CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id e29d
authors Arvesen, Liv
year 1996
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary With the unlimited supply of electric light our surroundings very easily may be illuminated too strongly. Too much light is unpleasant for our eyes, and a high level of light in many cases disturbs the conception of form. Just as in a forest, we need shadows, contrasts and variation when we compose with light. If we focus on the term compose, it is natural to conceive our environment as a wholeness. In fact, this is not only aesthetically important, it is true in a physical context. Inspired by old windows several similar examples have been built in the Trondheim Full-scale Laboratory where depth is obtained by constructing shelves on each side of the opening. When daylight is fading, indirect artificial light from above gradually lightens the window. The opening is perceived as a space of light both during the day and when it is dark outside.

Another of the built examples at Trondheim University which will be presented, is a doctor's waitingroom. It is a case study of special interest because it often appears to be a neglected area. Let us start asking: What do we have in common when we are waiting to come in to a doctor? We are nervous and we feel sometimes miserable. Analysing the situation we understand the need for an interior that cares for our state of mind. The level of light is important in this situation. Light has to speak softly. Instead of the ordinary strong light in the middle of the ceiling, several spots are selected to lighten the small tables separating the seats. The separation is supposed to give a feeling of privacy. By the low row of reflected planes we experience an intimate and warming atmosphere in the room. A special place for children contributes to the total impression of calm. In this corner the inside of some shelves are lit by indirect light, an effect which puts emphasis on the small scale suitable for a child. And it also demonstrates the good results of variation. The light setting in this room shows how light is “caught” two different ways.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 12:34

_id acadia07_120
id acadia07_120
authors Balakrishnan, Bimal; Muramoto, Katsuhiko; Kalisperis, Loukas N.
year 2007
title Spatial Presence: An Explication From an Architectural Point of View
source Expanding Bodies: Art • Cities• Environment [Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 978-0-9780978-6-8] Halifax (Nova Scotia) 1-7 October 2007, 120-129
summary This paper provides the theoretical foundation for understanding the concept of spatial presence. This is important for improving architectural visualization tools so as to capture the experiential aspects of space. The paper is organized into three sections. The first section explicates the concept of spatial presence by identifying various conceptualizations of spatial presence in the literature and performing a meaning analysis. It then proceeds to examine mechanisms underlying the formation of spatial presence. The paper concludes by offering initial guidelines for improving the nature of digital tools to enhance the feeling of spatial presence.
series ACADIA
last changed 2007/10/02 06:11

_id 841a
authors Bartnicka, Malgorzata
year 1997
title The Animal, Full Blood maybe, but Untamed
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 103-108
summary So far yet, even the most advanced technology has not been able to substitute a human, his thoughts, feelings, dreams, longings, visions. It can though, removing need for all kind of effort from our everyday life, surrounding a human with unprecedented comfort, create feeling of peace and security. Task of a computer is to provide assistance, helping in calculations, forming of refined solids, It contains a compendium of knowledge and memory - but not creative skills. So far it's only a machine, with help of which a possibility of creative expression is expanded. It only can solve problems for a human faster and more efficient way, does not have the ability to describe (formulate) problems. Even while providing a support, does it do that honestly? It means, does it support us in those of our doings where we truly need it? Computers have enormous possibilities of use that are not exploited sufficiently and all the time new generations of yet quicker machines with unbelievable power are being created. Every new type of computer appears to be obsolete and insufficient within a few months. Insufficient for what?
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id cb25
authors Benedikt, M.
year 1993
title Cityspace, Cyberspace, and The Spatiology of Information
source Boyer,C. & Gandelsonas.,M. The New Urbanism Princeton University Press
summary The concept of space has been critical to architectural theory for over seventy years now. It remains however, an elusive idea, on the one hand meaning and referring to everything, on the other hand meaning and referring to nothing. Why? Is it because "space," like "time," is a category outside of which thinking itself seems to be impossible, just as Kant asserted? Is it simply one of those irreducible, universal without which the world as such would cease to in any sense, let alone be of, or perceived by, sentient beings givens be thought Certainly to suggest that space itself is an active, causative agent of some sort risks opening that discussion up to universalizing of the most extreme and vacuous kind. For if I am not to be a dualist, positing a separate, a-spatial and a-temporal realm for thought and feeling, then what in the real world, I can easily ask, occupies neither space nor time? What is it that cannot be reduced, be analyzed, or be spoken of finally in the language of position, duration, connection, inclusion, transformation, and so forth? Nothing. If we wish to reach deeply into the "nature" of "space itself" then, I believe we must allow into it, as it were, of some sort: not the aether of Nineteenth century science perhaps, but a registering, tracing, questioning, remembering substance, spread as thinly as we can imagine but present nonetheless, and definitive of versus because of how it pools, how it vibrates, how it scatters difference, a substance here there difference.
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8db6
authors Bijl, Aart
year 1991
title On Knowing - Feeling and Expression
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 157-176
summary The basic assumptions for CAD, and for any use of computers, are re-examined. They refer to how we know things, how we think of knowledge being represented, and the impact of representation techniques on evolution of knowledge. Japan offers stimulating clues on how we might regard the usefulness of computers, and these are explained. Evocative illustrations are presented, to show a direction for future developments.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cf2003_m_098
id cf2003_m_098
authors CHAMPION, E., DAVE, B. and BISHOP, I.
year 2003
title Interaction, Agency and Artefacts
source Digital Design - Research and Practice [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1] Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, pp. 249-258
summary This paper argues (i) that understanding of a place (especially in heritage environments) requires a level of cultural engagement and (ii) that virtual environments, in their typical current form, fail to provide such engagement. A proposed solution to the issue of cultural presence is to apply the interactive mechanisms commonly used in computer games (social agents, levels of interaction constraint, and task-based manipulation of artefacts) to virtual heritage environments. The hypothesis is that the resulting environment will allow for greater engagement and a more culturally immersive learning environment. Virtual environments also often lack techniques for evaluating the extent to which their design goals are achieved. A proposed secondary outcome is that designers and researchers of virtual environment can also use the above interactive mechanisms for the evaluation of user engagement without simultaneously interrupting the user’s feeling of engagement.
keywords engagement, evaluation, games, HCI, virtual heritage, virtual world
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/09/22 10:21

