CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 155

_id ascaad2010_241
id ascaad2010_241
authors Aboreeda, Faten; Dina Taha
year 2010
title Using Case-Based Reasoning to Aid Sustainable Design
source CAAD - Cities - Sustainability [5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2010 / ISBN 978-1-907349-02-7], Fez (Morocco), 19-21 October 2010, pp. 241-246
summary Since so far there exists only one planet, sustainable design is considered the (ethical) future in all fields of design. Although both architecture and construction are being considered major emitters of green house gases, a wise design not only can lead to minimizing this impact but it can also lead to restoring and regenerating the environment to a sustainable state. This paper presents an on-going research that aims at simplifying the elements and facilitating the process of sustainable design by using case-based reasoning. This is achieved through learning from past experiences; both good and bad ones, by providing a database application with a process-friendly interface which divides the main pillars of sustainable design into categories. Each building contains different stories related to different sustainable related issues. Each story can be repeated in /linked to many buildings. By providing designers with those past experiences, it is believed that deeper-studied designs can be more easily developed. Also a deeper analysis and understanding can be further implemented and produced with less effort for experienced and non-experienced architects in sustainable design. This would also decrease the consumption of time during the design process and encourage even more designers to integrate the sustainability concept into more designs. This research discusses the influence of sustainable design within the architectural domain, and suggests a computer application that aids architects during the preliminary design processes.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2011/03/01 06:36

_id 060b
authors Af Klercker, J.
year 1997
title A National Strategy for CAAD and IT-Implementation in the Construction Industry the Construction Industry
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The objective of this paper is to present a strategy for implementation of CAD and IT in the construction and building management#1 industry in Sweden. The interest is in how to make the best use of the limited resources in a small country or region, cooperating internationally and at the same time avoiding to be totally dominated by the great international actors in the market of information technology.

In Sweden representatives from the construction and building management industry have put forward a research and development program called: "IT-Bygg#2 2002 - Implementation". It aims at making IT the vehicle for decreasing the building costs and at the same time getting better quality and efficiency out of the industry.

The presented strategy is based on a seminar with some of the most experienced researchers, developers and practitioners of CAD in Sweden. The activities were recorded and annotated, analyzed and put together afterwards.

The proposal in brief is that object oriented distributed CAD is to be used in the long perspective. It will need to be based on international standards such as STEP and it will take at least another 5 years to get established.

Meanwhile something temporary has to be used. Pragmatically a "de facto standard" on formats has to be accepted and implemented. To support new users of IT all software in use in the country will be analyzed, described and published for a national platform for IT-communication within the construction industry.

Finally the question is discussed "How can architect schools then contribute to IT being implemented within the housing sector at a regional or national level?" Some ideas are presented: Creating the good example, better support for the customer, sharing the holistic concept of the project with all actors, taking part in an integrated education process and international collaboration like AVOCAAD and ECAADE.


keywords CAAD, IT, Implementation, Education, Collaboration
series eCAADe
type normal paper
last changed 2007/01/21 13:05

