CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ddss2006-pb-101
id DDSS2006-PB-101
authors Aloys W.J. Borgers, I.M.E. Smeets, A.D.A.M. Kemperman, and H.J.P. Timmermans
year 2006
title Simulation of Micro Pedestrian Behaviour in Shopping Streets
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) 2006, Progress in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN-10: 90-386-1756-9, ISBN-13: 978-90-386-1756-5, p. 101-116
summary Over the years, scholars have developed various models of pedestrian movement. These models can be used to assess the effects of detailed design decisions or to predict pedestrian behaviour under conditions of crowding. To date, not much attention has been paid to pedestrians' shopping behaviour at the micro level. Therefore, the main purpose of this project is to test a model that aims at simulating micro pedestrian behaviour in shopping streets, including entering shops. The model assumes a detailed network of links to represent the structure of street segments and entrances to the shops. The basic principle underlying the model is that a pedestrian moves from one link in the network to another, adjacent link. In fact, a pedestrian enters a segment at one side, heading for the other side of the segment. However, a pedestrian might enter the segment by leaving a shop as well. Then, the pedestrian might be heading for either side of the segment. While transferring from the current link to the next link, the pedestrian will be attracted by the shops along both sides of the street. The study area is Antwerp's main shopping street. During a one-week workshop in July 2004, students observed pedestrian movement in this shopping street. An inventory of some physical characteristics of the shopping street was made and pedestrians were tracked through two separate segments of the shopping street. In total, 334 pedestrians were tracked. A conventional multinomial logit model is used to simulate pedestrians' micro behaviour. The process of consecutively selecting links continues until the pedestrian has reached one of the terminal links or a shop. The model performs very well. Simulated routes were used to assess the validity of the model. Observed and simulated link loading correspond fairly well, however, the model seems to slightly mispredict the attraction of a number of shops.
keywords Micro pedestrian behaviour, Shopping street, Simulation
series DDSS
last changed 2006/08/29 10:55

_id sigradi2013_243
id sigradi2013_243
authors Andia, Alfredo
year 2013
title Automated Architecture: Why CAD, Parametrics and Fabrication are Really old News
source SIGraDi 2013 [Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Chile - Valparaíso 20 - 22 November 2013, pp. 83 - 87
summary Automation is transforming a significant number of industries today. This paper discusses how the Design and Construction industry is also entering into a new era of automation. In the paper I observe that designers are automating by using parametric tools (BIM, scripting, etc.) while contractors are moving into pre-fabrication and modularization. Both conceptualizations are incomplete. The paper presents how we are in the first steps of creating learning algorithms that develop specific intelligence in design synthesis and how the design field will became even more sophisticated as a second generation of multi-material 3D printing techniques produce new materials.
keywords Automation; Architectural design; Artificial intelligence; Learning algorithms; Multi-material printers
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 4c30
authors Aura, Seppo
year 1993
title Episode as a Unit of Analysis of Movement
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 53-66
summary Everybody who has read his Gordon Cullen or his Edmund H. Bacon knows that movement has long been recognized as a factor in environmental planning in many ways. For example, in the traditional Japanese promenade garden the importance of movement has always been appreciated. The promenader gains an intense experience of the succession, variation and rhythm of the surrounding scene. The spaces and paths lead him from one stage to another. The spatial structure of the Japanese promenade garden, as well as of traditional Japanese architecture in general, is joined most intensively to time and motion. The environment is in relation to the flow of change in many sense, both concretely and existentially. Taking an example of western urban environment. Here perhaps the most marked sequential spaces are to be found in small medieval, mediterranean towns. Thanks to their organic growth, narrow and winding streets and the emphasis on public squares, most of them provide exciting experiences if the observer is only interested in seeing the townscape from the point of view of movement. There are also examples of this kind of environment in Finland. In old wooden towns like Porvoo and Rauma one can still find varied and rhythmic streetscapes and networks of streets and squares, together with a human scale and an almost timeless atmosphere. One could say that such an opportunity to experience spaces sequentially, or as serial visions, is an important dimension for us, especially as pedestrians. And as Gordon Cullen has shown there is in any urban environment much scope to heighten this experience. For example, by creating a sense of ’entering in’ some place, ’leaving for’, ’moving towards’, ’turning into’, ’walking through’ some place or ’following on’ the flow of spaces. Or, as Edmund H. Bacon has said, the departure point of good town planning should be that the successive towns spaces give rise to a flow of harmonic experiences: present experiences merge with earlier ones and become a step towards a future. Or, again in the words of Donald Appleyard, Kevin Lynch and John R. Myer: “The experience of a city is basically of a moving view, and this is the view we must understand if we wish to reform the look of our cities”.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id cf2015_380
id cf2015_380
authors Barekati, Ehsan; Clayton, Mark J. and Yan, Wei
year 2015
title A BIM-compatible schema for architectural programming information
source The next city - New technologies and the future of the built environment [16th International Conference CAAD Futures 2015. Sao Paulo, July 8-10, 2015. Electronic Proceedings/ ISBN 978-85-85783-53-2] Sao Paulo, Brazil, July 8-10, 2015, pp. 380.
