CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id cf2003_m_006
id cf2003_m_006
authors ACHTEN, Henri and JESSURUN, Joran
year 2003
title Learning From Mah Jong - Towards a Multi-Agent System that can Recognize Graphic Units
source Digital Design - Research and Practice [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1] Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, pp. 115-124
summary Sketching is a major means of exploiting the first conceptual developments in architectural design. If we want to support the architect in the ideas-developing phase of design, then we need to understand the conventions of depiction and encoding in drawings. The theory of graphic units provides an extended list of such conventions that are widely used. We propose that a multi-agent system for recognition of graphic units in drawings is fruitful: agents can specialize in graphic units, a multi-agent system can deal with ambiguity through negotiation and conflict resolution, and multi-agent systems function in dynamically changing environments. We first make a multi-agent system that can do something simpler: playing Mah Jong solitary. The Mah Jong solitary system shares the following important features with a multi-agent system that can recognize graphic units: (1) specialized agents for moves; (2) negotiation between agents to establish the best move; (3) dynamically changing environment; and (4) search activity in more advanced strategies. The paper presents the theoretical basis of graphic units and multi-agents systems. The multi-agent framework and its implementation is presented. Various levels of game play are distinguished, and these are correlated to the multi-agent system. The paper shows how the findings form the basis for graphic unit recognition.
keywords artificial intelligence, games, graphic units, agents
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/22 15:39

_id 1fb3
authors Akin, O., Cumming, M., Shealey, M. and Tuncer, B.
year 1997
title An electronic design assistance tool for case-based representation of designs
source Automation in Construction 6 (4) (1997) pp. 265-274
summary In precedent based design, solutions to problems are developed by drawing from an understanding of landmark designs. Many of the key design operations in this mode are similar to the functionalities present in case-based reasoning systems: case matching, case adapting, and case representation. It is clear that a rich case-base, encoding all major product types in a design domain would be the centerpiece of such an approach. EDAT (Electronic Design Assistance Tool) is intended to assist in precedent based design in the studio with the potential of expansion into the office setting. EDAT has been designed using object oriented system development methods. EDAT was used in a design studio at Carnegie Mellon University, during Spring 1996.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 4cda
authors Akin, O., Cumming, M. , Shealey, M. and Tuncer, B.
year 1996
title An Electronic Design Assistance Tool for Case Based Representation of Designs
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 123-132
summary In precedent based design, solutions to problems are developed by drawing from an understanding of landmark designs. Many of the key design operations in this mode are similar to the functionalities present in case based reasoning systems: case matching, case adapting, and case representation. It is clear that a rich case base, encoding all major product types in a design domain would be the centerpiece of such an approach. EDAT (Electronic Design Assistance Tool) is intended to assist in precedent based design in the studio with the potential of expansion into the office setting. EDAT has been designed using object oriented system development methods. EDAT was used in a design studio at Carnegie Mellon University, during Spring 1996, and will be used in future studios, as well.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ascaad2016_003
id ascaad2016_003
authors Al-Jokhadar, Amer; Wassim Jabi
year 2016
title Humanising the Computational Design Process - Integrating Parametric Models with Qualitative Dimensions
source Parametricism Vs. Materialism: Evolution of Digital Technologies for Development [8th ASCAAD Conference Proceedings ISBN 978-0-9955691-0-2] London (United Kingdom) 7-8 November 2016, pp. 9-18
summary Parametric design is a computational-based approach used for understanding the logic and the language embedded in the design process algorithmically and mathematically. Currently, the main focus of computational models, such as shape grammar and space syntax, is primarily limited to formal and spatial requirements of the design problem. Yet, qualitative factors, such as social, cultural and contextual aspects, are also important dimensions in solving architectural design problems. In this paper, an overview of the advantages and implications of the current methods is presented. It also puts forward a ‘structured analytical system’ that combines the formal and geometric properties of the design, with descriptions that reflect the spatial, social and environmental patterns. This syntactic-discursive model is applied for encoding vernacular courtyard houses in the hot-arid regions of the Middle East and North Africa, and utilising the potentials of these cases in reflecting the lifestyle and the cultural values of the society, such as privacy, human-spatial behaviour, the social life inside the house, the hierarchy of spaces, the segregation and seclusion of family members from visitors and the orientation of spaces. The output of this analytical phase prepares the groundwork for the development of socio-spatial grammar for contemporary tall residential buildings that gives the designer the ability to reveal logical spatial topologies based on socio-environmental restrictions, and to produce alternatives that have an identity while also respecting the context, place and needs of users.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2017/05/25 11:13