_id 730e
authors Af Klercker, Jonas
year 1997
title Implementation of IT and CAD - what can Architect schools do?
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 83-92
summary In Sweden representatives from the Construction industry have put forward a research and development program called: "IT-Bygg 2002 -Implementation". It aims at making IT the vehicle for decreasing the building costs and at the same time getting better quality and efficiency out of the industry. A seminar was held with some of the most experienced researchers, developers and practitioners of CAD in construction in Sweden. The activities were recorded and annotated, analysed and put together afterwards; then presented to the participants to agree on. Co-operation is the key to get to the goals - IT and CAD are just the means to improve it. Co-operation in a phase of implementation is enough problematic without the technical difficulties in using computer programs created by the computer industry primarily for commercial reasons. The suggestion is that cooperation between software companies within Sweden will make a greater market to share than the sum of all individual efforts. In the short term, 2 - 5 years, implementation of CAD and IT will demand a large amount of educational efforts from all actors in the construction process. In the process of today the architect is looked upon as a natural coordinator of the design phase. In the integrated process the architect's methods and knowledge are central and must be spread to other categories of actors - what a challenge! At least in Sweden the number of researchers and educators in CAAD is easily counted. How do we make the most of it?
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 0c8e
authors Ager, Mark Thomas and Sinclair, Brian R.
year 1995
title StereoCAD: Three Dimensional Representation
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 343-355
summary Concepts of stereoscopic vision have been around for more than two thousand years. Despite this long history, its application to the field to architecture and design seems relatively unexplored. Synthesis of two technologies, the stereoscope and the computer, was the focus of the present study. The goal of the research was to determine if computer-generated stereoscopic pairs hold value for architectural design. Using readily available computer technology (Apple Macintosh) the research team modelled and rendered an existing project to verify the degree of correlation between the physical construct, the computer 3D model and resultant correlation between the physical construct, the computer 3D model and resultant rendered stereo-paired representation. The experiments performed in this study have shown that producing stereo-paired images that highly correlate to reality is possible using technology that is readily available in the marketplace. Both the technology required to produce (i.e., personal computer and modelling/rendering software) and view (i.e., modified stereoscope) the images is unimposing. Both devices can easily fit in a studio or a boardroom and together can be utilized effectively to permit designers, clients and end-users to experience proposed spaces and projects. Furthermore, these technologies are familiar (clients and end-users have already experienced them in other applications and settings) and assume a fraction of the cost of more dynamic, immersive virtual reality systems. Working from this base, limitations of the process as well as future applications of computer-generated stereoscopic images are identified.
keywords Stereovision, Representation, Computers, Architects, Design
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id caadria2017_147
id caadria2017_147
authors Agirachman, Fauzan Alfi, Ozawa, Yo, Indraprastha, Aswin, Shinozaki, Michihiko, Sitompul, Irene Debora Meilisa, Nuraeni, Ruri, Chirstanti, Augustine Nathania, Putra, Andrew Cokro and Zefanya, Teresa
year 2017
title Reimagining Braga - Remodeling Bandung's Historical Colonial Streetscape in Virtual Reality
source P. Janssen, P. Loh, A. Raonic, M. A. Schnabel (eds.), Protocols, Flows, and Glitches - Proceedings of the 22nd CAADRIA Conference, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China, 5-8 April 2017, pp. 23-32
summary This paper presents the experience of the first phase of remodeling existing historical and colonial district in Bandung, Indonesia, including existing building façade, streetscape and street furniture. Braga Street is chosen as study case because it is a well-known historical street in Bandung with art deco style buildings constructed during Dutch colonial era. By remodeling it, it could help stakeholders to evaluate existing Braga street condition, to test any modification of buildings along the street and to determine specific regulation for the street. In this case, we use Unity3D and Oculus Rift DK2 for remodeling current situation. We gathered feedback from respondents using a questionnaire given after they experienced the model in VR. Many lessons learned from modeling process and respondents' feedback: higher frame rate to make seamless VR experience by having all components on a low poly model and provide smoother movement to prevent visual discomfort. This paper's conclusion gives suggestions for anyone who want to start architecture modeling in virtual reality for the very first time and how to optimize it.
keywords Virtual reality; historical building; digital reconstruction; streetscape
series CAADRIA
last changed 2017/05/09 08:05

_id ecaade2017_021
id ecaade2017_021
authors Agirbas, Asli
year 2017
title The Use of Simulation for Creating Folding Structures - A Teaching Model
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 325-332
summary In architectural education, the demand for creating forms with a non-Euclidean geometry, which can only be achieved by using the computer-aided design tools, is increasing. The teaching of this subject is a great challenge for both students and instructors, because of the intensive nature of architecture undergraduate programs. Therefore, for the creation of those forms with a non-Euclidean geometry, experimental work was carried out in an elective course based on the learning visual programming language. The creation of folding structures with form-finding by simulation was chosen as the subject of the design production which would be done as part of the content of the course. In this particular course, it was intended that all stages should be experienced, from the modeling in the virtual environment to the digital fabrication. Hence, in their early years of architectural education, the students were able to learn versatile thinking by experiencing, simultaneously, the use of simulation in the environment of visual programming language, the forming space by using folding structures, the material-based thinking and the creation of their designs suitable to the digital fabrication.
keywords Folding Structures; CAAD; Simulation; Form-finding; Architectural Education
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:13

