling would result in the effective coverage of 3D information and issues. The effective usage of the model’s functionalities has improved the quality of the decision-making process through improving designers’ cognitive capabilities and providing a platform for communicating design ideas among and across design teams.
keywords 3D Modeling; Urban Design Plans; Digital Models; 3D Design Aspects
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id ecaade2009_170
id ecaade2009_170
authors Alaçam Aslan, Sema; Çagdas, Gülen
year 2009
title Comparison of Designers’ Modeling Approaches During Architectural Design Process
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 753-758
summary This study has been started as a part of a research, related to exploring impact of novel interfaces during collaborative architectural design process on designers’ way of thinking. However, in this paper it is intended to focus on how the input devices reflect on designers’ modeling behavior in computer environment. Therefore it is intended to compare designer’s modeling approaches in computer environment via a case study. Four master students in architectural design computing graduate program have attended to the case study. The findings of the case study is presented and evaluated in the discussion section.
wos WOS:000334282200091
keywords Architectural modeling, design interface, interactive techniques, human-computer interaction
series eCAADe
type normal paper
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2012_193
id ecaade2012_193
authors Barczik, Günter
year 2012
title Leaving Flatland behind: Algebraic surfaces and the chimaera of pure horizontality in Architecture
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-2-0, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 433-441
summary We argue that the prevalence of continuous flat floor surfaces in architecture is comprehensible but fallacious, and that this chimaera can be overcome through studying and employing the sculptural potential of algebraic surfaces which suggest spatial possibilities that enrich designers’ vocabulary enormously. We continue, deepen and extend research the basics and early results of which were presented at the last two eCAADe conferences in Istanbul and Zürich. We present and discuss a university-based experimental design and research project that demonstrates how Algebraic Surfaces can drastically amplify the so far only tentative exploration of the possibilities of non-fl at fl oor surfaces in Architecture.
wos WOS:000330322400044
keywords Algebraic Geometry; Shape; Sculpture; Design; Tool; Experiment; Methodology; Software
series eCAADe
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id 81ba
authors Bilda, Zafer
year 2001
title Designers‚ Cognition in Traditional versus Digital Media during Conceptual Design
source Bilkent University Ankara Turkey
summary Designers depend on representations to externalize their design thoughts. External representations are usually in the form of sketches (referred to as traditional media) in architectural design during the conceptual design. There are also attempts to integrate the use of digital representations into the conceptual design in order to construct a digital design medium. This thesis aims at gaining an insight on designers’ cognitive processes while sketching in digital versus traditional media. The analysis of cognitive processes of designers based on their protocols is necessary to reveal their design behavior in both media. An experiment was designed employing six interior architects (at Bilkent University) solving an interior space planning problem by changing the design media they work with. In order to encode the design behavior, a coding scheme was utilized so that inspecting both the design activity and the responses to media transition was possible in terms of primitive cognitive actions of designers. The analyses of the coding scheme constituents, which are namely segmentation and cognitive action categories enabled a comparative study demonstrating the effect of the use of different media in conceptual design phase. The results depicted that traditional media had advantages over the digital media such as supporting perception of visual-spatial features, and organizational relations of the design, production of alternative solutions and better conception of the design problem. These results also emerged implications for the computer aid in architectural design to support the conceptual phase of the design process. 
keywords Design Cognition; Protocol Analysis; Sketching; Digital Media
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/05/01 18:14

_id acadia12_479
id acadia12_479
authors Castorina, Giulio
year 2012
title Performative Topologies: An Evolutionary Shape Optimization Framework for Daylighting Performance Coupling a Particle-Spring System With an Energy Simulation Tool
source ACADIA 12: Synthetic Digital Ecologies [Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-62407-267-3] San Francisco 18-21 October, 2012), pp. 479-490
summary This paper develops a methodological approach for use in design practice which combines an external simulation tool (EnergyPlus™) with an evo-lutionary optimisation strategy for the form-finding of complex fenestra-tion systems. On one hand, based on previous research, it presents a novel approach for the shape morphogenesis that exploits a generative algorithm technique to control a limited set of parameters whilst on the other hand it facilitates the integration of a simulation tool capable of handling increasing levels of complexity with greater data interoperabil-ity. In doing so it will argue the heuristic potential of the proposed meth-od in aiding the designers’ decision making whilst increasing the formal possibilities of their final design solutions.
keywords Performance-based design , Genetic Algorithm (GA) , daylighting simulation , shape optimisation , decision support system (DSS)
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2013/01/09 10:06

