CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 174f
authors Bakker, N.H.
year 2001
title Spatial Orientation in Virtual Environments
source Delft University of Technology
summary Recently, a growing interest can be detected in the application of Virtual Environment (VE) technology as an operator interface. VEs are three-dimensional computer-generated images that can be shown on a conventional monitor, on a large screen display, or on a head-mounted display. In order to use these three-dimensional interfaces for finding and retrieving information, the user must be able to spatially orient themselves. Different types of VE technology are available for navigating in these VEs, and different types of navigation can be enabled. A choice has to be made between the different options to enable good spatial orientation of the user. There are two main types of VE interfaces: an immersive interface that provides rich sensory feedback to the user when moving around in the VE, and a non-immersive interface that provides only visual feedback to the user when moving around in the VE. Furthermore, navigation through the VE can either be continuous providing fluent motion, or can be discontinuous which means that the viewpoint is displaced instantaneously over a large distance. To provide insight into the possible effects of these options a series of nine experiments was carried out. In the experiments the quality of spatial orientation behaviour of test subjects is measured while using the different types of interface and the different types of navigation. The results of the experiments indicate that immersive navigation improves the perception of displacement through the VE, which in turn aids the acquisition of spatial knowledge. However, as soon as the spatial layout of the VE is learned the two types of navigation interface do not lead to differences in spatial orientation performance. A discontinuous displacement leads to temporary disorientation, which will hinder the acquisition of spatial knowledge. The type of discontinuous displacements has an effect on the time needed for anticipation. The disorienting effects of a discontinuous displacement can be compensated for by enabling cognitive anticipation to the destination of the displacement. These results suggest that immersive navigation might only be beneficial for application domains in which new spatial layouts have to be learned every time or in domains where the primary users are novices. For instance, in training firemen to teach them the layout of new buildings with VE, or in using architectural walkthroughs in VE to show new building designs to potential buyers. Discontinuous movement should not be allowed when exploring a new environment. Once the environment is learned and if fast displacement is essential then discontinuous displacement should be preferred. In this case, the interface designer must make sure that information is provided about the destination of a discontinuous displacement.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0fc8
authors Boutros, N., Sehad, T. and Constans, A.
year 1998
title Aujourd'hui, entre l'agence et l'école, quelle utilisation des nouvelles technologies de l'information - Histoire d'une méthode
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 9-15
summary Nous proposons notre future méthodologie pédagogique de l'informatique fondée sur l'expérimentation d'un séminaire de 3ème cycle, aboutissement d'un enseignement qui commence dès la première année d'étude. Cette excursion comme dans un circuit organisé vous emmènera d'une agence d'architectes, aux cours d'informatique graphique de l'école d'architecture. Il y aura ensuite une pause « recherche » sur la méthodologie d'enseignement en exploitant de nombreux outils des nouvelles technologies de l'information - des expérimentations diverses ont eu lieu avec des équipes de recherche de la faculté polytechnique de Turin (Italie) et du centre d'études archéologiques d'Alexandrie (Egypte) - pour enfin arriver à notre destination, l'accès à l'information pour développer un projet architectural, une méthode pour une nouvelle génération.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id caadria2017_070
id caadria2017_070
authors Chen, Nai Chun, Xie, Jenny, Tinn, Phil, Alonso, Luis, Nagakura, Takehiko and Larson, Kent
year 2017
title Data Mining Tourism Patterns - Call Detail Records as Complementary Tools for Urban Decision Making
source P. Janssen, P. Loh, A. Raonic, M. A. Schnabel (eds.), Protocols, Flows, and Glitches - Proceedings of the 22nd CAADRIA Conference, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China, 5-8 April 2017, pp. 685-694
summary In this study we show how Call Detail Record (CDR) can be used to better understand the travel patterns of visitors. We show how Origin-Destination (OD) Interactive Maps can provide transportation information through CDR. We then use aggregation of CDR to show the differences between the travel patterns of visitors from different countries and of different lengths of stay. We also show that visitors move differently during event periods and non-event periods, reflecting the importance of real-time data available by CDR. From CDR, we can gain more detailed and complete information about how tourists move compared to traditional surveys, which can be used to aid smarter transportation systems and urban resource planning.