_id ecaade2013_297
id ecaade2013_297
authors Aish, Robert
year 2013
title DesignScript: Scalable Tools for Design Computation
source Stouffs, Rudi and Sariyildiz, Sevil (eds.), Computation and Performance – Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference – Volume 2, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 18-20 September 2013, pp. 87-95
wos WOS:000340643600008
summary Design computation based on data flow graph diagramming is a well-established technique. The intention of DesignScript is to recognise this type of data flow modeling as a form of ‘associative’ programming and to combine this with the more conventional ‘imperative’ form of programming into a single unified computational design application. The use of this application is intended to range from very simple graph based exploratory ‘proto-programming’ as used by novice end-user programmers to multi-disciplinary design optimisation as used by more experienced computational designers.
keywords Graph; scripting; associative; imperative.
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ae05
authors Akin, Omer
year 1987
title Expertise of the Architect
source November, 1987. [13] p. unevenly numbered : ill. includes bibliography
summary One of the areas where the expertise of the seasoned architect comes out is in the initial structuring of design problems. During problem structuring the parameters and processes used in design are defined. Experienced architects modify these parameters both in global and local levels as a function of the success of their research process. Experienced architects also rely on 'scenarios' acquired through pervious experiences with similar problems to initialize their problem structures or to redefined them
keywords design, architecture, methods
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:09