_id caadria2009_112
id caadria2009_112
authors Chen, Pei-Lin; Jen Yen
year 2009
title A Color Combination Knowledge-Based System for Designer
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 737-745
summary The purpose of this paper is to investigate colour combination tools of visual communication designers’ need. Participants were twentythree students of Visual Communication Design Graduate School to follow the questionnaire survey and seven students of Design Doctoral Program Graduate School to follow the interview survey. The findings display that visual communication designers seldom use web-based colour combination systems. Based on the findings, we developed a colour combination support system: the adobe illustrator plug-in to proof this hypothesis. The databases of the tool use the book of “colour combination charts”, and the tool of this paper provides a personal database.
keywords Colour; colour image; colour set; colour combination
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ga0237
id ga0237
authors Ciao, Quinsan
year 2002
title Generative Design: Rule-Based Reasoning in Design Process
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary As emphasized by Professor Soddu’s series of pioneer works on generative design, the fundamental theoretical base can be generallyconsidered as a design process that generates design by the initiation, developing and manipulation with designers’ objectives as well as theirassociated set of rules. This process is, in a broad sense, a reasoning process that follows the rules being set forth. In many cases, the rules arecommon logic that governs our reasoning, while in others they are more special rules that restrict the generating process to a confined space.Computer assisted generative design has made impressive progress over the past decade, along with the rapid growing capacity and speed ofcomputers as well as development and discovery of rules, rule setting and effective manipulating schemes and algorithms. After manyimpressive progress and remarkable results has demonstrated from time to time, however, theoretical foundation of such design approach, orthe significance of awareness of such approach has not been thoroughly treated, recognized and discussed, not to mention clearly understood.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ecaade2012_273
id ecaade2012_273
authors Correia, Rodrigo ; Duarte, José ; Leitao, António
year 2012
title GRAMATICA: A general 3D shape grammar interpreter targeting the mass customization of housing
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-2-0, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 489-496
summary This paper presents a general 3D shape grammar interpreter named GRAMATICA and illustrates its use for the implementation of several shape grammars, including the one used in the design module of a specifi c shape grammar for mass-customized housing, called DESIGNA. The underlying shape representation, generation and control are discussed. The resulting shape grammar interpreter tries to support designers’ ways of thinking and working by acting as a bridge between shape grammars, the formalism that captures a design process, and a CAD application, for post-processing the computed design. This bridge is implemented by Rosetta, which ensures portability among different CAD applications.
wos WOS:000330322400050
keywords Grammar interpreters; mass customization; housing; Malagueira; Siza
series eCAADe
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id acadia11_216
id acadia11_216
authors Dorta, Tomás; Kalay, Yehuda; Lesage, Annemarie; Pérez, Edgar
year 2011
title Comparing Immersion in Collaborative Ideation through Design Conversations, Workload and Experience
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 216-225
summary This paper presents a case study comparing the HIS (Hybrid Ideation Space), a system allowing designers to be physically immersed in their sketches and physical models, and Vyew™, a whiteboard software, in local and remote design collaboration; aiming to see if immersion benefits collaborative ideation. Three methodological tools were used: Design Conversations (Collaborative Ideation Loop “CI-Loop”, Collaborative Conversations “CC” and Collaborative Moving “CM”), Workload using NASA TLX and Design Flow for the designers’ experience. Local collaboration results appear to have benefited from immersion while remote results were mitigated by participant issues. However, looking deeper into users’ experience explains the impact of immersion.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id ecaade2008_086
id ecaade2008_086
authors Elsen, Catherine; Juchmes, Roland; Kubicki, Sylvain; Leclercq, Pierre
year 2008
title DCDS – Distant Collaborative Design Studio
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 325-332
summary This paper introduces new supporting tools in the field of distant collaborative design, namely DCDS and CRTI-weB. These prototypes respectively support: the early stages of design, through the support of the crucial initial step of free-hand sketches shared in real-time, and the asynchronous collaborative activities. The main goal of this paper is to propose the use of these innovative tools as an efficient and realistic way of managing long distance collaboration, to effectively serve the designers’ needs. This proposition is analyzed and addressed through a real-size experiment featuring 30 architecture and architectural-engineering students, working together in real-time at different locations (Belgium and France). This experiment and the necessary survey open up interesting fields of investigation, such as the relevance of the proposed services in supporting distant collaborative design in architecture and the benefit this represents for students to merge the IT aspects and the design studio. The methodology and the replicability are analyzed to increase the level and quality of formation of our students and, finally, a criticism of the tools confirms a benefit for the developing teams.
keywords Distant collaborative design, sketch support systems, asynchronous collaborative activities
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id caadria2016_861
id caadria2016_861
authors Gero, John S.; Jennifer Shields and Rongrong Yu
year 2016
title How veridical are different modalities of digital representation? - The effect of presentation modality on physiological response
source Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing, Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2016) / Melbourne 30 March–2 April 2016, pp. 861-870
summary This paper presents the methodology and results of a pilot study comparing the eye movements of architecture students when looking at different modalities of digital spatial representation. The two participant groups consisted of third and fourth year undergradu- ate architecture students from the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA and from Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China. The two modalities studied were a computer-generated line drawn perspective and a digitized photograph of the same architectur- al space. The results of this study show that student designers’ physio- logical response varies with different representation modalities.
keywords Eye movement: spatial representation; modalities of spatial representation; designers’ physiological response
series CAADRIA
last changed 2016/03/11 09:21