keywords Machine Learning; Call Detail Record; Original-Destination Matrix; Urban Design Tool
series CAADRIA
last changed 2017/05/09 08:05

_id ddss2004_d-127
id ddss2004_d-127
authors Dijkstra, J., H.J.P. Timmermans, and B. de Vries
year 2004
title Data Requirements for the Amanda Model System
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-1554, p. 127-139
summary The Amanda model system uses a multi-agent approach in an attempt to simulate pedestrian dynamic destination and route choice. Data collecting efforts are needed to calibrate the model. This paper discusses these data requirements.
keywords Multi-Agent Systems, Activity Modelling, Pedestrian Behaviour
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id e9b1
authors Heylighen, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2001
title Destination: Practice – Towards a maintenance contract for the architect’s degree
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 090-099
summary Addressing the subject of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) in architectural design, we present a Web-based design assistant for student- and professional architects called DYNAMO. Its main objective is to initiate and nurture the life-long process of learning from (design) experience as suggested by CBR’s cognitive model. Rather than adopting this model as such, DYNAMO extrapolates it beyond the individual by stimulating and intensifying several modes of interaction. One mode – the focus of this paper – concerns the interaction between the realm of design education and the world of practice. DYNAMO offers a platform for exchanging design efforts and insights, in the form of cases, between both parties, which perfectly chimes with the current tendency towards life-long learning and continuing education. Just like our university advises graduates to ‘Take a maintenance contract with your degree’, architecture schools may encourage recently qualified architects to subscribe to DYNAMO. To what extent the tool can fulfill this role of maintenance contract is discussed at the end of the paper, which reports on how DYNAMO was used and appreciated by professional architects at different levels of expertise.
keywords Case-Based Reasoning, Web-Based Learning, Digital Repositories
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id ddssup0210
id ddssup0210
authors Krempi, A.P., Brondino, N.C.M. and Silva, A.N.R.
year 2002
title Evaluating Transportation Accessibility with Spatial Statistics Toolsin a GIS Environment
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary In several developing countries it is often assumed that low-income segments of the population living at the periphery of the cities are those affected the most by poor conditions of transportation accessibility. Inorder to gain a better understanding of the way transportation accessibility is distributed across different regions of an urban area, the main aim of this work is to analyze, making use of Spatial Statistics tools ina GIS (Geographical Information System) environment, the relationship between accessibility and geographical locations in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Data of an origin-destination (O-D) survey carried out in the city of Bauru, which brings information about four different transportation modes, were used in this study. Such data, grouped following the census tracts, were carefully examined in a Geographic Information System in order to look for spatial patterns of accessibility that are not visible inthe traditional approaches. One of the interesting outcomes of the application was the identification of regions with particular dynamics, which go against the pattern found in the overall urban area. This andother results of the case study clearly indicate that Spatial Statistics analyses in a GIS environment create a powerful tool to extend conventional transportation accessibility analysis.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 61a0
authors Lee, Philip, Wei, Susanna and Zhao, Jianmin (et al)
year 1990
title Strength Guided Motion
source Computer Graphics. ACM, August, 1990. vol. 24: pp. 253-262 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A methodology and algorithm are presented that generate motion imitating the way humans complete a lifting task under various loading conditions. The path taken depends on 'natural' parameters: the figure geometry, the given load, the final destination, and especially, the strength model of the agent. Additional user controllable parameters of the motion are the comfort of the action and the perceived exertion of the agent. The algorithm uses this information to incrementally compute a motion path of the end-effector moving the load. It is therefore instantaneously adaptable to changing force, loading, and strength conditions. Various strategies are used to model human behavior that compute the driving torques as the situation changes. The algorithm runs in near-real time and offers an agent-dependent toolkit for fast path prediction. Example are presented for various tasks
keywords algorithms, animation, computer graphics, modeling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ecaade2015_64
id ecaade2015_64
authors Nourian, Pirouz; Rezvani, Samaneh, Sariyildiz, Sevil and Hoeven, Franklinvander
year 2015
title CONFIGURBANIST - Urban Configuration Analysis for Walking and Cycling via Easiest Paths
source Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds.), Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16-18 September 2015, pp. 553-564
summary In a quest for promoting sustainable modes of mobility, we have revisited how feasible and suitable is it for people to walk or cycle to their destinations in a neighbourhood. We propose a few accessibility measures based on an 'Easiest Path' algorithm that provides also actual temporal distance between locations. This algorithm finds paths that are as short, flat and straightforward as possible. Considering several 'points of interest', the methods can answer such questions as “do I have a 5 minutes 'easy' walking/cycling access to all/any of these points?” or, “which is the preferred point of interest with 'easy' walking cycling access?” We redefine catchment zones using Fuzzy logics and allow for mapping 'closeness' considering preferences such as 'how far' people are willing to go on foot/bike for reaching a particular destination. The accessibility measures are implemented in the toolkit CONFIGURBANIST to provide real-time analysis of urban networks for design and planning.
