CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ijac201715203
id ijac201715203
authors Agirbas, Asli and Emel Ardaman
year 2017
title Macro-scale designs through topological deformations in the built environment
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 15 - no. 2, 134-147
summary Design studies are being done on contemporary master-plans which may be applied in many locations worldwide. Advances in information technology are becoming the base model of design studies, and these may be more effective than the efforts of humans in the field of architecture and urban design. However, urban morphology variables and constants must be considered while designing contemporary master-plans in the existing built environment. The aims of this study were to extend the use of computer software for different applications and to make a topological work in the regional context. Accordingly, a case study was made using the nCloth simulation tools to create non-Euclidean forms while protecting the road system, which is one of the constant parameters of urban morphology in the built environment.
keywords Conceptual design, built environment, simulation, contemporary master-plans, urban morphology, topology
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2019/08/02 06:30

_id ascaad2016_001
id ascaad2016_001
authors Al-Attili, Aghlab; Anastasia Karandinou and Ben Daley
year 2016
title Parametricism vs Materialism - Evolution of digital technologies for development
source Parametricism Vs. Materialism: Evolution of Digital Technologies for Development [8th ASCAAD Conference Proceedings ISBN 978-0-9955691-0-2] London (United Kingdom) 7-8 November 2016, pp. VII-VIII
summary We build on previous technological developments in CAAD by looking into parametric design exploration and the development of the concept of parametricism. We use the phenomenological backdrop to account for our physical experiences and encounters as well as our mental ones; both evident in the link between parametric design as a process and an outcome. In specific, we previously examined two particular metaphors. The first metaphor addressed aspects of virtual environments that resemble our physical world; In other words, computer model as physical model and digital world as material world. In this volume, we extend the exploration into aspects of virtual environments and their resemblance to physical environments by looking at ‘performance’ aspects: the way in which environments are sensed, measured, tracked and visualised. Moreover, we reflect on matters and materiality in both virtual and physical space philosophically, theoretically, practically and reflectively. The second metaphor looked into the modes and means of interaction between our bodies and such virtual environment. Here we extend the investigation to look at the ways in which measures of environmental performance influence human interaction in real environments. The exploration takes us further to look into the area of design fabrication of the built environment, and methods in which developed processes meet environmental performance requirements, and the innovative outcomes that lead to disruptive technologies getting introduced into design and we revisit parametric design under this focus area.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2017/05/25 11:06

_id ecaade2016_063
id ecaade2016_063
authors Al-Qattan, Emad, Galanter, Philip and Yan, Wei
year 2016
title Developing a Tangible User Interface for Parametric and BIM Applications Using Physical Computing Systems.
source Herneoja, Aulikki; Toni Österlund and Piia Markkanen (eds.), Complexity & Simplicity - Proceedings of the 34th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 22-26 August 2016, pp. 621-630
wos WOS:000402064400063
summary This paper discusses the development of an interactive and a responsive Tangible User-Interface (TUI) for parametric and Building Information Modeling (BIM) applications. The prototypes presented in this paper utilizes physical computing systems to establish a flexible and intuitive method to engage digital design processes.The prototypes are hybrid UIs that consist of a digital modeling tool and an artifact. The artifact consists of a control system (sensors, actuators, and microcontrollers) and physical objects (architectural elements). The link between both environments associates physical objects with their digital design information to assist users in the digital design process. The integration of physical computing systems will enable the objects to physically respond to analog input and provide real-time feedback to users. The research aims to foster tangible computing methods to extend the capabilities of digital design tools. The prototypes demonstrate a method that allows architects to simultaneously interact with complex architectural systems digitally and physically.
keywords Physical Computing; Parametric Design; BIM; Tangible UI
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/06/28 08:46

_id 0ab2
authors Amor, R., Hosking, J., Groves, L. and Donn, M.
