CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 616c
authors Bentley, Peter J.
year 1999
title The Future of Evolutionary Design Research
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 349-350
summary The use of evolutionary algorithms to optimise designs is now well known, and well understood. The literature is overflowing with examples of designs that bear the hallmark of evolutionary optimisation: bridges, cranes, electricity pylons, electric motors, engine blocks, flywheels, satellite booms -the list is extensive and evergrowing. But although the optimisation of engineering designs is perhaps the most practical and commercially beneficial form of evolutionary design for industry, such applications do not take advantage of the full potential of evolutionary design. Current research is now exploring how the related areas of evolutionary design such as evolutionary art, music and the evolution of artificial life can aid in the creation of new designs. By employing techniques from these fields, researchers are now moving away from straight optimisation, and are beginning to experiment with explorative approaches. Instead of using evolution as an optimiser, evolution is now beginning to be seen as an aid to creativity -providing new forms, new structures and even new concepts for designers.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 2006_656
id 2006_656
authors Breen, Jack and Martijn Stellingwerff
year 2006
title De-coding the Vernacular - Dynamic Representation Approaches to Case-based Compositional Study
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 656-663
summary Representational approaches have always played an important role in the design-driven development of built environments, the analytical study of architectural compositions and their effects. With the introduction – and successive steady development – of computer-based platforms of visualization, the professional and intellectual palette of designers, as well as researchers, have expanded considerably. Nonetheless, in recent years the opportunities for systematic scrutiny and understanding of the expressive qualities of design proposals and artefacts have all too frequently been overshadowed by high-flying conceptual developments and seductive representation modes. It is time that the objective description and unravelling of architectural compositions – so to speak the discipline of Ekphrasis in design practice, education and research – is once again given more prominence in architectural discourse and debate. The central idea behind this contribution is that, by linking instruments of design with the methods of formal composition and decomposition, renewed opportunities for representation-driven study in a scholarly context, focusing upon elusive compositional attributes and their workings, may be given a new impulse. The project that is presented here concerns a case-based explorative study into the domains of aesthetic convention and invention, making use of a variety of virtual and physical representation techniques. These include digital as well as tangible modelling and sketching approaches (separately and in combination), in conjunction with computer-based image manipulation techniques, making use of systematic data identification and denotation. The opportunities, merits and shortcomings of the computer-based and physical visualization approaches, which were applied and tested, are discussed on the basis of results and findings from the ongoing AA Variations project.
keywords Design representation; Computer-based sketching; Virtual and physical modelling; Compositional variation; Contemporary aesthetics
series eCAADe
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 2005_253
id 2005_253
authors Breen, Jack and Stellingwerff, Martijn
year 2005
title Towards Ornamatics
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 253-260
summary Computer aided modelling and drafting protocols – in combination with new production technologies – have contributed to wholly new ways of shaping building elements. Some examples of new techniques, which have recently become very successful in building production and in architectural design education, are: 3D Rapid Prototyping; 2,5D and 3D Milling and computer aided Shape Cutting (notably using laser and water jet modes). Such new approaches not only create new opportunities for traditional production processes (including physical modelling), they also offer new perspectives for design and manufacturing on the level of architectural components and connections. We foresee innovative approaches to building product design, with a renewed interest in expressive Ornamentation. A phenomenological development we would like to address using the concept of ‘Ornamatics’. This contribution explores the potentials of product design with a renewed focus on ornamentation, involving the active utilization of computer aided modelling and manufacturing techniques. The paper furthermore documents results and findings of a series of explorative studies carried out within an educational laboratory environment.
keywords Design Driven Research; Computer Aided Fabrication; Aesthetics; Ornamentation; Education
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id 1f31
authors Caffarena Celani, Maria Gabriela
