CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id sigradi2006_c129b
id sigradi2006_c129b
authors Abad, Gabriel; Adriane Borde; Mónica Fuentes; Virginia Agrielav; Adriana Granero and Jacqueline Fernández
year 2006
title Producción colaborativa de material de enseñanza-aprendizaje de Gráfica Digital con aportes multidisciplinarios [Collaborative production for taught-learning materials for digital graphic with multidisciplinary contributions]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 117-121
summary For a contribution to problem solving processes at different areas, this paper presents the use of Digital Graphics as a knowledge object for a distance teaching/learning workshop. At the Learning Management System, different theoretical subjects with supporting tools were proposed, and exercises requiring collaborative work. An specific didactic situation using available technologies at Internet for 3D modelling, combined with satellite images and geographic information program was proposed. The final works were then shared by a 3D models repository. As a complement of this experience and in relation with their professional work, every student proposed a new didactic situation including Learning Objects, sharing them with the others members of the group, through conceptual maps built up in a co-operative way.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ijac20097404
id ijac20097404
authors Achten, Henri H.
year 2009
title Experimental Design Methods - A Review
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 7 - no. 4, 505-534
summary Experimental design methods are applied in all phases of the design process and by almost every party involved in the design process. In this paper, we aim to give an overview of the background, applications, and technologies involved. A limited simple metric is introduced for assessing the degree of innovation. Future developments are outlined.
series journal
last changed 2010/09/06 06:02

_id avocaad_2003_09
id avocaad_2003_09
authors Alexander Asanowicz
year 2003
title Form Follows Media - Experiences of Bialystok School of Architectural Composition
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary This paper considers transition from physical modelling to digital methods of the creation of architectural forms. Every type of creation has constructed the proper means of expression and its own methodology. The main thesis of this paper is that a specific character of the composition activity of an architect is determined by the modelling methods. As the research on architectural modelling, the two methods of creating spatial architectural forms (cardboard model and computer model) have been compared. Research has been done on the basis of the same exercise for both media. The process of creation proceeded in the same way, too. As the start point students have found the inspiration. Each student presented photos of existing architectural objects and a text, which explained the reasons of the choice. Next steps were sketches of the idea and realisation of the model. The achieved results of creative activity fully confirm the thesis of the research.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id bba7
authors Alexander, Christopher W.
year 1964
title Notes on the Synthesis of Form
source Harvard Graduate School of Design
summary Every design problem begins with an effort to achieve fitness between two entities: the form in question and its context. The form is the solution to the problem; the context defines the problem. We want to put the context and the form into effortless contact or frictionless coexistence, i.e., we want to find a good fit. For a good fit to occur in practice, one vital condition must be satisfied. It must have time to happen. In slow-changing, traditional, unselfconscious cultures, a form is adjusted soon after each slight misfit occurs. If there was good fit at some stage in the past, no matter how removed, it will have persisted, because there is an active stability at work. Tradition and taboo dampen and control the rate of change in an unselfconscious culture's designs. It is important to understand that the individual person in an unselfconscious culture needs no creative strength. He does not need to be able to improve the form, only to make some sort of change when he notices a failure. The changes may not always be for the better; but it is not necessary that they should be, since the operation of the process allows only the improvements to persist. Unselfconscious design is a process of slow adaptation and error reduction. In the unselfconscious process there is no possibility of misconstruing the situation. Nobody makes a picture of the context, so the picture cannot be wrong. But the modern, selfconscious designer works entirely from a picture in his mind - a conceptualization of the forces at work and their interrelationships - and this picture is almost always wrong. To achieve in a few hours at the drawing board what once took centuries of adaptation and development, to invent a form suddenly which clearly fits its context - the extent of invention necessary is beyond the individual designer. A designer who sets out to achieve an adaptive good fit in a single leap is not unlike the child who shakes his glass-topped puzzle fretfully, expecting at one shake to arrange the bits inside correctly. The designer's attempt is hardly as random as the child's is; but the difficulties are the same. His chances of success are small because the number of factors which must fall simultaneously into place is so enormous. The process of design, even when it has become selfconscious, remains a process of error-reduction. No complex system will succeed in adapting in a reasonable amount of time or effort unless the adaptation can proceed component by component, each component relatively independent of the others. The search for the right components, and the right way to build the form up from these components, is the greatest challenge faced by the modern, selfconscious designer. The culmination of the modern designer's task is to make every unit of design both a component and a system. As a component it will fit into the hierarchy of larger components that are above it; as a system it will specify the hierarchy of smaller components of which it itself is made.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id sigradi2015_2.162
id sigradi2015_2.162
authors Almeida, Fernando; Andrade, Max
year 2015
title GIS as a catalyst tool for Smart Cities
source SIGRADI 2015 [Proceedings of the 19th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - vol. 1 - ISBN: 978-85-8039-135-0] Florianópolis, SC, Brasil 23-27 November 2015, pp. 46-50.