wos WOS:000372317300060
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id eaea2009_ohno_wada
id eaea2009_ohno_wada
authors Ohno, Ryuzo; Yohei Wada
year 2011
title Visibility of Guide Signs for Pedestrians in Motion: An Application of an Immersive Visual Simulation System
source Projecting Spaces [Proceedings of the 9th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 978-3-942411-31-8 ], pp. 107-114
summary When we visit a complex railway station or a large shopping mall, we rely on guide signs to find our destination. These are not always helpful, however, since the sheer number of signs around us may distract us from picking up the necessary information. The presence of other pedestrians also adds to the difficulty by blocking our view. In crowded situations where we cannot disturb pedestrian flow, we must moreover be able to read signs while walking and paying attention to the people ahead. With the above in mind, the present study uses an immersive visual simulation system to examine the influence of observation conditions on sign detection and recognition by pedestrians in motion. Two experiments were performed for the present study. The first examined the readable range (readability threshold) of three types of sign lettering in motion. This served to determine conditions for the second experiment as well as to test the performance of the immersive visual simulation system. The system displays wide-angle images (180 degrees both vertically and horizontally) capable of filling viewers’ peripheral vision; viewers may also gain stereoscopic vision through the use of polarizing glasses. The second experiment examined the influence of various observation conditions on sign detection and recognition while in motion. The virtual experimental space, made to resemble a concourse in a large railway station, was 15 m wide and 3.5 m high. The subjects, nine university students, were asked to detect the target that was assigned one of the eight figures while moving through the virtual space at a walking speed (1.5m/s) and to tap a keyboard at hand when the target was detected. At the moment of the subject’s response, the distance between the observation point and the target in the virtual space was recorded. The factors tested were sign layout (density, aggregation, alignment) and presence of other pedestrians. The degree of influence of a factor was determined by analyzing the detection distance for a comparison stimulus versus for a standard stimulus as well as the ratio of targets detected. The experiments revealed that the readability of figures viewed in motion may differ from when they are viewed under static conditions. The following factors were found to be relevant to sign detection and recognition while in motion: 1) density of signs (amount of visual information), 2) smoothness of eye movement from one sign to another, and 3) allocation of visual attention. Although the results were obtained in virtual experimental settings, and the absolute numerical values therefore have limited meaning, the results nonetheless empirically clarify some of the mechanisms involved in the detection and recognition of guide signs by pedestrians.
series other
last changed 2011/03/04 07:45

_id caadria2008_47_session5a_383
id caadria2008_47_session5a_383
authors Paulini, Mercedes; Marc Aurel Schnabel
year 2008
title Surfing The City: Towards context-aware mobile exploration
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 383-390
summary This paper describes the rationale for a navigational system that supports context-based exploration of the urban environment. While many navigational tools support wayfinding, they are based on targeted search, requiring the user to have a predetermined destination. Existing applications do not offer navigational mechanisms that base their recommendations on the user’s unique context information. Customised recommendations present the user with relevant routes they may not have discovered on their own. In this paper, a parallel is drawn between wayfinding in the physical world and the virtual, with web surfing acting as a metaphor for a particular style of interaction with the physical environment. Similarly, the framework for this system presents suggested routes to the user according to their unique contextual setting, which is anticipated to allow a more explorative engagement with their physical environment.
keywords Mobile computing; context-awareness; urban interaction
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ecaade2018_246
id ecaade2018_246
authors Qureshi, Cyrus, Schnabel, Marc Aurel and Moleta, Tane
year 2018
title CityAR: Wellington - Exploring Cities through Mixed Realities
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 687-692
summary This paper aims to study the potential impact of Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Realities (VAM) technologies on the built environment and to understand how immersive environments can be used to enhance the human experience within the built environment. In order to investigate and test how these technologies may improve our experience of the city, an augmented reality app is being developed in partnership with Victoria University of Wellington, the Wellington City Council and NEC, New Zealand. The research aims to explore ways in which VAM helps users in exploring cities. The philosophical driver of this project aims to focus on supporting the experience of moving between two points on a map rather than achieving the shortest route to a destination. Once developed, the project proposes the CityAR app which is to be distributed to the general public in order for them to test its functionality and in return, provide user feedback.
