CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ecaade2015_18
id ecaade2015_18
authors Agkathidis, Asterios
year 2015
title Generative Design Methods - Implementing Computational Techniques in Undergraduate Architectural Education
source Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds.), Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16-18 September 2015, pp. 47-55
summary In continuation to the Deceptive Landscape Installation research project (Agkathidis, Kocatürk 2014), this paper investigates the implementation of generative design techniques in undergraduate architectural design education. After reviewing the main definitions of generative design synoptically, we have assessed the application of a modified generative method on a final year, undergraduate design studio, in order to evaluate its potential and its suitability within the framework of a research led design studio, leading to an RIBA accredited Part I degree. Our research findings based on analysis of the design outputs, student performance, external examiners reports as well as student course evaluation surveys indicate a positive outcome on the studio's design approach, as well as its suitability for an undergraduate design studio. They initiate a flourishing debate about accomplishments and failures of a design methodology, which still remains alien to many undergraduate curricula.
wos WOS:000372316000007
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2016_026
id ecaade2016_026
authors Agkathidis, Asterios
year 2016
title Implementing Biomorphic Design - Design Methods in Undergraduate Architectural Education
source Herneoja, Aulikki; Toni Österlund and Piia Markkanen (eds.), Complexity & Simplicity - Proceedings of the 34th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 22-26 August 2016, pp. 291-298
summary In continuation to Generative Design Methods, this paper investigates the implementation of Biomorphic Design, supported by computational techniques in undergraduate, architectural studio education. After reviewing the main definitions of biomorphism, organicism and biomimicry synoptically, we will assess the application of a modified biomorphic method on a final year, undergraduate design studio, in order to evaluate its potential and its suitability within the framework of a research led design studio, leading to an RIBA accredited Part I degree. Our research findings based on analysis of design outputs, student performance as well as moderators and external examiners reports initiate a constructive debate about accomplishments and failures of a design methodology which still remains alien to many undergraduate curricula.
wos WOS:000402063700033
keywords CAAD Education; Strategies, Shape Form and Geometry; Generative Design; Design Concepts
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/06/28 08:46

_id ddssar0202
id ddssar0202
authors Akin, Ömer and Özkaya, Ipek
year 2002
title Models of Design Requirement
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary Case studies show that significant proportions of design errors and failures are linked to poor requirement specification during both early stages of design and as changes occur. Computational requirements engineering as a front-end to design iterations is a promising area addressing theseproblems. In other design disciplines, such as in software engineering, requirement engineering has given significant product improvements. In this paper, we present a state-space representation of requirement models for architectural design. The purpose of requirement modeling in design is tocreate a process by which requirements can be converted into working design solutions through frontend validation. We suggest three models of requirement specification, co-evolutionary [CoM], multiple domain [MDM] and single domain [SDM] models, that can facilitate this effort. Taken together all three models provide a full set of logical permutations of requirement-solution “worlds” and “operations.” We compare each model against the others in terms of facilitating change management and computability.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id sigradi2015_3.300
id sigradi2015_3.300
authors Batistello, Paula; Balzan, Katiane Laura; Piaia, Luana Peroza; Miotto, Juliano
year 2015
title Rapid prototyping and digital fabrication in vertical atelier: from process to materialization
source SIGRADI 2015 [Proceedings of the 19th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - vol. 1 - ISBN: 978-85-8039-135-0] Florianópolis, SC, Brasil 23-27 November 2015, pp. 137-142.
summary The evolution of techniques and digital tools has aided and complemented actions in the design process, generating alternatives and reducing costs in short times. This paper reports experience that integrated the rapid prototyping in vertical atelier, in one of Pronto 3D network institution member. The results shows that use of rapid prototyping technology contributes to design improvement process applied to teaching of architecture and urbanism, mainly in relation of identification in failures and conflicts of proposals, which eventually pass unnoticed by students in different phases of the course.