summary Every building has its individual and measurable role on resources consumption, waste generation and neighborhood impact within a city, and tracking this behavior is an essential task for establishing a sustainable path into a Smart City model. This paper preliminarily investigates how GIS can contribute in creating an integrated and dynamic system built to attend public utilities and urban management offices for parameters at various scales.
keywords GIS, Smart Cities, Urban Infrastructure, Public Services, Urban Management
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2003_096
id sigradi2003_096
authors Alvarez, Valeria and Albero, Constanza
year 2003
title Una rama en la arquitectura de la era digital (A branch in architecture of the digital age)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary Genetic information determines the germ of life, the first idea, that encloses all the power of creation. In every "germ" lays the identity, the strength to seek and fulfill expression in form. History, technical and scientific progress require new answers and provide new tools while encouraging investigation. A "Branch", a simple nature element, is reinterpreted into bits of information, reconstructed after being apprehended. This process reveals new elements that could have never been conceived with traditional methods. Nature and Technology complement each other in an embriological growing system that provides a new concept in the construction of real spaces.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2005_811
id sigradi2005_811
authors Amundarain, Iñaki Martín; Víctor Aperribay ; Jesús Mª Alonso ; José Javier San Martín José Ignacio San Martín ; José Mª Arrieta ; Igor Treviño
year 2005
title Advanced techniques of design in support to medical science: Application to implantological treatments.
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 2, pp. 811-817
summary At the present time the importance of the image of people plays a key role. Therefore many people who leave these standards wish to change their aesthetic face one, in occasions to look for characteristics that respond to the modern beauty, and in others, to try to solve a medical problem. In the work that is exposed here, the use of the present technological tools of design appears, like support to the scientific development that it makes possible an effectively learn more express and to the students of Odontolgy, improvement of the quality of the treatments of the doctors and help the patients to see beforehand the final results of the operations, avoiding to see disagreeable images. So, the support of the surgical procedures on systems CAD/CAM is making possible the enormous development of medical science, such form that are every time better, more comfortable to learn and are less traumatic for them. [Full paper in Spanish]
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id acadia16_54
id acadia16_54
authors Andreen, David; Jenning, Petra; Napp, Nils; Petersen, Kirstin
year 2016
title Emergent Structures Assembled by Large Swarms of Simple Robots
source ACADIA // 2016: POSTHUMAN FRONTIERS: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines [Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-77095-5] Ann Arbor 27-29 October, 2016, pp. 54-61
summary Traditional architecture relies on construction processes that require careful planning and strictly defined outcomes at every stage; yet in nature, millions of relatively simple social insects collectively build large complex nests without any global coordination or blueprint. Here, we present a testbed designed to explore how emergent structures can be assembled using swarms of active robots manipulating passive building blocks in two dimensions. The robot swarm is based on the toy “bristlebot”; a simple vibrating motor mounted on top of bristles to propel the body forward. Since shape largely determines the details of physical interactions, the robot behavior is altered by carefully designing its geometry instead of uploading a digital program. Through this mechanical programming, we plan to investigate how to tune emergent structural properties such as the size and temporal stability of assemblies. Alongside a physical testbed with 200 robots, this work involves comprehensive simulation and analysis tools. This simple, reliable platform will help provide better insight on how to coordinate large swarms of robots to construct functional structures.