_id ga9925
id ga9925
authors Ambrosini, L., Longatti, M. and Miyajima, H.
year 1999
title Time sections, abstract machines
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary conditions a time-spatial discontinuity in the urban grid, ancient walls casually discovered in a substrate of the contemporary town needs a surplus of information to be understood and interfaced with their current condition. diagrams diverse chronological stages of the urban evolution are mapped on the area, in order to read the historical stratifications as a multiplicity of signs; this abstract approach leads to consider the roman space as guided by metrics, a system of measure superimposed on the landscape, vs. medioeval spatial continuity, where more fluid relations between the same urban elements create a completely different pattern.assemblage (time sections) a surface, automatically displaced from the medioeval diagram, moves along the z axis, the historical stratification direction, intersecting in various, unpredictable, manners a series of paths; these paths start as parallels, allowing an undifferentiated access to the area, and mutate along their developing direction, intertweening and blending each other; linear openings are cut on the surface, virtually connecting the two levels by light, following the roman grid in rhythm and measure. Projected on the lateral wall, the cadence of the vertical and horizontal elements becomes a temporal diagram of the design process.movement time takes part into the process through two kinds of movement: the first one, freezed when reaches the best results, in terms of complexity, is given by the surface intersecting the tubular paths; the second one is represented by multiple routes walking on which the project can be experienced (in absence of any objective, fixed, point of view, movement becomes the only way to understand relations). Thresholds between typical architectural categories (such as inside-outside, object-landscape etc.) are blurred in favour of a more supple condition, another kind of continuity (re)appears, as a new media, between the different historical layers of the city.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id sigradi2009_854
id sigradi2009_854
authors Antoniazzi, Asdrubal; Airton Cattani; Jaqueline Viel Caberlon Pedoni
year 2009
title Procedimentos metodológicos para simulação computacional de ambientes históricos [Methodological procedures for computer simulation of historical surroundings]
source SIGraDi 2009 - Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 16-18, 2009
summary This study aims to present a classification of methodological procedures for using computer programmes to simulate architectural historical heritage. Produced for a Master’s Degree dissertation in Architecture, the methodology was developed based on several analyses of applications, possibilities and restrictions, with the assistance of photogrammetric reconstruction and several computer-graphics programmes. The files generated enable production of animations recording the changes experienced by buildings at various historical periods. These procedures were applied to the simulation of several buildings around the Praça Dante Alighieri in the centre of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, demonstrating their appropriateness and effectiveness and also showing the potential of computer-simulation resources for the historical environment, both educationally and in appreciation of architectural heritage.
keywords Three-dimensional geometric modelling; Computer simulation; Digital reconstruction; Historical environment
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ga9926
id ga9926
authors Antonini, Riccardo
year 1999
title Let's Improvise Together
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The creators of ‘Let's-Improvise-Together’ adhere to the idea that while there is a multitude of online games now available in cyberspace, it appears that relatively few are focused on providing a positive, friendly and productive experience for the user. Producing this kind of experience is one the goals of our Amusement Project.To this end, the creation of ‘Let's Improvise Together’ has been guided by dedication to the importance of three themes:* the importance of cooperation,* the importance of creativity, and* the importance of emotion.Description of the GameThe avatar arrives in a certain area where there are many sound-blocks/objects. Or he may add sound "property" to existing ones. He can add new objects at will. Each object may represents a different sound, they do not have to though. The avatar walks around and chooses which objects he likes. Makes copies of these and add sounds or change the sounds on existing ones, then with all of the sound-blocks combined make his personalized "instrument". Now any player can make sounds on the instrument by approaching or bumping into a sound-block. The way that the avatar makes sounds on the instrument can vary. At the end of the improvising session, the ‘composition’ will be saved on the instrument site, along with the personalized instrument. In this way, each user of the Amusement Center will leave behind him a unique instrumental creation, that others who visit the Center later will be able to play on and listen to. The fully creative experience of making a new instrument can be obtained connecting to Active Worlds world ‘Amuse’ and ‘Amuse2’.Animated colorful sounding objects can be assembled by the user in the Virtual Environment as a sort of sounding instrument. We refrain here deliberately from using the word musical instrument, because the level of control we have on the sound in terms of rythm and melody, among other parameters, is very limited. It resembles instead, very closely, to the primitive instruments used by humans in some civilizations or to the experience made by children making sound out of ordinary objects. The dimension of cooperation is of paramount importance in the process of building and using the virtual sounding instrument. The instrument can be built on ones own effort but preferably by a team of cooperating users. The cooperation has as an important corolary: the sharing of the experience. The shared experience finds its permanence in the collective memory of the sounding instruments built. The sounding instrument can be seen also as a virtual sculpture, indeed this sculpture is a multimedial one. The objects have properties that ranges from video animation to sound to virtual physical properties like solidity. The role of the user representation in the Virtual World, called avatar, is important because it conveys, among other things, the user’s emotions. It is worth pointing out that the Avatar has no emotions on its own but it simply expresses the emotions of the user behind it. In a way it could be considered a sort of actor performing the script that the user gives it in real-time while playing.The other important element of the integration is related to the memory of the experience left by the user into the Virtual World. The new layout is explored and experienced. The layout is a permanent editable memory. The generative aspects of Let's improvise together are the following.The multi-media virtual sculpture left behind any participating avatar is not the creation of a single author/artist. The outcome of the sinergic interaction of various authors is not deterministic, nor predictable. The authors can indeed use generative algorythm in order to create the texture to be used on the objects. Usually, in our experience, the visitors of the Amuse worlds use shareware programs in order to generate their texture. In most cases the shareware programs are simple fractals generators. In principle, it is possible to generate also the shape of the object in a generative way. Taking into account the usual audience of our world, we expected visitors to use very simple algorythm that could generate shapes as .rwx files. Indeed, noone has attempted to do so insofar. As far as the music is concerned, the availability of shareware programs that allow simple generation of sounds sequences has made possible, for some users, to generate sounds sequences to be put in our world. In conclusion, the Let's improvise section of the Amuse worlds could be open for experimentation on generative art as a very simple entry point platform. We will be very happy to help anybody that for educational purposes would try to use our platform in order to create and exhibit generative forms of art.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ecaade2020_267
id ecaade2020_267
authors Argin, Gorsev, Pak, Burak and Turkoglu, Handan
year 2020
title Through the Eyes of (Post-)Flâneurs - Altering rhythm and visual attention in public space in the era of smartphones
source Werner, L and Koering, D (eds.), Anthropologic: Architecture and Fabrication in the cognitive age - Proceedings of the 38th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 16-18 September 2020, pp. 239-248
summary In the last decade, rapid penetration of smartphones into our everyday life introduced a new kind of urban wanderer named as the 'post-flâneur'. By navigating through the virtual and physical space with a smartphone, and taking and sharing photographs, post-flâneur walks and experiences the city in novel ways. This paper aims to investigate the effects of smartphone use on the human-environment relationship by comparing post-flânerie with flânerie in public space with a focus on two key indicators: alteration of 1) the visual attention and 2) the walking rhythm. In this regard, ten postgraduate Architecture students are asked to perform flânerie and post-flânerie consecutively in the historical city center of Ghent with an eye-tracker and a smartphone. During the flânerie condition, they walked and experienced the city without using a smartphone. In the post-flânerie condition, they used a smartphone, took pictures and uploaded them to an application. By analyzing the eye-tracker (number and duration of fixations) and the smartphone (location data and geolocated photographs) data, altering rhythm and visual attention during the flânerie and post-flânerie were compared. Preliminary results indicate that flânerie and post-flânerie differ in terms of rhythm and visual attention. The average duration of fixations on the environment were significantly lower in the post-flânerie condition while the average walking rhythm was faster but impeded from time to time. In addition, post-flâneurs' visual attention was on the smartphone during a significant part of the stationary activities which point out to an altered state of public space appropriation. The findings are significant because they reveal the novel spatial appropriations and experiences of the (post)public space -particularly "the honeypot effect" which was more significant in the post-flânerie condition. These observations evoke questions on how designers can rethink public space as a hybrid construct integrating the virtual and the physical.
keywords post-flâneur; rhythm; visual attention; smartphone; eye-tracking
series eCAADe
last changed 2020/09/09 09:50

