CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 166

_id caadria2017_131
id caadria2017_131
authors Abe, U-ichi, Hotta, Kensuke, Hotta, Akito, Takami, Yosuke, Ikeda, Hikaru and Ikeda, Yasushi
year 2017
title Digital Construction - Demonstration of Interactive Assembly Using Smart Discrete Papers with RFID and AR codes
source P. Janssen, P. Loh, A. Raonic, M. A. Schnabel (eds.), Protocols, Flows, and Glitches - Proceedings of the 22nd CAADRIA Conference, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China, 5-8 April 2017, pp. 75-84
summary This paper proposes and examines a new way of cooperation between human workers and machine intelligence in architectural scale construction. For the transfer of construction information between the physical and digital world, mature technologies such as Radio Frequency IDentifier (RFID), and emerging technologies like Augmented Reality (AR) are used in parallel to supplement each other. Dynamic data flow is implemented to synchronize digital and physical models by following the ID signatures of individual building parts. The contributions of this paper includes the demonstration of current technological limitations, and the proposal of a hybrid system between human and computer, which is tested in order to explore the possibilities of digitally enhanced construction methods.
keywords Digital Construction; Augmented Reality; Human-Machine interaction
series CAADRIA
last changed 2017/05/09 08:05

_id acadia13_161
id acadia13_161
authors Akbarzadeh; Masoud
year 2013
title Performative Surfaces: Generating complex geometries using planar flow patterns
source ACADIA 13: Adaptive Architecture [Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-926724-22-5] Cambridge 24-26 October, 2013), pp. 161-172
summary This research explains the development process of a design tool that can construct complex surface geometries using only two-dimensional plan drawings. The intention behind this tool is to address certain complex behavior of surface geometries such as hydrological characteristics. This paper briefly explains the historic and mathematic description of surface data structures, according to Cayley, Maxwell and Morse. This is followed by a brief introduction of the surface network/critical graph extraction technique in GIS. Additionally, the algorithm of contour extraction from asimple critical graph to reconstruct a surface is explained. In the final section the lessons learnedfrom the previous sections are used to develop algorithms for a tool which uses only plan drawings to construct complex surfaces. Three algorithms are explained in the final section among which the third one is considered to be the most complete and promising approach. Therefore,some design examples are presented to show the flexibility of the tool. At the end, this paper provides suggestions and discussions to reflect further ideas in order to improve the tool in future.
keywords Tools and Interfaces, complex surface, drainage patterns, discrete flow diagram, surface networks, critical graph, and surface generation
series ACADIA
type Normal Paper
last changed 2014/01/11 08:13