keywords emergent structures, mechanical intelligence, swarm robotics
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2016/10/24 11:12

_id sigradi2005_000
id sigradi2005_000
authors Angulo, Antonieta and Vásquez de Velasco, Guillermo (eds.)
year 2005
title SiGradi2005: Vision and Visualization
source Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics Graphics / ISBN 978-1-59975-306-5] Lima (Perú) 21-23 november 2005, 826 p.
summary Paradoxically, one of the most difficult but enjoyable things we do is to imagine. To open the eyes of our mind and see what no one else can see. We see images of things that are yet to be and through the same skill we devise ways in which to make them happen. We design the future in the form of environments, graphics, products, films, and a growing range of new media. Our ability to develop a vision and to visualize it is a gift that we are called to cultivate and put to good use. We have been privileged with a great responsibility. In the process of developing a vision and communicating that vision to others, we “visualize”. Visualization can be a very private experience in which we are alone with mental images that help us shape our vision. In other instances visualization can be a component of mass communication. Visualization can be a means or can be an end. It can be a small architectural sketch on a paper napkin or a mega-graphic covering a high-rise building, an airplane or a ship. In every case, the relationship between vision and visualization is a mutually supportive articulation of what our eyes and our minds can see. Our vision of the role of computers in the art and science of visualization is in constant development. Computer visualization can support an intimate dialog between a designer and his/her vision. It can translate and communicate that vision to a larger audience and in the hands of a new-media artist it can actually constitute his/her vision. The 9th Annual Conference of SIGraDI (Ibero American Society for Computer Graphics) will explore our collective vision on the future of digital visualization and digital media in Environmental Design, Product Design, Graphic Design, Cinematography, New Media, and Art. Authors are invited to share their research work with a focus on how it contributes to shape a collective understanding of the past, awareness of the present, and vision of the future in our multiple disciplines.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ga0127
id ga0127
authors Antonini, Riccardo
year 2001
title The darwinian structure of the design process
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This text is meant only to be a stimulus for the discussion to be held, in a specific panel, at Generative Art 2001. In the text, “provocative enough” to spur animated discussion, some very basics of darwinism and genetics are given with the only purpose of declaring a common “stage for the play” where everybody feels at ease. Common stage and common vocabulary ifnot even common language. The main thesis is very strong, therefore comments and critics are warmly encouraged. They are the selective pressure that steers the evolution of ideas. We all need them. The thesis is basically the following: “Every creative process is a darwinian one”.Besides, it will be shown that it is also a very peculiar one where the information and its implementation sometimes switch their role one another.
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ddssar0002
id ddssar0002
authors Aoki, Yoshitsugu and Inage, Makoto
year 2000
title Linguistic Operation System for Design of Architectural Form
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary In a process of architectural design, an architect not only draws by himself/herself but also lets another person modify a design by given a linguistic instruction expressing how the design ought to be. In the case of utilization of CAD systems, it is useful if the system modifies the design according to the linguistic instruction. On the other hand, because of the recent increase of the opportunities of designing a building whose roof has complicated curved surface, it extremely takes labor to change the design. This paper proposes a linguistic operation system that modifies a design according to the linguistic instruction of the modification by the user to support design of a complicated form with curved surface. The proposed system is expected to be integrated with a CAD system. First, the system presents a perspective sketch of a designed form. From the values of the design variables that characterize the form in the system, the system calculates the position of the form in “the association image space.” Second, the designer puts a linguistic instruction i.e., words as like as “let it be more light” to modify the form. The words used for the instruction have the position in the association image space. In the association image space, the system moves the position of the form to a new position that gets to be near the position of the given word. The system calculates the values of the design variables of the form corresponding to the new position. We need a mapping from every vector representing the position of the changed form in the association image space to the corresponding vector representing the values of the design variables. To find the mapping, we construct a neural network system with three levels. Finally, the system presents a perspective sketch of changed form using the calculated values of design variables.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 0c91
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1997
title Computer - Tool vs. Medium
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary We have arrived an important juncture in the history of computing in our profession: This history is long enough to reveal clear trends in the use of computing, but not long to institutionalize them. As computers peremate every area of architecture - from design and construction documents to project administration and site supervision - can “virtual practice” be far behind? In the old days, there were basically two ways of architects working. Under stress. Or under lots more stress. Over time, someone forwarded the radical motion that the job could be easier, you could actually get more work done. Architects still have been looking for ways to produce more work in less time. They need a more productive work environment. The ideal environment would integrate man and machine (computer) in total harmony. As more and more architects and firms invest more and more time, money, and effort into particular ways of using computers, these practices will become resistant to change. Now is the time to decide if computing is developing the way we think it should. Enabled and vastly accelerated by technology, and driven by imperatives for cost efficiency, flexibility, and responsiveness, work in the design sector is changing in every respect. It is stands to reason that architects must change too - on every level - not only by expanding the scope of their design concerns, but by altering design process. Very often we can read, that the recent new technologies, the availability of computers and software, imply that use of CAAD software in design office is growing enormously and computers really have changed the production of contract documents in architectural offices.