_id ijac201715402
id ijac201715402
authors Alaçam, Sema; Orkan Zeynel Güzelci, Ethem Gürer and Saadet Zeynep Bac?noglu
year 2017
title Reconnoitring computational potentials of the vault-like forms: Thinking aloud on muqarnas tectonics
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 15 - no. 4, 285-303
summary This study sheds light on a holistic understanding of muqarnas with its historical, philosophical and conceptual backgrounds on one hand and formal, structural and algorithmic principles on the other hand. The vault-like Islamic architectural element, muqarnas, is generally considered to be a non-structural decorative element. Various compositional approaches have been proposed to reveal the inner logic of these complex geometric elements. Each of these approaches uses different techniques such as measuring, unit-based decoding or three-dimensional interpretation of two-dimensional patterns. However, the reflections of the inner logic onto different contexts, such as the usage of different initial geometries, materials or performative concerns, were neglected. In this study, we offer a new schema to approach the performative aspects of muqarnas tectonics. This schema contains new sets of elements, properties and relations deriving partly from previous approaches and partly from the technique of folding. Thus, this study first reviews the previous approaches to analyse the geometric and constructional principles of muqarnas. Second, it explains the proposed scheme through a series of algorithmic form-finding experiments. In these experiments, we question whether ‘fold’, as one of the performative techniques of making three-dimensional forms, contributes to the analysis of muqarnas in both a conceptual and computational sense. We argue that encoding vault-like systems via geometric and algorithmic relations based on the logic of the ‘fold’ provides informative and intuitive feedback for form-finding, specifically in the earlier phases of design. While focusing on the performative potential of a specific fold operation, we introduced the concept of bifurcation to describe the generative characteristics of folding technique and the way of subdividing the form with respect to redistribution of the forces. Thus, in this decoding process, the bifurcated fold explains not only to demystify the formal logic of muqarnas but also to generate new forms without losing contextual conditions.
keywords Muqarnas, vault, layering, folding, force flow, bifurcation
series journal
last changed 2019/08/07 12:03

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cf2009_890
id cf2009_890
authors Beirão, José; Duarte José, Stouffs Rudi
year 2009
title Grammars of designs and grammars for designing - grammar-based patterns for urban design
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009, PUM, 2009
summary Analytical work has demonstrated the potential of shape grammars for capturing rules embedded in existing design styles, and generating designs within such styles that match given design contexts. However, the creation of grammars for new design styles, from exploratory rules to design synthesis, remains elusive. The combined use of patterns and discursive grammars is here proposed as a way of encoding the semantics behind recurrent urban design operations and enable the development of a tool to support the creation of new grammars. The idea is that by exploring the combination of generative patterns designers may arrive at new grammars.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2009/08/21 05:43

_id 4c44
id 4c44
authors Beirão, José; Duarte, José; Gil, Jorge; Montenegro, Nuno
year 2009
title Monitoring urban design through generative design support tools: a generative grammar for Praia
source Proceedings of 15 Congresso da APDR, Cidade da Praia, Cabo Verde.
summary Abstract Urban planning and design has a considerable impact on the economic performance of cities and regions. It is a complex process that extends for a long period and involves many participants. The lack of integrated tools to support this process hampers the ability to maximize the response of plans to contextual conditions while using the least resources. This paper describes research that aims to develop such a tool, integrating formulation, generation, and evaluation capabilities. It is focused on the generation module which relies on the encoding of Urban Induction Patterns (UIP) using shape grammars. A grammar for the extension plan of the city of Praia is presented as one of the case studies used to support UIP definition and illustrate its application. The paper also discusses how the proposed tool can be used for developing and monitoring urban plans.
keywords shape grammars; generative urban design; planning
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2009/07/30 13:58

_id ijac20076104
id ijac20076104
authors Benoudjit, Mohamed Amine; Coates, Paul S.
year 2008
title Artificial networks for spatial analysis
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 6 - no. 1, pp. 59-78
summary This paper tests digital representation techniques which can be used by artificial neural networks in a computer-aided design (CAD) environment to analyze and classify architectural spaces. We developed two techniques for encoding volumetric data: vertex representation and feature space representation, as input for artificial neural networks. We tested how two different kinds of artificial neural networks, perceptron networks and self-organizing maps, could recognize given shapes in these representational formats. We have found that a one-layer perceptron can be used to classify shapes even when presented with input vectors composed of real numbers. These spatial representation techniques provide a method for using ANNs for architectural purposes.
series journal
last changed 2008/06/18 06:12