year 1993
title Design Tool Integration: Model Flexibility for the Building Profession
source Proceedings of Building Systems Automation - Integration, University of Wisconsin-Madison
summary The development of ICAtect, as discussed in the Building Systems Automation and Integration Symposium of 1991, provides a way of integrating simulation tools through a common building model. However, ICAtect is only a small step towards the ultimate goal of total integration and automation of the building design process. In this paper we investigate the next steps on the path toward integration. We examine how models structured to capture the physical attributes of the building, as required by simulation tools, can be used to converse with knowledge-based systems. We consider the types of mappings that occur in the often different views of a building held by these two classes of design tools. This leads us to examine the need for multiple views of a common building model. We then extend our analysis from the views required by simulation and knowledge-based systems, to those required by different segments of the building profession (e.g. architects, engineers, developers, etc.) to converse with such an integrated system. This indicates a need to provide a flexible method of accessing data in the common building model to facilitate use by different building professionals with varying specialities and levels of expertise.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id avocaad_2003_17
id avocaad_2003_17
authors Anna Maria Chrabin, Jaroslaw Szewczyk and Herman Neuckermans
year 2003
title A Critical Evaluation of Early Stages Software in its Capacity of Coping with Contextual Issues
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary In this paper we analyse critically early design stages software in its capacity of coping with contextual data at large (i.e. representing cultural, aesthetical context, etc.). We identified 5 categories of early stages software: geometry based graphic editors, evaluation architectural software, generative and shape-grammar based systems, evolutionary systems and other systems. Calling the object under creation during of the early stages a CAD conceptual model, we will investigate to what extend this software allows the architect to experience and represent the context in which a design is situated. Especially we will focus on its capacity to allow interaction, playful interaction on our way to the design. Designers, and particularly architects, interact with the local context similarly to interacting in a game: the context influences the users’ decisions, surprises them and causes permanent changes to their ways of thinking. On the other hand, architects permanently shape and reshape the context, and reduce the context to a protean point of reference. Such behaviour characterises creative thinking that is crucial for the early stage of design. The investigation led us to the conclusions that the effective interactivity with the context needs simple rules, a plain interface and data reduced as simple as possible, especially when interaction with the context is performed during the early stages of a design process. The findings can be used in organising computer environments for early-stage design.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id acadia05_012
id acadia05_012
authors Anshuman, Sachin
year 2005
title Responsiveness and Social Expression; Seeking Human Embodiment in Intelligent Façades
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 12-23
summary This paper is based on a comparative analysis of some twenty-six intelligent building facades and sixteen large media-facades from a socio-psychological perspective. It is not difficult to observe how deployment of computational technologies have engendered new possibilities for architectural production to which surface-centeredness lies at that heart of spatial production during design, fabrication and envelope automation processes. While surfaces play a critical role in contemporary social production (information display, communication and interaction), it is important to understand how the relationships between augmented building surfaces and its subjects unfold. We target double-skin automated facades as a distinct field within building-services and automation industry, and discuss how the developments within this area are over-occupied with seamless climate control and energy efficiency themes, resulting into socially inert mechanical membranes. Our thesis is that at the core of the development of automated façade lies the industrial automation attitude that renders the eventual product socially less engaging and machinic. We illustrate examples of interactive media-façades to demonstrate how architects and interaction designers have used similar technology to turn building surfaces into socially engaging architectural elements. We seek opportunities to extend performative aspects of otherwise function driven double-skin façades for public expression, informal social engagement and context embodiment. Towards the end of the paper, we propose a conceptual model as a possible method to address the emergent issues. Through this paper we intend to bring forth emergent concerns to designing building membrane where technology and performance are addressed through a broader cultural position, establishing a continual dialogue between the surface, function and its larger human context.
series ACADIA
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id avocaad_2003_06
id avocaad_2003_06
authors Arturo F. Montagu and Juan Pablo Cieri
year 2003
title Urbamedia - Development of an urban database of fragments of some Argentinian and Latin-American cities using digital technology
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary The proposal of "Urbamedia" is to undertake the development of 3D virtual and interactive models of historical areas of Latin-American cities. The selected zone is the "Mayo Avenue" including the "Mayo Square", an historical place of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina; this project is financed by the National Agency of Scientific and Technological Development of Argentina and the University of Buenos Aires.We are presenting the first experimental model of the "Mayo Square" that has been developed at ABACUS, Department of Architecture & Building Aids Computer Unit, University of Strathclyde UK. combined with a system analysis of urban activities using the “Atlas.ti” CAQDAS software.This particular use of the “Atlas.ti” software is under experimental applications to this type of urban analysis procedures; allowed us the possibility to analysed a set of activities by means of graph theory as result of a series of interviews to the people working in the area. We are also looking to include historical areas of three cities: Mar del Plata, Rosario and Santa Fe (Argentina) and eventually other cities from Latin América as Rio de Janeiro and Habana.Due that ABACUS has a strong experience in city modelling plus the powerful software and hardware used there, we must develop a VRML customized menu to be adapted to our low cost PC equipment. The 3D model will be used mainly in urban design simulation procedures and the idea is to extend to other type of simulations of the environmental parameters.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id 0c0d
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 2000
title Computer as an Metaphorisation Machine
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 283-286
summary Digital media is transforming the practice and teaching of design. Information technologies offer not only better production and rendering tools but also the ability to model, manipulate, and understand design in new ways. A new era in CAAD has started. One of the aspects of this situation is the increase in the number of computers in design offices and architectural schools (many of our students have their own computers, which a re often better than the computers we have at our school). We can submit a proposition that the critical point in the creative use of computers is over, and we should think how computers and new media may extend the designer’s perception and imagination.