keywords Rapid Prototyping, Architectural Design Process, Vertical Atelier
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id acadia12_199
id acadia12_199
authors Beorkrem, Chris ; Corte, Dan
year 2012
title Zero-Waste, Flat-Packed, Tri-Chord Truss: Continued Investigations of Structural Expression in Parametric Design"
source ACADIA 12: Synthetic Digital Ecologies [Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-62407-267-3] San Francisco 18-21 October, 2012), pp. 199-208
summary The direct and rapid connections between scripting, modeling and prototyping allow for investigations of computation in fabrication. The manipulation of planar materials with two-dimensional CNC cuts can easily create complex and varied forms, volumes, and surfaces. However, the bulk of research on folding using CNC fabrication tools is focused upon surfaces, self-supporting walls and shell structures, which do not integrate well into more conventional building construction models. This paper attempts to explain the potential for using folding methodologies to develop structural members through a design-build process. Conventional building practice consists of the assembly of off-the-shelf parts. Many times, the plinth, skeleton, and skin are independently designed and fabricated, integrating multiple industries. Using this method of construction as an operative status quo, this investigation focused on a single structural component: the truss. Using folding methodologies and sheet steel to create a truss, this design investigation employed a recyclable and prolific building material to redefine the fabrication of a conventional structural member. The potential for using digital design and two-dimensional CNC fabrication tools in the design of a foldable truss from sheet steel is viable in the creation of a flat-packed, minimal waste structural member that can adapt to a variety of aesthetic and structural conditions. Applying new methods to a component of the conventional ‘kit of parts’ allowed for a novel investigation that recombines zero waste goals, flat-packing potential, structural expression and computational processes. This paper will expand (greatly) upon previous research into bi-chord truss designs, developing a tri-chord truss, which is parametrically linked to its structural moment diagram. The cross section of each truss is formed based on the loading condition for each beam. This truss design has been developed through a thorough series of analytical models and tests performed digitally, to scale and in full scale. The tri-chord truss is capable of resisting rotational failures well beyond the capacity of the bi-chord designs previously developed. The results are complex, and elegant expressions of structural logics embodied in a tightly constrained functional design.
keywords Parametric Design , Structural Expression , Material constraints
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2013/01/09 10:06

_id e2b3
authors Bollinger, Elizabeth
year 1987
title The New Studio: CAD and the Workstation: Implications for Architecture Education
source Architectural Education and the Information Explosion [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Zurich (Switzerland) 5-7 September 1987.
summary Exploring the potential of the computer in the design process; Use of the computer through the conceptual, schematic, and design development processes, as well as the more conventional presentation techniques; and successes and failures regarding the integration of the computer into the thesis projects.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cbd0
authors Brown, David C.
year 1985
title Failure Handling in a Design Expert System
source computer Aided Design. November, 1985. vol. 17: pp. 436-442 : ill. Includes bibliography
summary This paper is concerned with how to handle the failures that occur during design problem-solving. Failure handlers and redesigners are introduced. Failure recovery action and the knowledge involved is presented for each agent. The role of suggestions and redesign strategies is discussed. The handling of plan failures is also presented. The paper concludes by surveying other methods of failure handling from the literature
keywords expert systems, problem solving, mechanical engineering, planning,constraints, design, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ascaad2014_008
id ascaad2014_008
authors Chokhachian, Ata and Abolfazl Dehghanmongabadi
year 2014
title Critical Attitude toward the Footstep of Googie Architecture on Parametric Architecture
source Digital Crafting [7th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2014 / ISBN 978-603-90142-5-6], Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), 31 March - 3 April 2014, pp. 109-118
summary Advent of machinery age, altering in human needs and lifestyle has changed the pattern of architecture. This pattern is in close relation with different environmental, contextual, behavioral and theoretical aspects of dwellers. With a glance to the history of design, in 1940s the new style of architecture came up which was called Googie architecture. It was a movement of modern architecture, a subdivision of futurist architecture influenced by car culture and the Space Age. This style was alive up to mid-1960s but in its short life, it put a big impact on the appearance of the cities and buildings. Furthermore, in recent years the new style of architecture named Parametricism has started to take shape and accordingly the formal appearance is very close to Googie architecture. Also parametric architecture is out birth of technology and the idea of communication and futurism. The research is questioning the characteristics of parametric and Googie architecture with scrutinizing the origins and main gestures of these styles in society and culture of the period that they exist in. the research tries to figure out failures of Googie style in its own period and parallel to this, it give suggestions to implement and transform qualitative parameters in the design process by means of adapting pattern language in design process, applying parametric design thinking and simplexity in design systems.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2016/02/15 12:09

_id ecaade2014_198
id ecaade2014_198
authors Erik Kjems
year 2014
title Data Fusion Using Geographic Managed Objects
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 495-504
summary The way we design our buildings and cities has not really changed a lot for decades. Drawing boards have been exchanged with relatively small 30” inch monitors, pens and rulers have been exchanged with advanced digital tools mostly though disturbing, making the creative process of design merely a frustrating one. So what have we gained from CAD. Certainly a lot, but mostly the possibility to combine and fuse projects. Simulating future use and behaviour, revealing design issues and failures before actually built. Still data fusion is a relatively new challenge albeit quite obvious trying to assemble models coming from different systems and vendors representing different professional domains. This paper discusses data exchange and data fusion in general and presents a new development, which gives the possibility to enhance data as intelligent objects opening a whole new paradigm for both data exchange and data fusion.