year 2002
title CAD – The Creative Side - An Educational experiment that Aims at Changing Students’ Attitude in the Use of Computer-Aided Design
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 218-221
summary The present paper describes an innovative design education system tried out at two different architecture schools in Brazil, with opposite approaches to the use of CAD. The experimental courses had two main goals: (1) to explore the use of logical operations in design, such as symmetry, recursion, parameterization, and combinatorial analysis, and (2) to apply these techniques with the use of the computers, using CAD not only as a representational tool, but rather as an explorative, customizable and programmable design aide for the creative process. The experiments resulted in a number of interesting compositions, design projects and programs, and assessment questionnaires revealed a real change in students’ attitude towards the use of CAD in architecture.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ga0228
id ga0228
authors Celani, Maria Gabriela Caffarena
year 2002
title CAD – The Creative Side An educational experiment that aims at changing students’ attitude
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The present paper describes an innovative design education system tried out at two different architecture schools in Brazil, with opposite approaches to the use of CAD. The experimental courses had two main goals: (1) to explore the use of logical operations in design, such as symmetry, recursion, parameterization, and combinatorial analysis, and (2) to apply these techniques with the use of the computers, using CAD not only as a representational tool, but rather as an explorative, customizable and programmable design aide for the creative process. The experiments resulted in a number of interesting compositions, design projects and programs, and assessment questionnaires revealed a real change in students’ attitude towards the use of CAD in architecture. The experiments related were the field research part of a Ph.D. thesis defended at MIT in July 2002. The present work had the support of CNPq, a Brazilian entity devoted to the scientific and technological development.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id caadria2013_198
id caadria2013_198
authors Chee Zong Jie and Patrick Janssen
year 2013
title Exploration of Urban Street Patterns – Multi-Criteria Evolutionary Optimisation Using Axial Line Analysis
source Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013) / Singapore 15-18 May 2013, pp. 695-704
wos WOS:000351496100068
summary In urban design, researchers have developed techniques to automate both the generation and evaluation of urban street patterns. In most cases, these approaches are investigated in isolation from one another. Recently, a number of researchers have attempted to couple these approaches, in order to enable larger numbers of street patterns to be generated and evaluated in an iterative loop. However, to date, the possibility of fully automating the generative-evaluative loop using optimisation algorithms has not been explored. This research proposes an explorative design method in which urban street patterns can be optimised for multiple conflicting performance criteria. The optimisation process uses evolutionary algorithms to evolve populations of design variants by iteratively applying three key procedures: development, evaluation, and feedback. For development, a generative technique is proposed for constructing street patterns. For evaluation, various performance measures are used, including in particular Space Syntax based Axial Line analysis. For feedback, a Pareto-ranking algorithm is used that ranks street patterns according to multiple criteria. The proposed method is demonstrated using an abstract scenario in which orthogonal street patterns are evolved for a small urban area.  
keywords Axial line analysis, Generative modelling, Evolutionary algorithms, Decision chain encoding, Urban street patterns 
series CAADRIA
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id cf2017_309
id cf2017_309
authors da Silva, Juliano Lima; Mussi, Andrea Quadrado; Ribeiro, Lauro Andre; da Silva, Thaisa Leal
year 2017
title Plug-ins State of Art in BIM Software: Repositories Assessment and Professional Use Perspective
source Gülen Çagdas, Mine Özkar, Leman F. Gül and Ethem Gürer (Eds.) Future Trajectories of Computation in Design [17th International Conference, CAAD Futures 2017, Proceedings / ISBN 978-975-561-482-3] Istanbul, Turkey, July 12-14, 2017, pp. 309-320.
summary The increased need for optimization in design processes has led BIM software users to customize their projects by the use of programming and external applications. This paper presents the state of art of Revit plug-ins by means of an explorative, quantitative study of current repositories and the proposition of a categorization system to identify to which purposes the tools are being developed. Then, through a questionnaire to AEC professionals, assessment on the use and necessity of the tools is made by comparing the user experience with the proposed state of art categories.
keywords BIM, Revit, Plug-ins, Programming, Survey
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2017/12/01 13:38