keywords Creation of a Form, Imagination, Metaphors, Computer Support of Form Searching
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ecaade2010_215
id ecaade2010_215
authors Barczik, Guenter
year 2010
title Uneasy Coincidence? Massive Urbanization and New Exotic Geometries with Algebraic Geometry as an Extreme Example
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.217-226
wos WOS:000340629400023
summary We investigate the recent coincidence of rapid global urbanization and unprecedented formal freedom in architectural design and ask whether this coincidence is an uneasy one. To study an extreme case of the new exotic geometries made possible through CAAD, we employ algebraic surfaces to experimentally design architecture in an university-based research and experimental design project. Such surfaces exhibit unprecedented complexity and new geometric and topological features yet are highly sound and harmonious. We continue and extend our research presented at the eCAADe 2009 conference in Istanbul.
keywords Algebraic geometry; Shape; Sculpture; design; Tool; Experiment; Methodology; Software
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2012_193
id ecaade2012_193
authors Barczik, Günter
year 2012
title Leaving Flatland behind: Algebraic surfaces and the chimaera of pure horizontality in Architecture
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-2-0, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 433-441
wos WOS:000330322400044
summary We argue that the prevalence of continuous flat floor surfaces in architecture is comprehensible but fallacious, and that this chimaera can be overcome through studying and employing the sculptural potential of algebraic surfaces which suggest spatial possibilities that enrich designers’ vocabulary enormously. We continue, deepen and extend research the basics and early results of which were presented at the last two eCAADe conferences in Istanbul and Zürich. We present and discuss a university-based experimental design and research project that demonstrates how Algebraic Surfaces can drastically amplify the so far only tentative exploration of the possibilities of non-fl at fl oor surfaces in Architecture.
keywords Algebraic Geometry; Shape; Sculpture; Design; Tool; Experiment; Methodology; Software
series eCAADe
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id acadia05_170
id acadia05_170
authors Barker, Daniel and Dong, Andy
year 2005
title A Representation Language for a Prototype CAD Tool for Intelligent Rooms
source Smart Architecture: Integration of Digital and Building Technologies [Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 0-9772832-0-8] Savannah (Georgia) 13-16 October 2005, pp. 170-183
summary Intelligent rooms are a type of intelligent environment which enhance ordinary activities within the confines of a room by responding to human interaction using pervasive and ubiquitous computing. In the design of intelligent rooms, the specification of how the intelligent room enacts intelligent behavior through computational means is as integral as the geometric description. The self-aware and context-aware capabilities of intelligent rooms extend the requirements for computer-aided design tools beyond 3D modeling of objects. This article presents a Hardware as Agents Description Language for Intelligent Rooms (HADLIR) to model hardware in an intelligent room as “hardware agents” having sensor and/or effector modalities with rules and goals. End-users describe intelligent room hardware as agents based on the HADLIR representation and write agent rules and goals in Jess for each hardware component. This HADLIR agent description and the requisite software sensors/effectors constitute “hardware agents” which are instantiated into a multi-agent society software environment. The society is then bridged to either a virtual environment to prototype the intelligent room or to microelectronic controllers to implement a physical intelligent room. The integration illustrates how the HADLIR representation assists in the design, simulation and implementation of an intelligent room and provides a foundation technology for CAD tools for the creation of intelligent rooms.
series ACADIA
last changed 2005/10/25 16:52

_id ecaade2013_162
id ecaade2013_162
authors Bayraktar, Mehmet Emin and Ça_da_, Gülen
year 2013
title Fuzzy Layout Planner
source Stouffs, Rudi and Sariyildiz, Sevil (eds.), Computation and Performance – Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference – Volume 1, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 18-20 September 2013, pp. 375-381
wos WOS:000340635300039
summary This study presents a digital architectural design tool named “Fuzzy Layout Planner” that helps architects create two dimensional sketchy footprints for their design. The purpose of the tool is to extend limits of early design thinking. It uses fuzzy modeling techniques to adapt the ambiguous design phase. There are several commands in this digital tool to generate and modify layouts. Users can create, move, combine sketchy bubbles to form bigger footprints and see them in action dynamically. The tool offers a manual creation process.
keywords Architectural representation; digital design tools, early design, fuzzy modelling.