wos WOS:000361385100052
keywords Data fusion; cad; managed object; data exchange; virtual machine
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 4062
authors Flanagan Robert and Shannon, Kelly
year 1998
title Digital Studio Confronts Tradition
source Computers in Design Studio Teaching [EAAE/eCAADe International Workshop Proceedings / ISBN 09523687-7-3] Leuven (Belgium) 13-14 November 1998, pp. 65-71
summary This is a record of a collaborative teaching effort of two architect/educators, each contributing theoretical components to the educational process necessary for the development of an urban housing strategy vis ŕ vis an integrated digital/judgment effort. Twenty graduate architecture students were involved in this ‘computer design studio’. The focus of the studio was the 1997 Otis Elevator Housing Design Competition. A prerequisite introductory computer class was required for participation in this studio. Two distinct analysis and design methodologies were introduced; one concentrating on the formal tectonic aspects of architecture and the other highlighting the multiplicity, and often competing, forces shaping the built reality. The summary offered at the conclusion of this document both supports and questions the direction of the class as a whole and further classifies the relative success and failures of the individual student initiatives. In some cases, the computer simply facilitated (and occasionally hindered) progress. In the most opportunistic examples, the computer undoubtedly changed both the process and the consequence of the design effort.  
series eCAADe
last changed 2000/11/21 08:13

_id 8db7
authors Gero, John S., Radford, Antony D. and Rosenman, Michael A. (et al)
year 1986
title Knowledge-based Building Design
source CIB 86, Advanced Building Technology, Proceedings. 1986. vol. 1: pp. 93-102
summary CADLINE has abstract only. The use of the right knowledge depends not only on its availability but also on the designer recognizing that it is needed. The great majority of failures in building design and construction come from the non-application of existing, recorded knowledge; the designer either could not find the right information, or never recognized that the existing basis for making design decisions was inadequate in a new context. This paper describes some work towards the development of knowledge-based computer-aided design tools in which the knowledge is explicit, explained and open to modification. The philosophy behind the work is that design is almost always better if it is based on better knowledge, and that knowledge should be linked as closely as possible to the design activity. Rather than rely on a theoretical discussion, the authors make some brief statements about the nature of such knowledge-based systems and then give some working examples from the Architectural Computing Unit in the University of Sydney
keywords building, knowledge base, design, architecture, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 803c
authors Gottfried, A., Angelis, E. De and Trani, M.L.
year 1999
title Results from the application of a performance-based housing regulation in Cadoneghe, Italy
source Automation in Construction 8 (4) (1999) pp. 445-453
summary The article aims to report the experience of a little town, Cadoneghe (suburbs of Padua, northern Italy), in managing a Performance based Building Code. Although pressed by a high housing demand, Cadoneghe asked a design team and a research team for a help to define new basic rules and control tools, to avoid the most usual failures of Italian mass housing projects. The administration pursued the application of these rules in four stages:
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 0df9
authors Guzmán Dumont, Guillermo and Villalobos Pino, Rodrigo
year 2000
title El taller de exploración digital, una experiencia reveladora (The Studio of Digital Exploration, a Revealing Experience)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 380-382
summary In this presentation is shown the academic experience obtained from the development of a digital exploration workshop for architecture students, making emphasise on the contributions introduced to the traditional teaching methods in Architecture. In this study is described in a detailed analysis the goals established, the results obtained, some failures detected, the modifications introduced and the future challenges to be proposed.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id 424b
authors Hammond, K.