_id ecaade2013_036
id ecaade2013_036
authors Bernhard, Mathias
year 2013
title Frequency Analysis of Wood Textures
source Stouffs, Rudi and Sariyildiz, Sevil (eds.), Computation and Performance – Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference – Volume 1, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 18-20 September 2013, pp. 597-603
summary “Frequency analysis of wood textures” presents the application of Fourier analysis to translate images of wood textures to the frequency domain. With this encoding, a lot more details can be captured by the same amount of data points than with other descriptions in the spatial domain. A small set of overlapping waves with different frequencies, magnitudes and phase angles allows to characterize the main features of the wood’s grain texture and to quantify and classify different samples. The sample’s color information is thereby enhanced with an array of direction vectors, describing the local orientation distribution.
wos WOS:000340635300062
keywords Wood; Fourier analysis; pattern recognition; information theory.
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id c9e4
authors Birmingham, William P. and Siewiorek, Daniel P.
year 1988
title Automated knowledge Acquisition for a Computer Hardware Synthesis System
source 19 p. : ill. Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, June, 1988. EDRC 18-06-88. includes bibliography
summary The MICON Synthesizer Version 1 (M1) is a rule-based system which produces a complete small computer design from a set of abstract specifications. The ability of M1 to produce designs depends on the encoding of large amounts of domain knowledge. An automated knowledge acquisition tool, CGEN, works symbiotically with M1 by gathering the knowledge required by M1. CGEN acquires knowledge about how to build and when to use various computer structures. This paper overviews the operation of CGEN by providing an example of the types of knowledge acquired and the mechanisms employed. A novel knowledge-intensive generalization scheme is presented. Generalization is a pragmatic necessity for knowledge acquisition in this domain. A series of experiments to test CGEN's capabilities are explained. A description of the architecture and knowledge-base of M1 is also provided
keywords electrical engineering, automation, knowledge acquisition, knowledge base, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id acadia09_82
id acadia09_82
authors Bitonti, Francis
year 2009
title Computational Tectonics
source ACADIA 09: reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow [Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-9842705-0-7] Chicago (Illinois) 22-25 October, 2009), pp. 82-89
summary The goal of this research is to define a methodology for the construction of complex non-repeating surfaces and structures that rely on the formulation of a singular tectonic mechanism. Computational systems like cellular automata seem to suggest that it might be possible for modular material systems to self-assemble into complex organizations. A single series of modular parts could be capable of producing not only complex behavior, but also, depending on initial conditions, simple periodic behavior. The research outlined in this paper uses simple geometric transformations to produce tectonic computers that can be applied to a variety of building systems. This paper outlines a methodology for encoding and decoding material assemblages as discrete computational systems. Exploiting the combinatorial nature of tectonic systems makes it possible to produce a population of “material algorithms” capable of exhibiting a wide range of behaviors. Encoding assemblages as discrete systems affords the designer the ability to enumerate and search all possible permutations of a tectonic system. In this paper, we will discuss the calculations and computational processes used to encode material assemblages as populations of discrete algorithms.
keywords Fabrication, modular system, structure, enumeration systems, material algorithms
series ACADIA
type Normal paper
last changed 2009/11/26 16:44

_id 4f1b
id 4f1b
authors Booth, Peter
year 2009
title Digital Materiality: emergent computational fabrication
source Performative Ecologies in the Built Environment: Sustainability Research Accross Disciplines: 43rd Annual Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Architectural Science Association
summary Fundamentally architecture is a material-based practice that implies that making and the close engagement of materiality is intrinsic to design process. With the rapid uptake of new computational tools and fabrication techniques by the architectural profession there is potential for the connection between architecture and materiality to be diminished. Innovative digital technologies are redefining the relationship between design and construction encoding in the process new ways of thinking about architecture. A new archetype of sustainable architectural process is emerging, often cited as Digital Materialism. Advanced computational processes are moving digital toolsets away from a representational mode towards being integral to the design process. These methods are allowing complex design variables (material, fabrication, environment, etc.) to be interplayed within the design process, allowing an active relationship between performative criteria and design sustainability to be embedded within design methodology.
keywords Digital, Process, Material, Fabrication
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2010/03/06 01:53