keywords Computers, CAAD, Cyberreal, Design, Interactive, Medium, Sketches, Tools, Virtual Reality
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id b914
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander and Asanowicz, Katarzyna
year 1995
title Designing, CAD and CAD
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 181-192
summary The general aim of our discussion is to analyze what has been changed in design process according to introducing the computers technology. For the better understanding of the design process evolution, we should precisely define start point - the traditional design process.Let's treat it as an iteration game between a designer and user. If we assume that the designing base is a reductive strategy, we can define six stages of it: 1.) To define a need; 2.) To formulate a task; 3.) To synthesize a design proposals; 4.) To analyze and optimize; 5.) To make a presentation. // The last stage - the presentation of designing proposals is the main factor of using computers in design process and creating definition of CAD as Computer Aided Drafting. According to this interpretation CAD has included four groups of activities: A.) Geometrical modelling; B.) Analysis; C.) Revision and estimation of design proposals; D.) Technical drawing preparing. // Unfortunately it has no connections with another meaning of CAD - Computer Aided Design because concerns every stage of design process except of creation of architectural form. On the other hand, computer enables us to improve the design process by permanent perception of designing forms and dynamic control over the transforming structure. Nowadays thanks to full-function sketching workstation and software like Fractal Design Painter a computer can be useful from the moment when the first line is drawing. It is possible, that the new generation of CAD software - CAD with Personality which connects computer models with picture transformation will enable CAD to be Computer Aided Design.
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id ascaad2014_036
id ascaad2014_036
authors Assassi, Abdelhalim; Belal Taher and Samai Rachida
year 2014
title Intelligent Digital Craft to Recognize Spatial Installations for Residential Designs
source Digital Crafting [7th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2014 / ISBN 978-603-90142-5-6], Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), 31 March - 3 April 2014, pp. 195-196; 443-456
summary Architecture took an evolutionary context over time, where designers were interested in finding pragmatic spontaneous appropriate solutions and met the needs of people in urban and architectural spaces. Whereas, in modern architecture an intense and varied competition happens between architects through various currents of thoughts , schools and movements, however, that creativity was the ultimate goal , and a the same time we find that every architect distinguishes himself individually or collectively through tools of architectural expression and design representation adopting a school of thought, using , for example, the leaves of various sizes and diverse technical drawing tools to accurately show that he can be read by professionals or craftsmen outside the geographical scope to which it belongs .With the rapid technological development which accompanied the digital craft in the contemporary world , The digital craft summed up time, distance and tools , so they gave the concept more appropriate accuracy , as virtualization has become the most effective tool for Architecture To reach the ideal and typical results at the practical level, or pure research. At the level of residential design and on the grounds that housing plays an important role in the government policies and given that housing is a basic unit common to all urban communities on earth , the use of different programs to show its typicality in two dimensions or in the third dimension - for example, using software "AutoCAD " " 3D Max " , " ArchiCAD " ... etc. - gave virtualisation smart, creative and beautiful forms which lead to better understand the used /or to be used residential spaces, and thus the conclusion that the life system of dwelling under design or under study , as can specifically recognize spatial structure in housing design - using digital software applying "Space Syntax" for example - in the shadow of slowly growing digital and creative development with the help of high-speed computers . the morphological structure of the dwelling is considered to be the most important contemporary residential designs Investigation through which the researcher in this area aims to understand the various behavioral relations and social structures within the projected residential area, using Space Syntax techniques. Through the structural morphology of dwellings can be inferred quality networks, levels of connectivity and depth and places of openness or closure within the dwelling under study, or under design. How, then, have intelligently contributed this digital craft to the perception of those spatial fixtures ? The aim of this research is to apply an appropriate program in the field of vernacular residential design and notably Space syntax which relate to the understanding and analysis of spatial structures, and also demonstrate its role at the morphological and spatial structure aspects, and prove how effective it helps to understand the social logic of domestic space through social individual/collective relationships and behaviors projected on the spatial configurations of dwellings. The answer to the issue raised above and at the methodological aspect, the study discussed the application of space syntax techniques on the subject. The findings tend to prove the efficiency by comparing samples of Berber vernacular domestic spaces from the Mzab, the Aures and Kabilya in Algeria, and has also led to ascertain the intelligibility of space syntax techniques in reading the differences between the behaviors in domestic spaces in different areas of the sample through long periods of time .