summary Architectural programming, although a key part of AECFM processes, has not been well integrated into Building Information Modeling (BIM). Having access to architectural programming information throughout the lifecycle of a building can add value to design evaluation, facility management, renovation and extension. There is not currently a comprehensive and standard data model to store architectural programming information. Our research is producing a universal format for an architectural program of requirements (UFPOR) that can connect the architectural programming information to the IFC BIM schema. The result is a data model for architectural programming that is inherently interoperable with BIM standard schema. A graphical user interface facilitates data creation and manipulation. The schema and effectiveness of the bridging fields has been tested by entering the content of three two different architectural programming documents into the UFPOR database.
keywords BIM, Architectural Programming, Data Modelling, Interoperability, IFC.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2015/06/29 05:55

_id 473f
authors Bartnicka, Malgorzata
year 1998
title The Influence of Light upon the Spatial Perception of Image
source Cyber-Real Design [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-2-9] Bialystock (Poland), 23-25 April 1998, pp. 21-26
summary With regard to mental perception, light is one of the basic and strongest experiences influencing man. It is a phenomenon unchanged since the beginning of human kind, regardless of the fact what form or shape it was transmitted in. We are so used to light that we have stopped noticing how much we owe to it. It is the basic source and condition of our visual perception. Without light, illumination, we would not be able to see anything as it is light that transmits the shapes, distances and colours seen by us. The light which we perceive is a specific sight stimulus. It constitutes of only a small range of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation existing in nature. The visible radiation encompasses the wave length from 400 to 800 nm. When the whole range of the visible wave spectrum enters the eye, the impression of seeing white light is produced. The light rays entering the sight receptors are subject to reflection, absorption and transmission. In the retina of the eye, the light energy is transformed into nerve impulses. The reception of light is dependent on the degree of absorption of the length of certain waves and the concentration of light. A ray of light entering the eye pupil is the proper eye stimulus which stimulates the receptors of the retina and causes visual impressions.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id cf2013_109
id cf2013_109
authors Brell-Cokcan, Sigrid and Johannes Braumann
year 2013
title Industrial Robots for Design Education: Robots as Open Interfaces beyond Fabrication
source Global Design and Local Materialization[Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 978-3-642-38973-3] Shanghai, China, July 3-5, 2013, pp. 109-117.
summary For a long time, robotic arms have been a common sight in many industries. Now, robots are rapidly entering architectural education. Within the past few years, more than 20 architectural faculties throughout the world have set up experimental labs with one or more robotic arms. This paper will discuss the use of robots in education beyond the scope of CNC fabrication, as open interfaces that confront students with problem-solving, geometry, and programming.
keywords Design education, teaching robotics, robots in architecture, open interfaces, computer aided architectural design
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2014/03/24 06:08

_id 8802
authors Burry, Mark, Dawson, Tony and Woodbury, Robert
year 1999
title Learning about Architecture with the Computer, and Learning about the Computer in Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 374-382
summary Most students commencing their university studies in architecture must confront and master two new modes of thought. The first, widely known as reflection-in-action, is a continuous cycle of self-criticism and creation that produces both learning and improved work. The second, which we call here design making, is a process which considers building construction as an integral part of architectural designing. Beginning students in Australia tend to do neither very well; their largely analytic secondary education leaves the majority ill-prepared for these new forms of learning and working. Computers have both complicated and offered opportunities to improve this situation. An increasing number of entering students have significant computing skill, yet university architecture programs do little in developing such skill into sound and extensible knowledge. Computing offers new ways to engage both reflection-in-action and design making. The collaboration between two Schools in Australia described in detail here pools computer-based learning resources to provide a wider scope for the education in each institution, which we capture in the phrase: Learn to use computers in architecture (not use computers to learn architecture). The two shared learning resources are Form Making Games (Adelaide University), aimed at reflection-in-action and The Construction Primer (Deakin University and Victoria University of Wellington), aimed at design making. Through contributing to and customising the resources themselves, students learn how designing and computing relate. This paper outlines the collaborative project in detail and locates the initiative at a time when the computer seems to have become less self-consciously assimilated within the wider architectural program.