_id avocaad_2003_05
id avocaad_2003_05
authors Alexander Koutamanis
year 2003
title Autonomous mechanisms in architectural design systems
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary The development of architectural design systems that describe fully the form, structure and behaviour of a design relies heavily on the incorporation of intelligence in the representations, analyses, transformations and transactions used by the computer. Traditionally such intelligence takes either of two forms. The first is a methodical framework that guides actions supported by the design system (usually in a top-down fashion). The second is local, intelligence mechanisms that resolve discrete, relatively well-defined subproblems (often with limited if any user intervention). Local intelligent mechanisms offer the means for adaptability and transformability in architectural design systems, including the localization of global tendencies. This refers both to the digital design technologies and to the historical, cultural and contextual modifications of design styles and approaches.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id ddss9403
id ddss9403
authors Arentze, T., Borgers, A., Dellaert, B. and Timmermans, H.
year 1994
title A Multi-Purpose Multi-Stop Model Describing Consumers' Choices of Shopping Centres
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Recently, a number of interesting extensions to traditional decompositional and discrete choice models has been introduced that allow one to combine parameters estimated in different phases ofcomplex choice processes. These extensions offer new possibilities to model combinations of choices consumers make if they select shopping centres to visit. This paper will introduce a modelling approach that describes consumer choices of shopping centres involving multiple shopping functions (multi purpose) as well as locations (multi stop). The approach extends traditional decompositional models of single choices to a model of combinations of choices. It uses a recursive scaling procedure that combines attributes related to different shopping functions and to shopping centres at different locations. The model will be tested on data collected on shopping behaviour in Maastricht, the Netherlands.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ecaade2013_081
id ecaade2013_081
authors Baharlou, Ehsan and Menges, Achim
year 2013
title Generative Agent-Based Design Computation
source Stouffs, Rudi and Sariyildiz, Sevil (eds.), Computation and Performance – Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference – Volume 2, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 18-20 September 2013, pp. 165-174
wos WOS:000340643600016
summary Agent-based systems have been widely investigated in simulation and modeling. In this paper, it is proposed that agent-based systems can also be developed as generative systems, in which different aspects of performative design can be defined as separate drivers in a proper computational framework. In this manner constrained generating procedures (CGP’s) are studied to integrate the discrete design processes into one system. Subsequently, this generative agent-based design tool is accompanied with generating and constraining mechanism which are informed by material characteristics and fabrication constraints, bringing to the forefront emergent complexity.
keywords Computational design; agent-based system; robotic fabrication; constrained generating procedures (CGP’s).
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2020_076
id ecaade2020_076
authors Bai, Nan, Azadi, Shervin, Nourian, Pirouz and Pereira Roders, Ana
year 2020
title Decision-Making as a Social Choice Game - Gamifying an urban redevelopment process in search for consensus
source Werner, L and Koering, D (eds.), Anthropologic: Architecture and Fabrication in the cognitive age - Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 555-564
summary The paper reports the formulation, the design, and the results of a serious game developed for structuring negotiations concerning the redevelopment of a university campus with various stakeholders. The main aim of this research was to formulate the redevelopment planning problem as an abstract and discrete decision-making problem involving multiple actions, multiple actors with preconceived gains and losses with respect to the comprising actions, and decisions as combinations of actions. Using fictitious and yet realistic scenarios and stakeholders as simulation, the results evidence how different levels of democratic participation and different modes of moderation can affect reaching a consensus and present in a mathematical characterisation of a consensus as a state of equilibrium. The small set of actions and actors enabled a chance to compute a theoretically optimal state of consensus, where the efficiency and the effectiveness of different modes of moderation and participatory rights could be observed and analysed.
keywords Serious Game; Consensus Building; Democratization; Game Theory; Social Decision
series eCAADe
last changed 2020/09/09 09:54