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id acadia18_244
id acadia18_244
authors Belanger, Zackery; McGee, Wes; Newell, Catie
year 2018
title Slumped Glass: Auxetics and Acoustics
source ACADIA // 2018: Recalibration. On imprecisionand infidelity. [Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-17729-7] Mexico City, Mexico 18-20 October, 2018, pp. 244-249
summary This research investigates the effect of curvature, at a variety of scales, on the acoustic properties of glass. Plate glass, which has predictable and uniform acoustically reflective behavior, can be formed into curved surfaces through a combination of parametrically-driven auxetic pattern generation, CNC water-jet cutting, and controlled heat forming. When curved, plate glass becomes “activated” and complex acoustically-diffusive behavior emerges. The parametrically-driven auxetic perforation pattern allows the curvature to be altered and controlled across a formed pane of glass, and a correlation is demonstrated between the level of curvature and the extent of acoustically diffusive behavior. Beyond individual panels, curved panes can be aggregated to extend acoustic influence to the entire interior room condition, and the pace at which acoustic energy is distributed can be controlled. In this work the parameters surrounding the controlled slumping of glass are described, and room-sized formal and acoustic effects are studied using wave-based acoustic simulation techniques. This paper discusses the early stages of work in progress.
keywords work in progress, materials and adaptive systems, performance and simulation, digital fabrication
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2019/01/07 11:22

_id 4361
authors Bishop, G. and Weimer, D.M.
year 1986
title Fast Phong Shading
source Computer Graphics (20) 4 pp. 103-106
summary Computer image generation systems often represent curved surfaces as a mesh of polygons that are shaded to restore a smooth appearance. Phong shading is a well known algorithm for producing a realistic shading but it has not been used by real-time systems because of the 3 additions, 1 division and 1 square root required per pixel for its evaluation. We describe a new formulation for Phong shading that reduces the amount of computation per pixel to only 2 additions for simple Lambertian reflection and 5 additions and 1 memory reference for Phong's complete reflection model. We also show how to extend our method to compute the specular component with the eye at a finite distance from the scene rather than at infinity as is usually assumed. The method can be implemented in hardware for real-time applications or in software to speed image generation for almost any system.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id acadia10_333
id acadia10_333
authors Blough, Lawrence
year 2010
title Digital Tracery: Fabricating Traits
source ACADIA 10: LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture [Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-4507-3471-4] New York 21-24 October, 2010), pp. 333-339
summary Recently, prototyping enabled by CNC technology has found its way into design practice where concepts can be quickly and economically tested through multiple design iterations that closely approximate the realities of oneto- one construction. This has lead to the promise of renewed research in tectonics and constructional techniques where the traditional concepts of craft and the joint, that were once married to the hand, can be rediscovered through the agency of mass customization. If we apply the lineage of the trait—a representational and cognitive tool to marry complex form with the exigencies of construction—pedagogical approaches can be developed that extend the current interest in intricate surface, structural morphology and geometry towards a robust materiality rooted in componentry, the joint, and part-to-whole relationships. This paper will introduce several threads from the twentieth century that have informed these tendencies in contemporary design practice, emerging from the well spring of Viollet-le-Duc. The thesis is supported by undergraduate model-based research employing digital design and fabrication techniques.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2010/11/10 06:27

_id 0e89
authors Bradford, J.W., Cheng, N. and Kvan, Thomas
year 1994
title Virtual Design Studios
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 163-167
summary Beginning in 1993, small groups of students of architectural design at different institutions around the world participated in collaborative design projects using a variety of tools, including CAD, Internet and teleconferencing. This programme, known as the "Virtual Design Studio" (VDS), allows students to work collectively with colleagues from different cultures and climates who are thousands of kilometres and in different time zones. Most recently, in February 1994, four institutions in N. America, one in Europe, and one in S E Asia participated in VDS’94. This paper explains the operation of the VDS and explores the future of the VDS as a potential tool for architectural design education. In particular, we review what we have learned in employing computer tools to extend the teaching in design studios into a "virtual" experience.