_id f8b3
authors Gross, M.D., Do, E.Y.-L. and Johnson, B.R.
year 2001
title The Design Amanuensis. An Instrument for Multimodal Design Capture and Playback
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 1-13
summary The Design Amanuensis supports design protocol analysis by capturing designers’ spoken and drawing actions and converting speech to text to construct a machine-readable multimedia document that can be replayed and searched for words spoken during the design session or for graphical configurations.
keywords Protocol Analysis, Recording, Design Process Research
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id b81b
authors Gross, Mark D.
year 2001
title Emergence in a Recognition Based Drawing Interface
source J. S. Gero, B. Tversky and T. Purcell (eds), 2001, Visual and Spatial Reasoning in Design, II - Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, University of Sydney, Australia
summary People perceive patterns in representations, patterns that may nothave been initially intended. This phenomenon of emergence is deemed toplay an important role in design. Computer based design assistants canand should support this human perceptual ability, using patternrecognition to anticipate human designers’ perception of emergent shapesand supporting the subsequent manipulation of and reasoning with theseshapes as part of the design. Freehand drawing programs with gesturerecognition are well positioned to implement shape emergence. Supportfor emergent shapes in the Back of an Envelope system is described.
series other
last changed 2003/05/02 09:13

_id ecaade2009_005
id ecaade2009_005
authors Gül, Leman Figen
year 2009
title Studying the Impact of Immersion on Design Cognition
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 615-622
summary With the recent developments in information and communication technologies, designers have adapted digital tools and new ways of designing into their practice. In order to develop efficient systems for designing, the adaptation of new tools and techniques in design practice requires a better understanding of how designers employ the digital medium and what impact the digital medium have on designers’ cognition. The latter one is the subject of this paper. The paper presents the methodology and the initial results of a pilot to investigate the impact of immersion on design cognition. The initial result of the pilot study indicates that the designers were able to adapt to each design environment which affords different kinds of activities and requires different cognitive load.
wos WOS:000334282200074
keywords Design cognition, digital design environments, virtual worlds, protocol analysis, immersion
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id cf2017_597
id cf2017_597
authors Gül, Leman Figen; Uzun, Can; Halici, Süheyla Müge
year 2017
title Studying Co-design: How Place and Representation Would Change the Codesign Behavior?
source Gülen Çagdas, Mine Özkar, Leman F. Gül and Ethem Gürer (Eds.) Future Trajectories of Computation in Design [17th International Conference, CAAD Futures 2017, Proceedings / ISBN 978-975-561-482-3] Istanbul, Turkey, July 12-14, 2017, p. 597.
summary This paper reports the results of a protocol study which explores behavior of designers while they design in pairs using sketching (analogue and remote) and 3D modeling tools (co-located and remote) in co-located and remote locations. The design protocol videos were collected, transcribed, segmented and coded with the customized coding scheme. The coded protocol data was examined to understand the changes of designers’ co-design process and their activities of making representation in four different settings. This paper discusses the impact of location and types of representation on collaborative design. The paper concludes that designers were able to adapt their collaboration and design strategies in accordance with the affordability of the used digital environments.
keywords Collaborative design, Remote sketching, Augmented reality, Virtual worlds, Protocol analysis
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2017/12/01 13:38