_id sigradi2009_037
id sigradi2009_037
authors Aroztegui Massera, Carmen; Rodrigo García Alvarado; María Isabel López
year 2009
title El Storyboard y el Animatic en la Enseñanza del Proyecto de Arquitectura [Storyboarding and Animatics in Architectural Education]
source SIGraDi 2009 - Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 16-18, 2009
summary This paper discusses the issues involved with the introduction of the storyboard and the animatic in a design studio exercise. Storyboards - sketches used in film planning -, and the animatic - basically a moving storyboard - allow the student to understand space within in the context of a narrative. The purpose of the exercise was to enable the expression of subjectively experienced space in an early stage of urban context analysis. Differently than the traditional approach to animation which results a camera traveling through a path, the exercise approached animation from the perspective of the stories about the place.
keywords storyboard; animatic; education; architecture studio
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ddss9406
id ddss9406
authors Bakel, Anton P.M. van
year 1994
title Assesing Strategy Questionnaire for Architectural Styles of Designing (ASQ-FASD)
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In this paper the first results will be discussed that were obtained by the Assessing Strategy Questionnaire For Architectural Styles of Designing (ASQ-FASD). This questionnaire was developed specifically for the assessment of architectural design strategies. The construction of the questionnaire will be discussed in light of previous protocol research on strategic styles of designing. With this questionnaire, we developed a tool to assess an architects design strategy in a faster, easier and more reliable way than used to be the case with conventional protocol studies and other knowledge eliciting techniques like Card Sorting, and Repertory Grid. This questionnairewas submitted in a pilot study to 10 experienced Dutch architects. R.esults show that architects do indeed have preferences for different design situations. Moreover results indicate that they havea preference with respect to their responses within such specific situations. Though the generalizability coefficient was calculated for no more than 10 architects with a value of .57 (generalizing across situations), we feel that this is reason enough to assume that the questionnaire can be used to assess design strategies of architects. These results will be discussed with respect to the development of new design and decision support tools. The fact that designers have preferences for specific design problems and that they respond differently should be considered in the implementation of user interfaces and data base technology where possible.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id caadria2019_234
id caadria2019_234
authors Bamborough, Chris
year 2019
title The Nature of Data in Early Modern Architectural Practice.
source M. Haeusler, M. A. Schnabel, T. Fukuda (eds.), Intelligent & Informed - Proceedings of the 24th CAADRIA Conference - Volume 2, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand, 15-18 April 2019, pp. 343-352
summary In contemporary data-driven society, forces of capital increasingly seek risk-averse decision making through data and digital calculation, aligned to this the discourse around design intelligence in architecture has begun to embrace the role of data and the technical non-human as much as the human. In parallel, the cultural understanding of data, in technologically mediated societies, has become tied to the digital representation of information experienced in everyday life, which in turn influences human practices. A problem exists in the dominance of scientific thought around data in architecture that exerts disciplinary bias towards quantity rather than quality. In contemporary digital practice, data is assumed to offer an objective characterisation of the world and have faithful representation through the mechanisms of the computer. From this shift, a macro question exists concerning the influence of data's conceptualisation on the physical products of architecture. To contribute to this overall question this paper considers the register of data in early modernism identified as a moment when scientific abstraction and the mapping capacity of the machine combine to afford recognisable data practices and infrastructures.
keywords Data; Design Practice; Infrastructure; History; Theory
series CAADRIA
last changed 2019/04/16 08:22