_id 413e
authors Dalholm-Hornyansky, Elisabeth and Rydberg-Mitchell, Birgitta
year 1996
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary For the past decade, we have carried out a number of participation projects using full-scale modeling as an aid for communication and design. We are currently participating in an interdisciplinary research project which aims to combine and compare various visualization methods and techniques, among others, full-scale modeling and virtual reality, in design processes with users. In this paper, we will discuss virtual reality as a design tool in light of previous experience with full-scale modeling and literature on cognitive psychology. We describe a minor explorative study, which was carried out to elucidate the answers to several crucial questions: Is realism in movement a condition for the perception of space or can it be achieved while moving through walls, floors and so forth? Does velocity of movement and reduced visual field have an impact on the perception of space? Are landmarks vital clues for spatial navigation and how do we reproduce them in virtual environments? Can “daylight“, color, material and texture facilitate navigation and are details, furnishings and people important objects of reference? How could contextual information clues, like views and surroundings, be added to facilitate orientation? Do we need our other senses to supplement the visual experience in virtual reality and what is the role of mental maps in spatial navigation?
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 12:49

_id ebd0
authors Eggink, Dustin
year 2001
title Smart Objects: Constraints and Behaviors in a Dimensional Design
source University of Washington, Design Machine Group
summary Each new design problem in architecture presents a new set of requirements .A designer must remain aware of these requirements and effectively communicate them to collaborators because the degree to which the requirements are met will determine the success of the solution. This thesis explores how design can be effectively presented in a medium that is both explorative of form and descriptive of the design problem’s requirements. To facilitate this, we present Smart Objects, a constraint-based three-dimensional(3D) computer program. In Smart Objects, design intentions of an architectural problem are embedded as constraints into the modeled objects that compose a formal solution. A model is presented through a 3DVirtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) viewer and constrained by a software program we wrote in the Java language. Both the VRML viewer and the Java program are contained within a single web page. In Smart Objectsd. A designer meets or violates constraints, objects behave in a manner that reflects the requirements of the problem and intentions of the designer. SmartObjects communicates the design principles and guidelines that inform an architectural design to the collaborators involved in the project. It ensures that these principles and guidelines are maintained as the design progresses.
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2004/06/02 17:12

_id sigradi2004_345
id sigradi2004_345
authors Eleanna Cadalso; Alejandro Haiek Coll; Pedro Soza Ruiz
year 2004
title Modelación por captura de movimiento [Modeling by means of Movement Capture]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary Keyframing, Morphing, Inverse Kinematics; they are all animation technics which have been explored by diverse groups of architects, academics and students, searching for new horizons in the proyecting process development, pushing forward the present limits of proyecting methodology. We define this project starting by the explorative use of animation tools as experimental variables in reformulating our design processes. Data input have been traditionally carried out using classic interfaces such as keyboard, mouse, graphics tablet, among others. Despite this is accepted by many as the standard way of communicating with machines, we think this is still very far from the ideal way to design and model new proposals. In this context we propose to investigate a new way to approach to the computed aided modelling process, questioning and reformulating traditional interfaces in user .machine communication.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:51

_id caadria2012_089
id caadria2012_089
authors Fernando, R.; R. Drogemuller and A. Burden
year 2012
title Parametric and generative methods with building information modelling: Connecting BIM with explorative design modelling
source Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Chennai 25-28 April 2012, pp. 537–546
summary Parametric and generative modelling methods are ways in which computer models are made more flexible, and of formalising domain-specific knowledge. At present, no open standard exists for the interchange of parametric and generative information. The Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) which are an open standard for interoperability in building information models is presented as the base for an open standard in parametric modelling. The advantage of allowing parametric and generative representations are that the early design process can allow for more iteration and changes can be implemented quicker than with traditional models. This paper begins with a formal definition of what constitutes to be parametric and generative modelling methods and then proceeds to describe an open standard in which the interchange of components could be implemented. As an illustrative example of generative design, Frazer’s ‘Reptiles’ project from 1968 is reinterpreted.
keywords Building information model; parametric modelling; generative modelling
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/29 07:34