series ASCAAD
last changed 2016/02/15 12:09

_id 10b7
authors Aukstakalnis, Steve and Blatner, David
year 1992
title Silicon Mirage: The Art and Science of Virtual Reality
source Peachpit Press
summary An introduction to virtual reality covers every aspect of the revolutionary new technology and its many possible applications, from computer games to air traffic control. Original. National ad/promo.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 174f
authors Bakker, N.H.
year 2001
title Spatial Orientation in Virtual Environments
source Delft University of Technology
summary Recently, a growing interest can be detected in the application of Virtual Environment (VE) technology as an operator interface. VEs are three-dimensional computer-generated images that can be shown on a conventional monitor, on a large screen display, or on a head-mounted display. In order to use these three-dimensional interfaces for finding and retrieving information, the user must be able to spatially orient themselves. Different types of VE technology are available for navigating in these VEs, and different types of navigation can be enabled. A choice has to be made between the different options to enable good spatial orientation of the user. There are two main types of VE interfaces: an immersive interface that provides rich sensory feedback to the user when moving around in the VE, and a non-immersive interface that provides only visual feedback to the user when moving around in the VE. Furthermore, navigation through the VE can either be continuous providing fluent motion, or can be discontinuous which means that the viewpoint is displaced instantaneously over a large distance. To provide insight into the possible effects of these options a series of nine experiments was carried out. In the experiments the quality of spatial orientation behaviour of test subjects is measured while using the different types of interface and the different types of navigation. The results of the experiments indicate that immersive navigation improves the perception of displacement through the VE, which in turn aids the acquisition of spatial knowledge. However, as soon as the spatial layout of the VE is learned the two types of navigation interface do not lead to differences in spatial orientation performance. A discontinuous displacement leads to temporary disorientation, which will hinder the acquisition of spatial knowledge. The type of discontinuous displacements has an effect on the time needed for anticipation. The disorienting effects of a discontinuous displacement can be compensated for by enabling cognitive anticipation to the destination of the displacement. These results suggest that immersive navigation might only be beneficial for application domains in which new spatial layouts have to be learned every time or in domains where the primary users are novices. For instance, in training firemen to teach them the layout of new buildings with VE, or in using architectural walkthroughs in VE to show new building designs to potential buyers. Discontinuous movement should not be allowed when exploring a new environment. Once the environment is learned and if fast displacement is essential then discontinuous displacement should be preferred. In this case, the interface designer must make sure that information is provided about the destination of a discontinuous displacement.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ecaade2017_280
id ecaade2017_280
authors Baldissara, Matteo, Perna, Valerio, Saggio, Antonino and Stancato, Gabriele
year 2017
title Plug-In Design - Reactivating the Cities with responsive Micro-Architectures. The Reciprocal Experience
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 571-580
summary Every city has under utilized spaces that create a series of serious negative effects. Waiting for major interventions, those spaces can be reactivated and revitalized with soft temporary projects: micro interventions that light up the attention, give new meaning and add a new reading to abandoned spaces. We can call this kind of operations "plug-in design", inheriting the term from computer architecture: interventions which aim to involve the citizens and activate the environment, engage multiple catalyst processes and civil actions. Plug-in design interventions are by all meanings experimental, they seek for interaction with the users, locally and globally. Information Technology - with its parametric and site-specific capabilities and interactive features - can be instrumental to create such designs and generate a new consciousness of the existing environment. With this paper we will illustrate how two low-budget interventions have re-activated a forgotten public space. Parametric design with a specific script allowing site-specific design, materials and structure optimization and a series of interactive features, will be presented through Reciprocal 1.0 and Reciprocal 2.0 projects which have been built in 2016 in Italy by the nITro group.