_id ecaadesigradi2019_425
id ecaadesigradi2019_425
authors Betti, Giovanni, Aziz, Saqib and Ron, Gili
year 2019
title Pop Up Factory : Collaborative Design in Mixed Rality - Interactive live installation for the makeCity festival, 2018 Berlin
source Sousa, JP, Xavier, JP and Castro Henriques, G (eds.), Architecture in the Age of the 4th Industrial Revolution - Proceedings of the 37th eCAADe and 23rd SIGraDi Conference - Volume 3, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 September 2019, pp. 115-124
summary This paper examines a novel, integrated and collaborative approach to design and fabrication, enabled through Mixed Reality. In a bespoke fabrication process, the design is controlled and altered by users in holographic space, through a custom, multi-modal interface. Users input is live-streamed and channeled to 3D modelling environment,on-demand robotic fabrication and AR-guided assembly. The Holographic Interface is aimed at promoting man-machine collaboration. A bespoke pipeline translates hand gestures and audio into CAD and numeric fabrication. This enables non-professional participants engage with a plethora of novel technology. The feasibility of Mixed Reality for architectural workflow was tested through an interactive installation for the makeCity Berlin 2018 festival. Participants experienced with on-demand design, fabrication an AR-guided assembly. This article will discuss the technical measures taken as well as the potential in using Holographic Interfaces for collaborative design and on-site fabrication.Please write your abstract here by clicking this paragraph.
keywords Holographic Interface; Augmented Reality; Multimodal Interface; Collaborative Design; Robotic Fabrication; On-Site Fabrication
series eCAADeSIGraDi
last changed 2019/08/26 20:28