keywords Reflection-In-Action, Design Making, Customising Computers
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 89d9
authors Cajati, Claudio
year 1992
title The New Teaching of an Architect: The Rôle of Expert Systems in Technological Culture
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 435-442
summary We already have the EEC, that is the European Economic Community. We have to build the CCE, that is the Common Cultural Europe. Architects and building engineers of any european country will be allowed to freely practise in any other country of the EEC. Of course, it is not only matter of coming down of the frontiers, of a greater labour mobility. Not even it will be enough that the university degree courses of the different countries agree to and put into effect the EEC common directives. They need rules and guidelines entering into the merits of practice: rules and guidelines which, rather than a legal and bureaucratic matter, must be the result of a common cultural and technical work, about clear and delimited questions of shared subjects, in which all the community countries be deeply concerned. Analogously, in the very field of research, the project "Human Capital and Mobility" has in view a greater european scientific and technological competitiveness, through an integration of human and material resources of different research centres, such as in shared-cost research projects and in concerted research actions. Such an integration is neither easy nor rapid. The political, social, cultural, technological peculiarities of the countries of the European Community certainly constitute an obstacle for the creation of a supernational cultural and technological pool. of common opportunities. These peculiarities, however, aren't only a restraint for the european community effort of unification and construction of shared goals, constraints, rules, methods, techniques, tools. They mean also a richness, an unrepeatable resourse: they are the result of a historical millenary stratification, which gave rise to urban and architectural contexts, to cultural and technological traditions it would be a serious mistake to waste.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 1ea1
authors Cheng, Nancy Yen-wen
year 1999
title Digital Design at UO
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 4, p. 18
summary University of Oregon Architecture Department has developed a spectrum of digital design from introductory methods courses to advanced design studios. With a computing curriculum that stresses a variety of tools, architectural issues such as form-making, communication, collaboration,theory-driven design, and presentation are explored. During the first year, all entering students are required to learn 3D modeling, rendering, image-processing and web-authoring in our Introduction to Architectural ComputerGraphics course. Through the use of cross-platform software, the two hundred beginning students are able to choose to work in either MacOS or Windows. Students begin learning the software by ‘playing’ with geometric elements and further develop their control by describing assigned architectural monuments. In describing the monuments, they begin with 2D diagrams and work up to complete 3D compositions, refining their modelswith symbol libraries. By visualizing back and forth between the drafting and modeling modes, the students quickly connect orthogonal plans and sections with their spatial counterparts. Such connections are an essential foundation for further learning.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/14 09:04

_id ecaade2008_034
id ecaade2008_034
authors Christenson, Mike
year 2008
title Questioning the Primacy of Visual Simulation in an Epistemology of Digital Models
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 889-896
summary This paper questions the degree to which visual simulations are conventionally assumed to be a primary means of entering digital models into productive architectural discourse. The paper considers established means by which digital models are made known, specifically those which place epistemological value on multiple representational modes, particularly building information modeling software. The paper outlines a proposal to displace the use of visual simulation as a primary means of making digital models known.
keywords Digital aids to design creativity, generative design, modes of production, precedents and prototypes, research, education and practice
series eCAADe
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id ddssar0229
id ddssar0229
authors De Vries, B., Jessurun, A.J. and J. Dijkstra, J.