_id e118
authors Balas, Egon
year 1983
title Disjunctive Programming and a Hierarchy of Relaxations for Discrete Optimization Problems
source December, 1983. 38 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The author discuss a new conceptual framework for the convexification of discrete optimization problems, and a general technique for obtaining approximations to the convex hull of the feasible set. The concepts come from disjunctive programming and the key tool is a description of the convex hull of a union of polyhedra in terms of a higher dimensional polyhedron. Although this description was known for several years, only recently was it shown by Jeroslow and Lowe to yield improved representations of discrete optimization problems. The author expresses the feasible set of a discrete optimization problem as the intersection (conjunction) of unions of polyhedra, and define an operation that takes one such expression into another, equivalent one, with fewer conjuncts. He then introduces a class of relaxations based on replacing each conjunct (union of polyhedra) by its convex hull. The strength of the relaxations increases as the number of conjuncts decreases, and the class of relaxations forms a hierarchy that spans the spectrum between the common linear programming relaxation, and the convex hull of the feasible set itself. Instances where this approach presents advantages include critical path problems in disjunctive graphs, network synthesis problems, certain fixed charge network flow problems, etc. The approach on the first of these problems is illustrated, which is a model for machine sequencing
keywords polyhedra, computational geometry, optimization, programming, convex hull, graphs
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id c373
authors Baldwin, A.N., Austin, S.A., Hassan, T.M. and Thorpe, A.
year 1998
title Planning building design by simulating information flow
source Automation in Construction 8 (2) (1998) pp. 149-163
summary Successful project management requires the effective control of the design teams and the exchange of information between them for successful design management. This paper describes a methodology involving discrete event simulation that can help the planning and control of building design. Discipline-based information flow models of the building design process are used to define the activities of the simulation model, concentrating on the concept and schematic design stages. Factors such as task durations and resources are then allocated along with any specific constraints that are to be evaluated. The model predicts the outcomes of the specific scenario of information related events, including design schedules and resource histograms. The paper describes the development and validation of the simulation model and discusses its potential application during the planning and design phases of building projects. It is concluded that this approach could form the basis of a useful tool for design managers responsible for multidisciplinary building design work.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id sigradi2013_390
id sigradi2013_390
authors Banda, Pablo; Juan Eduardo Subercaseaux
year 2013
title Meta-patrones Morfogenéticos: Propuesta de Framework para Arquitecturas Generativas Basadas en Desempeño [Morphogenetic Meta-Patterns: A framework proposal for Performance-Generated Architectures]
source SIGraDi 2013 [Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Chile - Valparaíso 20 - 22 November 2013, pp. 253 - 257
summary Architecture and Technology’s relationship nowadays has arrived to multi-disciplinary practices; they are growing exponentially while keeping away from to architectural discourse, are remarkable for its expressive power and the ability to solve complex problems. This opens the possibility for the generation of the organic, a path discarded by the Modern Movement in the past.Our approach explores three active premises called Morphogenetic Meta-Patterns: discrete processes (systemic guidelines) for the development of performance-based generative systems. These processes arise from Generative Design and their associated paradigms in the creation of a Framework between architecture and related disciplines.
keywords Design of parametric systems; Part-to-whole debate; Generative design
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 00f3
authors Baybars, Ilker and Eastman, Charles M.
year 1979
title Generating the Underlying Graphs for Architectural Arrangements
source 10 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: School of Urban and Public Affairs, Carnegie Mellon University, April, 1979. Research report No.79. Includes bibliography
summary The mathematical correspondence to a floorplan is a Metric Planar Graph. Several methods for systematic direct generation of metric planar graphs have been developed including polyominoes, March and Matela and shape grammars. Another approach has been to develop a spatial composition in two separate steps. The first step involves discrete variables, and consists of enumerating a defined set of non-metric planar graphs. The second step involves spatial dimensions, e.g. continuous variables, and maps the graphs onto the Euclidean plane, from which a satisfactory or optimal one is selected. This paper focusses on the latter 2-step process. It presents a general method of solving the first step, that is the exhaustive enumeration of a set of planar graphs. The paper consists of three sections: The first section is an introduction to graph theory. The second section presents the generation of maximal planar graphs. The last section summarizes the presentation and comments on the appropriateness of the method
keywords graphs, floor plans, architecture, design, automation, space allocation
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id acadia14projects_269
id acadia14projects_269
authors Bennani, Sofia; Singer-Bieder, Alexandra; Michel, Agathe
year 2014
title ViscoPlasty
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Projects of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9789126724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 269-270
summary ViscoPlasty proposes an installation using Straw-k: a flexible, fast, and feasible fabrication process, which operates on the plasticity of discrete, standard components to create a dynamic, aggregate surface.
keywords fabrication process, plasticity, bespoke pipe comonent, robotic paths
series ACADIA
type Tex-Fab
last changed 2014/09/29 05:57

_id ecaade2017_098
id ecaade2017_098
authors Bieg, Kory
year 2017
title The Interplay of Figures Using Superimposed Arrays
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 399-406
summary This paper introduces the theoretical considerations underlying the design of a digitally designed and Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) fabricated public installation project in the city of Austin, Texas. The project, The Creek Zipper, is an assemblage of exo?related units that symbolically reconnects two divided city neighborhoods, establishes a new relationship between the synthetic and natural, and inflates a two?dimensional graphic into a three?dimensional form. The project can be clearly read as a whole from a distance, but as one approaches, the legibility of each part begins to overwhelm the perception of the whole. As the form of the whole dissipates, the project gains a field?like presence, revealing different sets of discrete figures nested within the larger whole. The Creek Zipper addresses these multiple overlapping dichotomies that act as design generators and promote a dynamic expression of the project.
keywords Array; CNC; Part Whole; Curve; Installation; Fabrication
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:31