_id ecaade2014_208
id ecaade2014_208
authors Bruno Figueiredo, Eduardo Castro e Costa, Bruno Araújo, Fernando Fonseca, Daniel Mendes, Joaquim A Jorge and José Pinto Duarte
year 2014
title Interactive Tabletops for Architectural Visualization - Combining Stereoscopy and Touch Interfaces for Cultural Heritage
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 585-592
summary This paper presents an interactive apparatus to didactically explore Alberti's treatise on architecture, De re aedificatoria, as generative design systems, namely shape grammars. This apparatus allows users to interactively explore such architectonical knowledge in both appealing and informal ways, by enabling them to visualize and manipulate in real-time different design solutions. The authors identify the difficulties on encoding the architectural knowledge of a parametric design model into an interactive apparatus to be used by laypeople. At last, the authors discuss the results of a survey conducted to users that interacted with the prototype in order to assess its ability to communicate the knowledge of an architectural language.
wos WOS:000361384700058
keywords Alberti; generative design; multi-modal interfaces; shape grammars; user experience
series eCAADe
type normal paper
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 1445
authors Caldas, L. and Rocha, J.
year 2001
title A generative design system applied to Sizaís school of architecture at Oporto
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 253-264
summary A new generative design system based on a genetic algorithm is tested within the framework of Alvaro Sizaís School of Architecture at Oporto, Portugal. The system works over a detailed three-dimensional description of the building and uses natural lighting and overall environmental performance as objective functions to guide the generation of solutions. This paper researches the encoding of architectural design intentions into the system, using constraints derived from Sizaís original design. Experiments using this generative system were performed on three different geographical locations to test the algorithmís capability to adapt solutions to different climatic characteristics within the same language constraints.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2002/09/04 13:44