year 2002
title Conformance Checking by Capturing and Simulating Human Behaviour in the Built Environment
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary In order to model natural human behaviour, it is necessary to capture this behaviour. First, we will start out by modelling behaviour for specific situations, such as taking a seat in a theatre. To capture humanbehaviour, the following experiment is performed: Given a virtual environment, a sufficient number of subjects (real humans) are asked to execute a human task in this virtual environment (e.g. take a seat inthe theatre). Whenever the subject deviates from the shortest path, the system will ask for a clue why this is done. The hypothesis is that the combination of the motion paths and the clues for making/changing decisions will provide decision rules to make reliable predictions about human behaviour under the same conditions when using virtual persons. To test the hypothesis, we propose to use the university’s main conference and presentation hall as a test case. A 3D model and a motion pathgraph are constructed that enables a virtual person to find its way to a selected chair. The clues from the experiment are implemented as decision rules that determine a virtual person’s behaviour. Running thesimulation will result in the following data: Time per person to find a chair, Deviation from the shortest path, Distance covered per person to find a chair, Distribution of seated persons over time and Relocation of persons. To validate the test case, the process of people entering the hall and finding a chair is recorded on videotape. The walking behaviour of the people observed on the video is analysed and compared with the data from the simulation.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ascaad2016_024
id ascaad2016_024
authors El Sayary, Samer
year 2016
title Using Time As a Sustainable Tool to Control Daylight in Space - Creating the Chronoform
source Parametricism Vs. Materialism: Evolution of Digital Technologies for Development [8th ASCAAD Conference Proceedings ISBN 978-0-9955691-0-2] London (United Kingdom) 7-8 November 2016, pp. 217-226
summary Just as Einstein's own Relativity Theory led Einstein to reject time, Feynman’s Sum over histories theory led him to describe time simply as a direction in space. Many artists tried to visualize time as Étienne-Jules Marey when he invented the chronophotography. While the wheel of development of chronophotography in the Victorian era had ended in inventing the motion picture, a lot of research is still in its earlier stages regarding the time as a shaping media for the architectural form. Using computer animation now enables us to use time as a flexible tool to be stretched and contracted to visualize the time dilation of the Einstein's special relativity. The presented work suggests using time as a sustainable tool to shape the generated form in response to the sun movement to control the amount of daylighting entering the space by stretching the time duration and contracting time frames at certain locations of the sun trajectory along a summer day to control the amount of daylighting in the morning and afternoon versus the noon time.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2017/05/25 11:31

_id f91f
authors Elezkurtaj, Tomor and Franck, Georg
year 2000
title Geometry and Topology. A User-Interface to Artificial Evolution in Architectural Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 309-312
summary The paper presents a system that supports architectural floor plan design interactively. The method of problem solving implemented is a combination of an evolutionary strategy (ES) and a genetic algorithm (GA). The problem to be solved consists of fitting a number of rooms (n) into an outline by observing functional requirements. The rooms themselves are specified concerning size, function and preferred proportion. The functional requirements entering the fitness functions are expressed in terms of the proportions of the rooms and the neighbourhood relations between them. The system is designed to deal with one of the core problems of computer supported creativity in architecture. For architecture, form not only, but also function is relevant. Without specifying the function that a piece of architecture is supposed to fulfil, it is hard to support its design by computerised methods of problem solving and optimisation. In architecture, however, function relates to comfort, easiness of use, and aesthetics as well. Since it is extraordinary hard, if not impossible, to operationalise aesthetics, computer aided support of creative architectural design is still in its infancy.
keywords New AI, Genetic Algorithms, Artificial Evolution, creative Architectural Design, Interactive Design, Topology
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 40a6
authors Ennis, Gareth and Lindsay, Malcolm
year 2001
title VRGLASGOW.CO.UK implementation of internet multi-user functionality to Glasgow's virtual city
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 135-142 [Book ordering info:]
summary The development of the Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) for the Internet has resulted in the emergence of a multiplicity of 3D web sites. The metaphor used by these sites varies enormously from virtual galleries to virtual cities and style varies from abstract to reality. Additionally these worlds are populated by virtual objects, some having reactive or interactive properties, including movement, audio, video, databases, artificial intelligence etc. Perhaps the most stimulating embodiment of these new environments are those that offer the participant the opportunity to meet and communicate with other visitors exploring the same virtual space/world. The Glasgow Directory is an established 3D web space, with around 10,000 visitors per year. The model represents approximayely 10,000 properties in the city and is populated by contextual information on its culture and socio-economic topography. This paper will describe the background to this VR space, and suggest a set of design criteria for successfully deploying multi-user software within this and similar environments. These criteria will take into account lessons learned by 'observing' and analysing how participants interact with the existing system under different conditions and also what benefits they perceive on entering the environment via the multi-user interface. These recommendations will hopefully be applicable to a wide spectrum of internet virtual environment builders and users.