_id c088
authors Biermann, Alan W., Rodman, Robert D. and Rubin, David C. (et al)
year 1985
title Natural Language with Discrete Speech as a Mode for Human- to-Machine Communication
source Communications of the ACM June, 1985. vol. 28: pp. 628-636 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary A voice interactive natural language system, which allows users to solve problems with spoken English commands, has been constructed. The system utilizes a commercially available discrete speech recognizer which requires that each word be followed by approximately a 300 millisecond pause. In a test of the system, subjects were able to learn its use after about two hours of training. The system correctly processed about 77 percent of the over 6000 input sentences spoken in problem-solving sessions. Subjects spoke at the rate of about three sentences per minute and were able to effectively use the system to complete the given tasks. Subjects found the system relatively easy to learn and use, and gave a generally positive report of their experience
keywords user interface, natural languages, speech recognition, AI
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id acadia09_82
id acadia09_82
authors Bitonti, Francis
year 2009
title Computational Tectonics
source ACADIA 09: reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow [Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-9842705-0-7] Chicago (Illinois) 22-25 October, 2009), pp. 82-89
summary The goal of this research is to define a methodology for the construction of complex non-repeating surfaces and structures that rely on the formulation of a singular tectonic mechanism. Computational systems like cellular automata seem to suggest that it might be possible for modular material systems to self-assemble into complex organizations. A single series of modular parts could be capable of producing not only complex behavior, but also, depending on initial conditions, simple periodic behavior. The research outlined in this paper uses simple geometric transformations to produce tectonic computers that can be applied to a variety of building systems. This paper outlines a methodology for encoding and decoding material assemblages as discrete computational systems. Exploiting the combinatorial nature of tectonic systems makes it possible to produce a population of “material algorithms” capable of exhibiting a wide range of behaviors. Encoding assemblages as discrete systems affords the designer the ability to enumerate and search all possible permutations of a tectonic system. In this paper, we will discuss the calculations and computational processes used to encode material assemblages as populations of discrete algorithms.
keywords Fabrication, modular system, structure, enumeration systems, material algorithms
series ACADIA
type Normal paper
last changed 2009/11/26 16:44

_id 4e4e
authors Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel
year 1984
title Geometric Structures for Three- Dimensional Shape Representation
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. October, 1984. vol. 3: pp. 266-286 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Different geometric structures are investigated in the context of discrete surface representation. It is shown that minimal representations (i.e., polyhedra) can be provided by a surface-based method using nearest neighbors structures or by a volume-based method using the Delaunay triangulation. Both approaches are compared with respect to various criteria, such as space requirements, computation time, constraints on the distribution of the points, facilities for further calculations, and agreement with the actual shape of the object
keywords algorithms, polyhedra, curves, curved surfaces, solids, representation, geometric modeling, data structures
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id ecaade2017_277
id ecaade2017_277
authors Borhani, Alireza and Kalantar, Negar
year 2017
title APART but TOGETHER - The Interplay of Geometric Relationships in Aggregated Interlocking Systems
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 639-648
summary In this research, the authors discuss multiple design process criteria, fabrication methods, and assembly workflows for covering spaces using discrete pieces of material shorter than the space's span, otherwise known as topologically interlocking structures. To expand this line of research, the study challenges the interplay of geometric relationships in the assembly of unreinforced and mortar-less structures that work purely under compressive forces. This work opens with a review of studies concerning topological interlocking, a unique type of material and structural system. Then, through a description of two design projects - an interlocking footbridge and a vaulted structure - the authors demonstrate how they encouraged students to engage in a systematic exploration of the generative relationships among surface geometry, the configuration and formal variations of its subdividing cells, and the stability of the final interlocking assembly. In this fashion, the authors argue that there is hope for carrying the design criteria of topological interlocking systems into the production of precast concrete structures.
keywords Topological Interlocking Assembly, Digital Stereotomy, Compression-Only Vaulted Structures, Surface Tessellation, Digital Materiality.
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:13