_id 2006_290
id 2006_290
authors Cenani, Sehnaz and Gulen Cagdas
year 2006
title Shape Grammar of Geometric Islamic Ornaments
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 290-297
summary Shape grammars are the algorithmic systems used to analyze existing designs or create new ones. In spite of using text or symbols to express abstract representations, shape grammars aid to create novel designs through computational effort with shapes and rules. Many probabilities of rule selections and applications of these rules may generate emergent design solutions or create new design objectives. This paper aims to present the characteristics, shape grammar rules and historical background of geometrical ornaments in Islamic culture and to point out the possibilities of mathematics of symmetry. The knowledge presented in this paper can be used to generate new depictions and to gain new application areas like typography, wallpaper, landscape, façade design, tiling, jewelry, and textile designs. Even, these types of shape grammar studies can be used to open a novel approach as in Jean Nouvel’s “Arab World Institute” in Paris. The role of shape grammar analysis of geometrical Islamic ornaments explained in this paper is to increase the efficiency of architectural design education by facilitating the formal understanding of historical patterns. Novel use of shape grammars in education can enrich the designer’s ability to generate original designs. In this paper variants of Islamic ornaments are created with a CAAD program. A selected geometrical bezeme (ornament) from Islamic ornamental design is generated by encoding with a computer programming language. According to the generated bezeme, interaction scenario is as follows: Computer has the main control over grammar application. Only, some of the rules can be selected by the user. Varieties of this ornament are generated randomly through their line weight, line colors, filling types and filling colors. The shape grammar rules outlined in this paper are simple, but the resulting figures can be very inspiring. Furthermore, the endless potential for future design innovations is unlimited.
keywords Computer-generated geometrical design; shape grammar rules; geometrical Islamic ornaments; Islamic patterns
series eCAADe
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id caadria2013_198
id caadria2013_198
authors Chee Zong Jie and Patrick Janssen
year 2013
title Exploration of Urban Street Patterns – Multi-Criteria Evolutionary Optimisation Using Axial Line Analysis
source Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013) / Singapore 15-18 May 2013, pp. 695-704
summary In urban design, researchers have developed techniques to automate both the generation and evaluation of urban street patterns. In most cases, these approaches are investigated in isolation from one another. Recently, a number of researchers have attempted to couple these approaches, in order to enable larger numbers of street patterns to be generated and evaluated in an iterative loop. However, to date, the possibility of fully automating the generative-evaluative loop using optimisation algorithms has not been explored. This research proposes an explorative design method in which urban street patterns can be optimised for multiple conflicting performance criteria. The optimisation process uses evolutionary algorithms to evolve populations of design variants by iteratively applying three key procedures: development, evaluation, and feedback. For development, a generative technique is proposed for constructing street patterns. For evaluation, various performance measures are used, including in particular Space Syntax based Axial Line analysis. For feedback, a Pareto-ranking algorithm is used that ranks street patterns according to multiple criteria. The proposed method is demonstrated using an abstract scenario in which orthogonal street patterns are evolved for a small urban area.  
wos WOS:000351496100068
keywords Axial line analysis, Generative modelling, Evolutionary algorithms, Decision chain encoding, Urban street patterns 
series CAADRIA
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id acadia06_302
id acadia06_302
authors Clarke, Cory
year 2006
title Synthetic Dissemination
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 302-303
summary Synthetic Dissemination, within the context of architecture and information culture, offers seemingly contradictory possibilities. The ends of dissemination and synthesis are at odds. The purpose of the former being diffusion and distribution, and the byproduct of the latter being quite the opposite - namely the combination and association of information into a coherent whole. The conjoining of dissemination and synthesis implies these two contradictory operations can operate in a symbiotic or complementary manner.Relative to architecture and design the combination of dissemination and synthesis is potentially profound. The marriage of synthesis and dissemination presents a possibility that the method of distributing information could be, or have embedded within it, a synthetic process. In the simplest sense synthetic dissemination implies that the tools for design and synthesis could be the same as tools for documentation and dissemination; or more specifically that the fluidity and creativity of design software could be coupled with the practicality and meticulousness of building information modelers (BIM). More abstractly synthetic dissemination implies that the means of encoding and distributing information could propagate design. Architects have readily adopted digital tools for encoding and presenting their ideas, but have not fully recognized how the informational structures of these applications promote or hinder design. Developments in the information architecture of D software, such as the shift from geometrically based data structures to procedurally based directed action graphs (DAG) as seen in Maya and DMax, have opened up innovative methods of architectural design. Each new change in the information architecture of design software ushers in new approaches to design, raising the question - how does the production and storage of information affect design? More broadly, how can the tools of dissemination facilitate synthesis?
series ACADIA
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id 2ca3
authors Curless, Brian and Levoy, Marc
year 1996
title A Volumetric Method for Building Complex Models from Range Images
source Stanford University
summary A number of techniques have been developed for reconstructing surfaces by integrating groups of aligned range images. A desirable set of properties for such algorithms includes: incremental updating, representation of directional uncertainty, the ability to fill gaps in the reconstruction, and robustness in the presence of outliers. Prior algorithms possess subsets of these properties. In this paper, we present a volumetric method for integrating range images that possesses all of these properties. Our volumetric representation consists of a cumulative weighted signed distance function. Working with one range image at a time, we first scan-convert it to a distance function, then combine this with the data already acquired using a simple additive scheme. To achieve space efficiency, we employ a run-length encoding of the volume. To achieve time efficiency, we resample the range image to align with the voxel grid and traverse the range and voxel scanlines synchronously. We generate the final manifold by extracting an isosurface from the volumetric grid. We show that under certain assumptions, this isosurface is optimal in the least squares sense. To fill gaps in the model, we tessellate over the boundaries between regions seen to be empty and regions never observed. Using this method, we are able to integrate a large number of range images (as many as 70) yielding seamless, high-detail models of up to 2.6 million triangles.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ijac201917102
id ijac201917102
authors Cutellic, Pierre
year 2019
title Towards encoding shape features with visual event-related potential based brain–computer interface for generative design
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 17 - no. 1, 88-102
summary This article will focus on abstracting and generalising a well-studied paradigm in visual, event-related potential based brain–computer interfaces, for the spelling of characters forming words, into the visually encoded discrimination of shape features forming design aggregates. After identifying typical technologies in neuroscience and neuropsychology of high interest for integrating fast cognitive responses into generative design and proposing the machine learning model of an ensemble of linear classifiers in order to tackle the challenging features that electroencephalography data carry, it will present experiments in encoding shape features for generative models by a mechanism of visual context updating and the computational implementation of vision as inverse graphics, to suggest that discriminative neural phenomena of event-related potentials such as P300 may be used in a visual articulation strategy for modelling in generative design.
keywords Generative design, machine learning, brain–computer interface, design computing and cognition, integrated cognition, neurodesign, shape, form and geometry, design concepts and strategies
series journal
last changed 2019/08/07 12:04

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