series other
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id 3dcd
authors Ennis, Gary and Maver, Tom
year 2001
title Visit VR Glasgow - Welcoming multiple visitors to the Virtual City
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 423-429
summary The development of the Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) for the Internet has resulted in the emergence of a multiplicity of 3D web sites. The metaphor used by these sites varies enormously from virtual galleries to virtual cities and style varies from abstract to reality. Additionally these worlds are populated by virtual objects, some having reactive or interactive properties, including movement, audio, video, databases, artificial intelligence etc. Perhaps the most stimulating embodiment of these new environments are those that offer the participant the opportunity to meet and communicate with other visitors exploring the same virtual space/world. The Glasgow Directory is an established 3D web space, with around 10,000 visitors per year. The model represents approximately 10,000 properties in the city and is populated by contextual information on its culture and socio-economic topography. This paper describes the background to this VR space, and suggests a set of design criteria for successfully deploying multi-user software within this and similar environments. These criteria take into account lessons learned by ‘observing’ and analysing how participants interact with the existing system under different conditions and also what benefits they perceive on entering the environment via the multi-user interface. These recommendations will hopefully be applicable to a wide spectrum of internet virtual environment builders and users.
keywords Virtual, City, 3-D, Databases, Interaction
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id caadria2019_626
id caadria2019_626
authors Hahm, Soomeen, Maciel, Abel, Sumitiomo, Eri and Lopez Rodriguez, Alvaro
year 2019
title FlowMorph - Exploring the human-material interaction in digitally augmented craftsmanship
source M. Haeusler, M. A. Schnabel, T. Fukuda (eds.), Intelligent & Informed - Proceedings of the 24th CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand, 15-18 April 2019, pp. 553-562
summary It has been proposed that, after the internet age, we are now entering a new era of the '/Augmented Age/' (King, 2016). Physician Michio Kaku imagined the future of architects will be relying heavily on Augmented Reality technology (Kaku, 2015). Augmented reality technology is not a new technology and has been evolving rapidly. In the last three years, the technology has been applied in mainstream consumer devices (Coppens, 2017). This opened up possibilities in every aspect of our daily lives and it is expected that this will have a great impact on every field of consumer's technology in near future, including design and fabrication. What is the future of design and making? What kind of new digital fabrication paradigm will emerge from inevitable technological development? What kind of impact will this have on the built environment and industry? FlowMorph is a research project developed in the Bartlett School of Architecture, B-Pro AD with the collaboration of the authors and students as a 12 month MArch programme, we developed a unique design project trying to answer these questions which will be introduced in this paper.
keywords Augmented Reality, Mixed Reality, Virtual Reality, Design Augmentation, Digital Fabrication, Cognition models, Conceptual Designing, Design Process, Design by Making, Generative Design, Computational Design, Human-Machine Collaboration, Human-Computer Collaboration, Human intuition in digital fabrication
series CAADRIA
last changed 2019/04/16 08:25

_id cf2011_p075
id cf2011_p075
authors Janssen, Patrick; Chen Kian Wee
year 2011
title Visual Dataflow Modelling: A Comparison of Three Systems
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 801-816.
summary Visual programming languages enable users to create computer programs by manipulating graphical elements rather than by entering text. The difference between textual languages and visual languages is that most textual languages use a procedural programming model, while most visual languages use a dataflow programming model. When visual programming is applied to design, it results in a new modelling approach that we refer to 'visual dataflow modelling' (VDM). Recently, VDM has becoming increasingly popular within the design community, as it can accelerate the iterative design process, thereby allowing larger numbers of design possibilities to be explored. Furthermore, it is now also becoming an important tool in performance-based design approaches, since it may potentially enable the closing of the loop between design development and design evaluation. A number of CAD systems now provide VDM interfaces, allowing designers to define form generating procedures without having to resort to scripting or programming. However, these environments have certain weaknesses that limit their usability. This paper will analyse these weaknesses by comparing and contrasting three VDM environments: McNeel Grasshopper, Bentley Generative Components, and Sidefx Houdini. The paper will focus on five key areas: * Conditional logic allow rules to be applied to geometric entities that control how they behave. Such rules will typically be defined as if-then-else conditions, where an action will be executed if a particular condition is true. A more advanced version of this is the while loop, where the action within the loop will be repeatedly executed while a certain condition remains true. * Local coordinate systems allow geometric entities to be manipulated relative to some convenient local point of reference. These systems may be either two-dimensional or three-dimensional, using either Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical systems. Techniques for mapping geometric entities from one coordinate system to another also need to be considered. * Duplication includes three types: simple duplication, endogenous duplication, and exogenous duplication. Simple duplication consists of copying some geometric entity a certain number of times, producing identical copies of the original. Endogenous duplication consist of copying some geometric entity by applying a set of transformations that are defined as part of the duplication process. Lastly, exogenous duplication consists of copying some geometric entity by applying a set of transformations that are defined by some other external geometry. * Part-whole relationships allow geometric entities to be grouped in various ways, based on the fundamental set-theoretic concept that entities can be members of sets, and sets can be members of other sets. Ways of aggregating data into both hierarchical and non-hierarchical structures, and ways of filtering data based on these structures need to be considered. * Spatial queries include relationships between geometric entities such as touching, crossing, overlapping, or containing. More advanced spatial queries include various distance based queries and various sorting queries (e.g. sorting all entities based on position) and filtering queries (e.g. finding all entities with a certain distance from a point). For each of these five areas, a simple benchmarking test case has been developed. For example, for conditional logic, the test case consists of a simple room with a single window with a condition: the window should always be in the longest north-facing wall. If the room is rotated or its dimensions changed, then the window must re-evaluate itself and possibly change position to a different wall. For each benchmarking test-case, visual programs are implemented in each of the three VDM environments. The visual programs are then compared and contrasted, focusing on two areas. First, the type of constructs used in each of these environments are compared and contrasted. Second, the cognitive complexity of the visual programming task in each of these environments are compared and contrasted.