_id ddss9411
id ddss9411
authors Bouillé, Francois
year 1994
title Mastering Urban Network Intersection And Superimposition, in an Object-oriented Knowledge System Integrating Rules, Neurons and Processes
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Many networks cover the urban texture, either superimposed at a variable distance, or really intersecting, or even in interconnection. We briefly recall the HBDS model, working on persistent abstract data types associated to graphical representations and carrying algorithms expressing conditions to be verified and/or actions to be performed. HBDS is an integrated system too, including database, expert system dealing with fuzzy rules and facts, discrete simulation engine, and neural engine; it has a general purpose programming language. Any urban network is associated to a given prototype, according to the same scheme named prototype with more specific components. These prototypes allow to build the different thematic structures instantiations of the prototypes. All possible cases of arc intersection or "pseudo-intersection" (simple superimposition)or interconnection are obtained by, owing to new prototypes. Moreover, such (pseudo)-intersections are automatically recognized and processed without a human intervention, owing to classes ofconstraints and classes of rules. They deal with particular constraints concerning the location of some urban furniture, and rules concerning the way a cable or a pipe must follow according to thepre-existing other networks in a given area, the minimal distances, minimal or maximal depths, and some required equipments. Urban classes of (pseudo-)intersections inserted in the hyperciass"neuron", inheriting of neural features, may be used for automated learning of urban knowledge; owing to their "behavior", these neurons can communicate and perform actions on other components. Urban classes inserted in the hyperciass "process" may be used for building very large models simulating complex urban phenomenons, thus allowing a better understanding of the real phenomenons. As a conclusion, we emphasize the methodological aspects of object-oriented integration for an efficient processing of the urban context, based on prototyping and mixing rules, neurons and processes.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ecaade2020_240
id ecaade2020_240
authors Bouza, Hayley and Aºut, Serdar
year 2020
title Advancing Reed-Based Architecture through Circular Digital Fabrication
source Werner, L and Koering, D (eds.), Anthropologic: Architecture and Fabrication in the cognitive age - Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 117-126
summary This paper presents a completed research project that proposes a new approach for creating circular buildings through the use of biodegradable, in situ resources with the help of computational design and digital fabrication technologies. Common Reed (Phragmites Australis) is an abundantly available natural material found throughout the world. Reed is typically used for thatch roofing in Europe, providing insulation and a weather-tight surface. Elsewhere, traditional techniques of weaving and bundling reeds have long been used to create entire buildings. The use of a digital production chain was explored as a means towards expanding the potential of reed as a sustainable, locally produced, construction material. Following an iterative process of designing from the micro to the macro scale and by experimenting with robotic assembly, the result is a reed-based system in the form of discrete components that can be configured to create a variety of structures.
keywords Phragmites Australis; Reed; Discrete Design; Robotic Assembly; Circular Design; Biodegradable Architecture
series eCAADe
last changed 2020/09/09 09:50

_id sigradi2013_30
id sigradi2013_30
authors Bunster, Victor
year 2013
title How to Customize Architecture under Heavily Prescribed Design Conditions? Principles and Prospects for an Evolutionary System
source SIGraDi 2013 [Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Chile - Valparaíso 20 - 22 November 2013, pp. 319 - 323
summary Architectural design is a complex activity. The development of a building involves management of the diverse goals of a heterogeneous group of agents using no more than the discrete resources of a given setting. These variables can often conflict and result in rigid normative frameworks that can limit the capacity of a designer to respond with accuracy to diverse environmental factors. The main aim of this paper is to present the theoretical foundations of an evolutionary system to assist the customization of architecture under such prescribed design conditions.
keywords Mass customization; Design computing; Information theory; Evolution; Prescription
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id caadria2003_a1-1
id caadria2003_a1-1
authors Burrow, A., Burry, J., More, G., Tengono, Y. and Burry, M.
year 2003
title Visual and Sonic Communication Representations to Support Design Interaction
source CAADRIA 2003 [Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 974-9584-13-9] Bangkok Thailand 18-20 October 2003, pp. 29-42
summary Interaction between collaborating parties exerts strong and surprising forces on the design process and thus its outcomes. Hence, there is much to be gained by investigating the nature of these communications. By definition, an organisation establishes clear protocols to realise effective communication, and does so in response to business needs. In contrast, creative endeavours must often harness loose teams of specialised individuals, working in different contexts, disciplines, and language bases, and relying on nonformalised yet highly selective exchanges of information. It is therefore a considerable challenge to comprehend and improve these processes. One approach is to exploit the discrete information contained within digital communications to produce models of these complex conditions. This paper reports preliminary work to identify the components of an email visualisation system. The goal is to apprehend developing structures, providing the collective with the capacity for reflection.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/12/02 06:47

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