series eCAADe
type normal paper
last changed 2010/07/01 05:20

_id 088a
authors Brotman, Shapiro Lynne and Badler, Norman I.
year 1984
title Generating Soft Shadows With a Depth Buffer Algorithm
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. October, 1984. pp. 5-12 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The authors take a pragmatic approach to shadowing and describe an algorithm that combines an existing shadowing method with a popular visible surface rendering technique, called a 'depth buffer,' to generate soft shadows resulting from light sources of finite extent. Their method extend Crow's shadow volume algorithm to produce multiple shadows overlapped to yield the characteristic soft edges of a shadow penumbra
keywords rendering, algorithms, shadowing, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 1389
authors Bustos, Gabriela L. and Burgos, Iván P.
year 2002
title Desarrollo y Aplicabilidad de Menús Virtuales en VRML [Architectonic Development and Applicability of Virtual Menus in VRML]
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 199-202
summary The Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML), has allowed extend all of its resources and possibilities for Architectural Applications under the same Virtual Reality’s technology platform. In order to take advantages of its possibilities, this resource focus on exposes the development and application of virtual menus in VRML and Java Script as a first step for the creation of Synthetic Environment Laboratory in the faculty of Architecture and Design of University of Zulia, Venezuela. It presents in short, how algorithms were defined to design the menus, the use of a program in Visual Basic that permit addition of virtual menus toany WRL file, without any programming approach, as well as specific samples of applicability of the menus developed in a VRMLenvironment and how they are included in a methodological model of architectural design.
keywords virtual reality, synthetic environments, architectural design, inmersive projection systems.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 2005_647
id 2005_647
authors Caldas, Luisa G.
year 2005
title Three-Dimensional Shape Generation of Low-Energy Architectural Solutions using Pareto Genetic Algorithms
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 647-654
summary This paper extends on a previous work on the application of a Generative Design System [GDS] to the evolution, in a computational environment, of three-dimensional architectural solutions that are energy-efficient and adapted to the climatic environment where they are located. The GDS combines a well-known building energy simulation software [DOE2.1E] with search procedures based on Genetic Algorithms and on Pareto optimization techniques, successfully allowing to tackle complex multi-objective problems. In the experiments described, architectural solutions based on a simplified layout were generated in response to two often-conflicting requirements: improving the use of daylighting in the space, while controlling the amount of energy loss through the building fabric. The choice of a cold climate like Chicago provided an adequate framework for studying the role of these opposing forces in architectural form generation. Analysis of results shows that building characteristics that originate successful solutions extend further than the building envelope. Issues of massing, aspect ratio, surface-to-volume ratio, orientation, and others, emerge from the analysis of solutions generated by the GDS, playing a significant role in dictating whether a given architectural form will prove adapted to its climatic and energy requirements. Results suggest that the questions raised by the exploration of form generation driven by environmental concerns are complex, deserving the pursuit of further experiments, in order to better understand the interaction of variables that the evolutionary process congregates.
keywords Generative Design System, Genetic Algorithms, Evolutionary Architecture, Artificial Intelligence in Design, Building Energy Simulation, Bioclimatic Architecture, Environmental Design.
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id cf2013_167
id cf2013_167
authors Carlow, Jason F. and Kristof Crolla
year 2013
title Shipping Complexity: Parametric Design for Remote Communities
source Global Design and Local Materialization[Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 978-3-642-38973-3] Shanghai, China, July 3-5, 2013, pp. 167-175.
summary This paper presents a system for design and construction of a parametrically designed, structural shell for remote communities. It explains how, through the use of various digital software platforms, a single-layer, structural shell is designed and optimized and subsequently how a series of customized joints can be output for direct digital fabrication. As the customization is focused primary in the joints of the structure, standard dimension, locally sourced structural members can be used. By embedding assembly information onto the physical joints, the system has the capacity to simplify the construction of complex shell structures by workers with basic construction skills. Flat-packed joints can be shipped to remote sites without heavy structural members thereby reducing transportation costs and the overall embodied energy. By lowering cost and simplifying construction of large span structures, the project is intended to extend the benefits of digitally driven design to rural, remote or under-privileged communities.
keywords Parametric design, structural shell, remote communities, embedded intelligence, digital fabrication.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2014/03/24 06:08

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