_id e8e0
authors Huang, Y.H.
year 2002
title What Designers See from a Case? A Cognitive Approach
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 167-174
summary In the behavior of human cognition, Schank, a cognitive researcher, claims that human frequently rely on past experience to solve new problems. The information and knowledge of well-trained designers was obtained from fundamental training courses in schools, from everyday experience, and importantly from several design cases. Acquiring knowledge by seeing cases is the most important activity in the design process. But, there are no related works from cognitive view to discuss what and how designers see from instances. Thus, this paper attempts to investigate what designers can see as some meaningful elements from instances, what relationships are among elements and knowledge which retrieved from designers’ long-term memory, and how new obtained knowledge influences the design outcomes.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2002/04/25 17:26

_id cf2009_614
id cf2009_614
authors Hung, Pei-Chien
year 2009
title How do media influence one’s thinking? The “habit media” in design thinking
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009, PUM, 2009, pp. 614- 625
summary This paper presents a preliminary observation of the digital media as “habit media” in designing act. The digital media has become a costumed vehicle for designers for a long time. The author investigated the supports of different media for how a specific media conditioned the design thinking and the reasons behind the behaviors of choice-use of designers’ choice. The results showed that designers using “habit media” could do most part of things they wanted to do; when the media are “habit media”, its inherent restrictions do not limit user’s accomplishment. Once a digital medium is habitually practiced, it can support the functions and characteristics that this medium does not ever possess.
keywords Habit media, design thinking, cognitive behavior
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2009/06/08 18:53

_id caadria2010_026
id caadria2010_026
authors Kann, Jeff W. T. and John S. Gero
year 2010
title Studying designers’ behaviour in collaborative virtual workspaces using quantitative methods
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 273-282
summary This paper presents a case study comparing the behaviour of designers in a collaborative 3D virtual environment with those in a face-to-face environment using quantitative tools to examine their design protocols. It starts with depicting a design ontology along with two methods of analysis for this investigation. The results in this case show that the 3D environment increases the designer’s Structure activities. The rate of meaningful design communication is slower than the base-line face-to-face session. This communication reflects the rate of design cognition when the design process is “close coupled”. Reviewing the design protocol suggests that the 3D design session composed of both “loosely coupled” and “close coupled” periods. This is consistent with other studies that 3D collaborative tools may encourage “loosely coupled” design process.
keywords Design behaviour; virtual workspaces; protocol analysis; quantitative methods; design ontology
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id cf2017_509
id cf2017_509
authors Kolariæ, Siniša; Erhan, Halil; Woodbury, Robert
year 2017
title CAMBRIA: Interacting with Multiple CAD Alternatives
source Gülen Çagdas, Mine Özkar, Leman F. Gül and Ethem Gürer (Eds.) Future Trajectories of Computation in Design [17th International Conference, CAAD Futures 2017, Proceedings / ISBN 978-975-561-482-3] Istanbul, Turkey, July 12-14, 2017, p. 509.
summary Computer-aided design (CAD) tools aim to assist designers in their professional work, one key aspect of which is devising, evaluating, and choosing among multiple design alternatives. Yet, with few and limited exceptions, current tools handle just a single design model at a time, forcing users to adopt various ad hoc tactics for handling multiple design alternatives. Despite considerable prior work, there are no general, effective strategies for supporting design alternatives. New tools are needed to develop such strategies: to learn how designers’ behavior changes with support for multiple alternatives. In this article, we describe CAMBRIA, a multi-state prototype tool we developed for working with multiple 2D parametric CAD models in parallel. We describe the outcomes of an analytical evaluation of CAMBRIA using the Cognitive Dimensions framework.
keywords Computer-aided design, CAD, Parametric CAD, Interaction design
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2017/12/01 13:38

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