keywords Mixed Environments; Augmented Reality; Smart Cities; Cybrids
series eCAADe
last changed 2018/08/22 13:38

_id ddss2008-46
id ddss2008-46
authors Sharma, Shrikant B. and Vincent Tabak
year 2008
title Rapid Agent Based Simulation of People Flow forDesign of SpacesAnalysis, Design and Optimisation
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper presents a novel static-dynamic network based people flow simulation model applied to design optimisation of circulation spaces within buildings and urban areas. In the current state of art the majority of existing people flow simulation models are driven by analysis rather than design. This is fine for simpler, evacuation type scenarios where a single or a few analyses runs are sufficient to determine the evacuation time. For more complex scenarios such as crowd circulation with complex multi-directional flow, one is as interested in the sensitivity of various design and stochastic behavioural parameters, so the rapid modelling simulations together with design capability become important. This paper presents a simplified network based people flow model that enables rapid simulations and therefore iterative design optimization of circulation space. The work integrates the techniques of graph-theory based network analysis with an origin-destination matrix model of crowd flow, to provide a rapid, parametric model. The resulting model can be analysed in a static as well as dynamic state. In the static state, the model analyses space based on connectivity of nodes, superimposed with the origin-destination matrix of population to provide valuable information such as footfalls, density maps, as well as quasi-static parameters such as mean flow rates. In the dynamic state, the model allows time-dependent analysis of flow using a detailed agent based simulation that also incorporates dynamic route-choice modelling, agent behaviours and interaction, and stochastic variations. The paper presents the integrated modelling technique and its implementation into simulation software SMART Move.
keywords People Flow, Pedestrian, Agent Based Simulation, Evacuation, Network, Optimisation
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id caadria2018_188
id caadria2018_188
authors Yu, K. Daniel, Haeusler, M. Hank, Fabbri, Alessandra and Simons, Katrina
year 2018
title BiCycle Pathway Generation Through a Weighted Digital Slime Mold Algorithm via Topographical Analysis
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 2, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 381-390
summary Cities are growing into larger suburbias which increasingly become dependent on cars as the primary mode of transport. Cycling is an alternative transport mode, but topography can often turn daily transport into cardiovascular exercise - not always a desirable outcome. Addressing this, planners can design cycle pathways that coincide with the landscape by planning the shortest path between two points, whilst considering the need to minimise effort (muscle power) to reach the destination. Using a Slime Mold algorithm the paper discusses possibilities of cycle pathway generation which utilises topographic gradients as the initial framework for the growth. The cycle path optimises the amount of effort required to travel between specified points, and adhere to a set of rules predefined by the user (e.g avoid occupied cadastral). A vector analysis determines the gradient sizes that define areas of the topography which are too steep for the algorithm to grow. The algorithm can be observed to generate cycling infrastructure that is both reflective of the environment and the amenities of humans. This investigation, its proposed hypothesis, methodology, implications, significance, and evaluation are presented in the paper.
keywords cycle pathway; slime mold; infrastructure generation; topography analysis; route choice
series CAADRIA
last changed 2018/05/17 07:08

_id 0cfd
authors Zawack, Daniel J. and Thompson, Gerald L.
year 1983
title A Dynamic Space-Time Network Flow Model for City Traffic Congestion
source 43 p. : ill. graphs Pittsburgh, PA: Design Research Center CMU, December, 1983. DRC-70-18-83. includes bibliography
summary A space-time network is used to model traffic flows over time for a capacitated road transportation system having one-way and two-way streets. Also traffic signal lights, which change the network structure, are explicitly incorporated into the model. A linear (time) cost per unit flow is associated with each arc, and it is shown that under the model structure, travel time on a street is piecewise linear convex function of the number of units travelling on that street. Hence congestion effects are explicitly considered while maintaining the linear nature of the model. Two efficient solutions methods are proposed. A network flow solution for multiple source single destination network and a shortest path solution for a single source single destination network
keywords dynamic programming, simulation, planning, graphs, networks, transportation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

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