year 1989
title Case-Based Planning: Viewing Planning as a Memory Task
source Boston, MA, Academic Press
summary A case-based planner learns by correctly indexing its planning experiences in memory. The main task of the learner is to figure out which features a piece of information should be indexed under. A case-based planner learns 1) new plans; 2) the features that predict failures; 3) past repairs to faulty plans that it can reuse. This learning is accomplished by saving the different results of the planner's own experiences.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id f748
authors Hitchcock, Robert John
year 1996
title Improving life-cycle information management through documentation of project objectives and design rationale
source University of California, Berkeley, Department of Civil Engineering
summary Fragmentation is a defining characteristic of the US building industry that has evolved with increased specialization in building disciplines, and is exacerbated by the present industry business model. While the industry has agreed that productivity and product quality can be dramatically improved by information integration and communication, it has not agreed what information is most important to share to achieve these improvements. Traditional documentation in drawings and specifications captures only the final product of building design decisions. Yet, reported building failures indicate that a lack of understanding between project participants regarding their diverse objectives may be a key factor in failure. This deficiency leads to an inadequate understanding of the rationale behind the myriad design decisions that must work in concert to achieve a global set of project objectives. This information is routinely lost under current information management practices as the building moves through its life cycle. The dissertation develops an innovative information framework intended to effectively structure and manage building life-cycle information. The framework contains a product model that represents the details of a building design that are traditionally documented for sharing between project phases. Two additional elements are integrated with this product model to document key information that is currently lost. Explicit Global Objectives define the overall purpose of a building project by explicitly identifying its intended performance and the criteria for evaluating their achievement. Design Rationale Records capture the associations between individual details of the product model and the objectives that these details are meant to achieve. This information is linked within the framework so that it can be archived, reviewed, and updated in an integrated fashion as a building project moves through time. Example applications of the framework are given. Documenting this key information has benefit across the building life cycle. Participants can more clearly specify project objectives. Multi-criteria evaluation of alternative design solutions and construction methods can be better supported, and the resulting decisions better documented for sharing amongst participants. Comprehensive commissioning can be more cost-effectively performed. During operations, evaluation of the actual performance of a building and detection of maintenance problems can be enhanced.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 06e8
authors Knight, Michael W. and Brown, Andre G.P.
year 2000
title Interfaces for Virtual Environments; A Review Recent Developments and Potential Ways forward
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 215-219
summary The physical and visual nature of the interface devices and media that enable the human agent to interact with a virtual world have evolved over the past few years. In this paper we consider the different lines of development that have taken place in the refinement of these interfaces and summarise what has been learned about the appropriate nature of the interface for such interaction. In terms of the physical aspects we report on the kind of devices that have been used to enable the human agent to operate within the computer generated environment. We point out the successes and failures in the systems that have been tried out in recent years. Likewise we consider the kinds of software generated interface that have been used to represent virtual worlds. Again, we review the efficacy of the environments that have been devised; the quality of the Cyberplace. Our aim is to be able to comment on the effectiveness of the systems that have been devised from a number of points of view. We consider the physical and software-based aids for navigation; the nature of the representation of architectural worlds; strengthening “groundedness”; the inclusion of “otherness”; and reinforcement of the idea of “presence”
keywords Virtual Environments, Games Engines, Collaborative Design, Navigation Metaphors
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id ecaade2010_156
id ecaade2010_156
authors Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Grasso, Christopher J.; McDearmon, Michael J.
year 2010
title World16: Innovation and collaboration in VR technology
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.593-603
summary This paper outlines the work and organizational framework of World16, a working group of 16 professors from around the world that engage in collaborative research on virtual reality (VR) technologies. Because of the abundance of VR software and the resulting fragmentation of research efforts in this field, World16 shares knowledge and resources using a common software package. A common research platform facilitates the sharing of data and the coordination of research efforts among member professors spread around the world. In addition to the organizational practices of World16’s project management team, various tools and methods of sharing research are described. Additionally, World16’s major research projects are outlined as well as the successes and failures of working within a shared software platform. Lastly, future work and goals of World16 are discussed, including the marketing and commercialization of several computational tools created by member professors.
wos WOS:000340629400064
keywords Virtual Reality; 3D graphics; City modeling; Parametric modeling; International organization
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id acadia06_555
id acadia06_555
authors Kudless, A., Vukcevich, I.