_id d637
authors Flemming, Ulrich and Sheng-Fen , Chien
year 1995
title Schematic Layout Design in SEED Environment
source Journal of Architectural Engineering -- December 1995 -- Volume 1, Issue 4, pp. 162-169
summary This paper describes SEED-Layout, a module of SEED that supports the generation of schematic layouts of the functional units specified in an architectural program. SEED-Layout provides capabilities that allowdesigners to generate and evaluate rapidly different layout alternatives and versions; to explore the trade-offs involved; and to engage generally in an iterative, highly explorative design process. The resulting"design space" is complex, and the paper describes current efforts to provide designers with intelligent "navigation" aids that encourage them to explore interesting portions of this space without "getting lost."The paper concludes with a brief description of the current implementation and directions for future work.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id ecaade2015_334
id ecaade2015_334
authors Fricker, Pia and Munkel, Georg
year 2015
title Intuitive Design through Information Maps
source Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds.), Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16-18 September 2015, pp. 211-216
wos WOS:000372317300022
summary What kind of tools do landscape architects need to inform their designs with the abundance of knowledge available to us in Open Access data - in the era of 'Big Data'? Although the majority of landscape architects already integrate GIS data in their work, it is often only for analysis purposes and also only with data already integrated in their own country's GIS system. Without further processing, the graphic output formats often cannot reach a state that can be readily integrated into the design process. Students often have a negative stance towards GIS and the software programs associated with it especially within teaching. For the past three years, we at the Chair for Landscape Architecture of Professor Girot (ETH Zurich) have been researching at the potential for students to gain an understanding of the validity of site-specific data by creating coded programs that interactively integrate this information as parameters in the next step of the design process. The key to the entire processing chain is the use of an explorative approach to understanding data as the basis for making decisions.
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id caadria2013_230
id caadria2013_230
authors Gün, Onur Y.
year 2013
title The Executed and the Observed in Sketches: Visual and Computational Processing for Explorative Drawings
source Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013) / Singapore 15-18 May 2013, pp. 801-810
wos WOS:000351496100083
summary Drawing is expressing. The mind’s eye works with the drawing to materialize ideas via transforming them into visual abstractions. The genuine supremacy of drawing emerges from its potential to evoke, not from its ability to represent. Computers are harbingers of unprecedented and enriching drawing environments. Yet they also introduce ambivalences since they suppress drafter’s bodily and perceptual engagement with drawings. This paper aims to delineate the similarities and differences between hand drawing and (via-computer) algorithmic drawing for design. The goal is to discuss the altering role of eyes and hands in long-contrasted virtual and material environments of drawing. The outlined comparisons of algorithmic and hand sketching should encourage research for blending digital and analogue modes of sketching.  
keywords Drawing, Computation, Sketch, Algorithmic, Design, Studio, Visual, Calculation 
series CAADRIA
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id caadria2018_365
id caadria2018_365
authors Ham, Jeremy J.
year 2018
title Exploring the Intersection of Music and Architecture Through Spatial Improvisation
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 121-130
summary Creative practice design research brings forth rich opportunities for the exploration of inter-domain connections between music and architecture. Through inter-disciplinary creative practice explorative project work founded on a methodology of improvisation on the digital drum kit, two stages of design research project work are outlined. In the first stage, a language of polyrhythmic drumming is parametrically spatialized as a reflective lens on an extant creative practice. From here, a new form of 'Spatial Improvisation' is explored, where conceptual spatial forms are generated from improvisations on the digital drum kit. This new musico-spatial design practice involves mediating a spatio-temporal-dynamical 'Y-Condition (Martin, 1994)' wherein temporal and dynamic design decisions translate from the musical domain into the spatial domain through 'spatial thinking-in-action'.
keywords Music and Architecture; Design Research ; Spatial Improvisation; Design Process; Parametric Digital Design
series CAADRIA
last changed 2018/05/17 07:07