_id 9f35
authors Bhavnani, S. K., Garrett, J.H., Flemming, U. and Shaw, D.S.
year 1999
title Towards Active Assistance
source Bridging the Generations. The Future of Computer-Aided Engineering (eds. J. H. Garrett and D. R. Rehak) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (1999), 199-203
summary The exploding functionality of current computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems has provided today’s users with a vast, but under-utilized collection of tools and options. For example, MicroStation, a popular CAE system sold by Intergraph, offers more than 1000 commands including 16 ways to construct a line (in different contexts) and 28 ways to manipulate elements using a “fence”. This complex array of functionalities is bewildering and hardly exploited to its full extent even by frequent, experienced users. In a recent site visit to a federal design office, we observed ten architects and three draftsmen using MicroStation.
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 127c
authors Bhavnani, S.K. and John, B.E.
year 1997
title From Sufficient to Efficient Usage: An Analysis of Strategic Knowledge
source Proceedings of CHI'97 (1997), 91-98
summary Can good design guarantee the eflicient use of computer tools? Can experience guarantee it? We raise these questions to explore why empirical studies of real-world usage show even experienced users under-utilizing the capabilities of computer applications. By analyzing the use of everyday devices and computer applications, as well as reviewing empirical studies, we conclude that neither good design nor experience may be able to guarantee efficient usage. Efficient use requires task decomposition strategies that exploit capabilities offered by computer applications such as the ability to aggregute objects, and to manipulate the aggregates with powerful operators. To understand the effects that strategies can have on performance, we present results from a GOMS analysis of a CAD task. Furthermore, we identify some key aggregation strategies that appear to generalize across applications. Such strategies may provide a framework to enable users to move from a sufficient to a more ef)icient use of computer tools.
keywords Strategies; Task Decomposition; Aggregation
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 9bc4
authors Bhavnani, S.K. and John, B.E.
year 2000
title The Strategic Use of Complex Computer Systems
source Human-Computer Interaction 15 (2000), 107-137
summary Several studies show that despite experience, many users with basic command knowledge do not progress to an efficient use of complex computer applications. These studies suggest that knowledge of tasks and knowledge of tools are insufficient to lead users to become efficient. To address this problem, we argue that users also need to learn strategies in the intermediate layers of knowledge lying between tasks and tools. These strategies are (a) efficient because they exploit specific powers of computers, (b) difficult to acquire because they are suggested by neither tasks nor tools, and (c) general in nature having wide applicability. The above characteristics are first demonstrated in the context of aggregation strategies that exploit the iterative power of computers.Acognitive analysis of a real-world task reveals that even though such aggregation strategies can have large effects on task time, errors, and on the quality of the final product, they are not often used by even experienced users. We identify other strategies beyond aggregation that can be efficient and useful across computer applications and show how they were used to develop a new approach to training with promising results.We conclude by suggesting that a systematic analysis of strategies in the intermediate layers of knowledge can lead not only to more effective ways to design training but also to more principled approaches to design systems. These advances should lead users to make more efficient use of complex computer systems.
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id f8f7
id f8f7
authors Bhzad Sidawi
year 2003
title The pattern of Internet use for information management by architectural practices in the UK
source Cardiff University, Welsh School of Architecture Cardiff, UK
summary In recent history, architects have experienced problems related to the use and management of new innovations. The Internet presents one such challenge. It offers considerable expansion in types of communication and sources of business information and connects people and businesses around the globe. As is argued in this research, these services could play a positive role in architectural practice. This research examines the use of the Internet by architectural practices in UK in order to reveal how aware they are of the opportunities it presents, the extent to which they are taking advantage of them, and the problems they are experiencing. A field study was conducted of two types of practices: RIBA private practices and local authority practices. A number of research tools were used to inspect how these practices are using the Internet to manage various types of information that used and produced in the practice, namely: the acquisition of web information, the exchange of the practice’s information through the web and the presentation of the practice’s information on the web. Explanations for the results were sought by correlating variables from the questionnaire study, using simple statistical tests. The field study shows that many Internet services are unpopular among architects, and that practices have problems in adopting and using the technology. The pace at which the Internet is being absorbed and accepted by practices is slow. The study suggests that possible causes are: the little knowledge of users’ about IT, the poor resources of the practice, and old or imperfect Internet installations and the absence of the Internet support to the architect’s activities. The research argues that there are a number of links between these negative factors which make the practice unable to utilize the Internet and to manage the practice’s information through the Internet. To break these links, the research suggests that practices should adopt a specific management strategy to promote more utilization of Internet services in the office and to manage information. Practices need to make certain changes to the way they manage the Internet and work with it, if they plan to integrate the Internet more successfully into their practice. The research discusses techniques for improving practice management which would help practices to digest Internet technology and to use it more effectively in the practice.
keywords Internet, Architectural practices, Information management, Communications
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
last changed 2006/11/03 22:29

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