keywords visual, dataflow, programming, parametric, modelling
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ecaadesigradi2019_307
id ecaadesigradi2019_307
authors Kovacs, Adam Tamas, Szoboszlai, Mihaly and Csusz, Istvan
year 2019
title Key for Entering Industry 4.0 in the AEC Sector - BIM Organisation Development
source Sousa, JP, Xavier, JP and Castro Henriques, G (eds.), Architecture in the Age of the 4th Industrial Revolution - Proceedings of the 37th eCAADe and 23rd SIGraDi Conference - Volume 1, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 September 2019, pp. 275-282
summary More and more sectors are entering Industry 4.0 but when we look around in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction industry, we do not see it happening. We wanted to investigate the reason behind this. Therefore, we conducted research among Hungarian design studios to find out what level of development they are at, and what the obstacles could be for implementing the latest technologies. This paper identifies the main problem we uncovered and discusses a possible solution. We explain what BIM Organisation Development is and why it is fundamental for architect studios who would like to enter Industry 4.0. We introduce the so-called Brick+Data Method, specifying its three essential development steps to get BIM technologies implemented and to make architect studios more efficient. Finally, we share our findings according to the feedback of the companies we worked with using this method.
keywords BIM; organisation development; technology implementation; Industry 4.0; design process
series eCAADeSIGraDi
last changed 2019/08/26 20:25

_id ecaade2011_160
id ecaade2011_160
authors Matejovská, Dana; Achten, Henri
year 2011
title What is the Goal in Teaching Basic CAD?
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.57-62
wos WOS:000335665500005
summary In this paper we report on ongoing monitoring of the entering situation of students at our faculty in terms of their computer and CAD skills. By means of an online enquiry developed by Liverpool and Graz we also investigated the attitudes towards CAD by architects in practice. Based on these findings, we aim to identify what we should teach our students in terms of CAD skills.
keywords Basic skills teaching; post graduation demands; education; situation in practice
series eCAADe
type normal paper
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id c219
authors Maver, T.W. and Petric, J.
year 1996
title Predicting Visual Impact: Computer Aided Visual Impact Analysis
source Approaches to Computer Aided Architectural Composition [ISBN 83-905377-1-0] 1996, pp. 163-184
summary The natural and the man-made environment is under increasing stress. We are entering a phase when the exploitation of energy resources is likely to cause a dramatic acceleration in our rate of impact on the natural environment; in particular, there is cause for serious concern regarding the damaging visual impact of energy related developments - oil terminals, dams, power stations, electricity transmission lines, open cast mining - on remaining areas of relatively unspoilt rural landscape. In the developed countries, the urban environment is presenting architects, planners and development agencies with some of the most significant and intractable problems in the last decade of the 20 Century. The problems are the most chronic in those cities which rose to greatness at the height of the industrial revolution- as heavy industry has declined, industrial sites have become derelict, the working population has drifted away and housing has fallen below tolerable standards. Yet in most cases, much evidence of urban greatness remains - in the grandeur of the public buildings, in the scale of the cityscape and in the spirit of those who still have their homes, and their cultural roots, in the inner city.
series other
last changed 2003/04/16 09:53

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