_id f3ed
authors Huang, Jeffrey
year 1999
title Project Extranets and Distributed Design: The Value of Internet-Based Media for Design Collaboration
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 16-18
summary Internet-based project extranets represent a new generation of CAD tools that has been much talked about in the design professions recently. Many believe they hold considerable promise to change dramatically how design participants collaborate in the AEC industry. Yet we are only beginning to understand the real value that such project extranets provide. Clearly, empirical studies of project extranet usage are needed to illuminate the situation. This paper summarizes the results of an explorative study into the implications of such project extranets on design collaboration.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id ga0114
id ga0114
authors Hung, C.K., Frazer, J.H. and Xi, T.M.
year 2001
title Interactive Evolutionary Design in a Hierarchical Way
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper introduces a computational system framework for enhancing design in an evolutionary manner. The framework provides a structure for supporting design activities at the conceptual design stage at different levels of representation and manipulation. With this framework, designers can interactively manipulate design data and develop a solution in ahierarchical manner. Furthermore this system framework provides explorative and adaptive ability through its inter-links with a number of computational evolutionary and generative modules. In this paper, this system framework and its application in the design of wine glasses are presented.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id cf2017_066
id cf2017_066
authors Jenney, Sarah Louise; Petzold, Frank
year 2017
title Question of Perspective: Information Visualisation in Games and its Possible Application in Planning Communication
source Gülen Çagdas, Mine Özkar, Leman F. Gül and Ethem Gürer (Eds.) Future Trajectories of Computation in Design [17th International Conference, CAAD Futures 2017, Proceedings / ISBN 978-975-561-482-3] Istanbul, Turkey, July 12-14, 2017, pp. 66-83.
summary The densification of urban spaces is a major challenge for future cities. With new forms of online consultation, we observe a movement towards open government in urban planning. A stronger participation between a more diverse body of players in a networked environment, is unveiling various discrepancies in the understanding of projects by the different actors in planning, due to access to and the comprehension of planning information. To recognise and utilise the associated capabilities of current transformations, communication between the actors in planning and their sharing of knowledge is vitally important. Information visualisation is an essential form of communication, prompting this explorative paper in considering elements specific to games visualisation and their implications for urban planning. Based on a framework for information visualisation in games it was found that the specifications for actor groups in planning processes mirror the specifications specific to target audience groups in games.
keywords Gamification, Urban Design, Information Visualisation, Collaborative Design, Public Participation
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2017/12/01 13:37

_id cf2009_771
id cf2009_771
authors LaBelle, Guillaume; Nembrini, Julien and Huang, Jeffrey
year 2009
title Programming framework for architectural design ANAR+: Object oriented geometry
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009, PUM, 2009, pp. 771- 785
summary From the recent advent of scripting tools integrated into commercial CAAD software and everyday design practice, the use of programming applied to an architectural design process becomes a necessary field of study. The presented research explores the use of programming as explorative and reflexive medium (Schön, 1983) through the development of a programming framework for architectural design. Based on Java, the ANAR+ library is a parametric geometry environment meant to be used as programming interface by designers. Form exploration strategies based on parametric variations depend on the internal logic description, a key role for form generation. In most commercial CAD software, geometric data structures are often predefined objects, thus constraining the form exploration, whereas digital architectural research and teaching are in need for an encompassing tool able to step beyond new software products limitations.
keywords Parametric design, programming language, architectural Geometry, pro-cessing
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2009/06/08 18:53

_id 62a1
authors Maher, M.L. and Poon, J.
year 1996
title Modelling design exploration as co-evolution
source Microcomputers in Civil Engineering, 11:192-207
summary Most computer-based design tools assume designers work with a well defined problem. However, this assumption has been challenged by current research. The explorative aspect of design, especially during conceptual design, is not fully addressed. This paper introduces a model for problem-design exploration, and how this model can be implemented using the genetic algorithm (GA) paradigm. The basic GA, which does not support our exploration model, evaluates individuals from a population of design solutions with an unchanged fitness function. This approach to evaluation implements search with a prefixed goal. Modifications to the basic GA are required to support exploration. Two approaches to implement a co-evolving GA are presented and discussed in this paper: one in which the fitness function is represented within the genotype, and a second in which the fitness function is modelled as a separately evolving population of genotypes.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

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