year 2006
title Flexible Formwork Research (FPR)
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] p. 555
summary FFR investigates the self-organization of plaster and elastic fabric to produce evocative visual and acoustic effects. Inspired by the work of the Spanish architect Miguel Fisac and his experiments with flexible concrete formwork in the 1960-70s, FFR continues this line of research by exploring aspects of pattern generation and recognition in relation to self-organized form. In line with the theme of the current exhibition, Digital Exchange, the work can be understood as a dialog between physical and digital computation. The form is a result of a negotiation between the digital manipulation of images and the physical deformations of materials under stress. Both digital and physical processes play an equal role in the final form of the plaster tiles.Reflecting on Miguel Fisac’s flexible concrete formwork, there was a desire to investigate the potential for more differentiated patterns while still using the same basic fabrication technique. This was accomplished through the use of a custom-designed script in Rhino that analyzes a given image and translates it into a field of points. These points establish areas of constraint in the elastic membrane of the mould. Through numerous physical tests, the minimum and maximum distances between constraint points was determined and these were entered into the script as limits for the point creation. If the points are too close, large wholes with very thin and weak plaster form whereas if the points are too far apart the amount of elastic deformation is so great that the weight of the plaster can cause failures to occur in the fabric mould. One of the most important aspects of the project is its resonance with the body and our natural attraction and repulsion for certain forms. Through exploring the natural self-organization of material under stress, FFR unintentionally reminds us of our own flesh. The plaster tiles resonate with our own body’s material as it sags, expands, and wrinkles in relationship with gravity, structure, and time.
series ACADIA
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id a743
authors Laing, L. and Kraria, H.
year 1994
title CAD as an Interface for Integrated Collaborative Design
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 235
summary In the traditional approach to building design, the designer (usually the architect) produces a design (often quite detailed)in blueprint before handing this to the next member of the design team (engineer) to superimpose the structure, services etc. Often this proves so impractical that the initial proposal has to be referred back to the architect for revision, and the process repeated - and this cycle may be repeated many times. Such routines arise in building design because designers find collaboration among themselves difficult to control, the task of design integration ultimately falling upon the construction manager or the contractor. This is the most common cause of problems arising during the execution of the project on site, causing a delays in the construction process, and building failures which might only be detected after occupancy. As a test-bed for addressing this problem, a system of coordinated files is proposed for use by design-students (with a working knowledge of AutoCAD) during a design project. The aim is to related data (CAD information) across all students working on the same project but developing different aspects. Participating students will be drawn from a range of design specialisms. Each member accessing the same information while developing different aspects (e.g. structure, services, and cost modelling). This goes beyond the conventional use of 'XREF' (cross-referenced drawings) and involves each member accessing and working with the same dataset - e.g. using different layers, co-ordination is easier and the data better integrated - there is thereby a reduction of the amount of repetition as the need to redraw information is eliminated. References or an initial data-set is set up by the tutor and available for reference at any stage of design project. The technological aspects to support collaborative work (and in particular the interaction process in design) is the main thrust of the undergraduate degree in Building Design Engineering at the University of Strathclyde.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:21

_id 9a66
authors Lee, H., Lee, J. and Chang, S.
year 1995
title Design Adaptation for Handling Design Failures
source Sixth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 9971-62-423-0] Singapore, 24-26 September 1995, pp. 567-576
summary This research deals with two important issues in Case-based Design (CBD): a structure of design cases and a process of design adaptation for handling design failures. The structure of design cases involves problem situation, design specification, design tasks, design solutions, causal explanation, past design failures as well as design performance. It has been noticed that how to represent a structure of design cases and how it can be used in actual a process of design adaptation process are important in Case-based Design. Adaptation process in Case-based Design is also critcial, especially in handling design failures. The description and the analysis of design adaptation process in the context of Case-based Design paradigm is the major focus of this research. A model of casual explanation is presented as an useful tool for identifying sources of design failures. For efficiently handling design failures based on causal explanation, it is essential to characterize various design failures and to devise an adequate structure of adaptation process. Applicability of adaptation process is demonstrated in an exemplary kitchen layout.
keywords Design Failures, Design Adaptation, Causal Explanation, Adaptation Strategies
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/08/03 15:16

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