keywords reciprocal frame; parametric design; responsive technology; plug-in design; interactivity; re-activate
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:31

_id 56
authors Barron, Alicia and Chiarelli, Julia
year 1998
title Proyecto Para la Red de un Estudio de Arquitectura (Project for the Network of a Studio of Architecture)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 418-425
summary A consequence of the globalization on information processes in the way in which new technologies influence on design and production processes. There is no doubt that there is an increasingly and a big change in the areas of architecture design concerning to the operational and working methodology on graphic and alphanumeric information. Now a day it is not a far away Utopia, but a soon to come reality that architects interact in a virtual manner with their individual or institutional clients in their own country, as well as in foreign countries. Keeping these considerations in mind, we elaborated this Paper in order to present one of the existing criteria for the organization of graphic information jointly with its spatial relationship. The work presented herewith shows the development of an informatic net for an ideal mega-studio which in its professional and entrepreneurial profile covers tasks such as design, construction, graphic design and representation of foreign concerns. In the net design and in the selection of equipment for computing design area are covered all the variables at every instance.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 963b
authors Bartels, R.H., Beatty, J.C. and Barsky, B.A.
year 1987
title An Introduction to Splines for Use in Computer Graphics and Geometric Modeling
source Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos, CA
summary The most basic output primitives in every computer graphics library are "lineSegment()" and "Polygon()", ortheir equivalents. These are, of course, sufficent in the sense that any curved line or surface can be arbitrarrily well approximated by straight line segments or planar polygons, but in many contexts that is not enough. Such approximations often require large amounts of data to obtain satifactory smoothness, and they are awkward to manipulate. Then too, even with the the most sophisticated continous shading models, polygonaltechniques can resultin visually ojectionable images. Mach bands may be apparent at the borders between adjacent polygons, and there is always a telltale angularity to polygonal silhouettes. Hence many modeling systems are augmented by circles, spheres, cylinders, etc. and allow such simple primitives to be combined to form quite complex objects.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 841a
authors Bartnicka, Malgorzata
year 1997
title The Animal, Full Blood maybe, but Untamed
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 103-108
summary So far yet, even the most advanced technology has not been able to substitute a human, his thoughts, feelings, dreams, longings, visions. It can though, removing need for all kind of effort from our everyday life, surrounding a human with unprecedented comfort, create feeling of peace and security. Task of a computer is to provide assistance, helping in calculations, forming of refined solids, It contains a compendium of knowledge and memory - but not creative skills. So far it's only a machine, with help of which a possibility of creative expression is expanded. It only can solve problems for a human faster and more efficient way, does not have the ability to describe (formulate) problems. Even while providing a support, does it do that honestly? It means, does it support us in those of our doings where we truly need it? Computers have enormous possibilities of use that are not exploited sufficiently and all the time new generations of yet quicker machines with unbelievable power are being created. Every new type of computer appears to be obsolete and insufficient within a few months. Insufficient for what?
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

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