_id caadria2005_a_7b_c
id caadria2005_a_7b_c
authors Chang, Chuang-Ting
year 2005
title Some Phenomena of Touch in Study Models
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 277-287
summary The senses of “Touch” bring people the feeling of reality, and human beings can always naturally sense the tactile impression. Hence we touch things and our sense tells us that our hands are touching something (Hinckley et al. 1999). Comparing to the tools used by designers between traditional and new digital media in the design process, the most difference is in the sense of touch. This paper focuses on the sense of touch to point out the haptic experience which have ignored by the past in design process. Four phenomena will be discussed in details and some useful suggestions given for future study.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id d9d0
authors Cohen Egler, Tamara Tania
year 1999
title Río Digital (Digital Rio)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 478-481
summary RioDigital is a text situated on new forms of expression of knowledge over the city. It is a written multimedia whose objective is to place in disposability for the society the complexity of urban space on its multiple historical determinations, of its space, social and cultural forms. It is a research over the potentials of digital art to express the processes of constitution of social forms and constructions of urban space. The motion of works was in the sense of using this language to reconstitute and vivify the history of Rio de Janeiro city in the XX century. The city is an ensemble of symbols that encounters the language in its best form of presentation. The research identified visual documents as films, photos and maps that made possible to reconstruct processes of transformation, worked through the use of digital images technology that allows expression and turns move perceptible the transmission of this history. The digital image is certainly a possibility to represent urban reality. Through movement, illumination of image and of writing it was possible to express to process of construction and reconstruction of space building and social changes. We understand that the condition of citizen is associated with the feeling of belonging, which urban process every time move complex and difficult to understand, that new technologies can through synthesis, connectivity and interactivity expand the capacity of indivils to know the city and act positively with it. It is an intention to amplify the sense of belonging and encourage the action of transform.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id 8326
authors Diessenbacher, Claus and Rank, Ernst
year 1993
title Teaching Design with CAD?
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Abstract as well as functionally dependant design exercises are essential components of an architectural education at nearly every university. Their goal is to provide architect students with a feeling for proportions, colours, materials etc., and to teach and train them in threedimensional thinking. Pictures and concepts, developed by the designer are materialized by various technologies such as with pencil and paper in the traditional two-dimensional techniques or with clay, wood, paper etc. in three-dimensional modeling. Now the computer and the CAD-system join the palette of the designers available resources in presentation as both a two-dimensional and a three-dimensional medium. Although CAD is often considered and taught to be only a better drafting tool, the educational goal of our group at the University of Dortmund is to employ CAD as a design support medium. The prerequisites for work with the computer and the CAD system are provided in a compulsory two semester undergraduate subject. Basic programming, work with spreadsheets etc. are some exemplary themes provided in the form of lectures and practical exercises. A main emphasis of this instruction is the mastery of three-dimensional working technology with a comprehensive CAD-System. In cooperation of our computer science group and architecture chairs, seminars involving the use of CAD as a three-dimensional design tool, are offered as graduate courses. The seminars consist of loops of modeling and evaluating objects in a three-dimensional space. With this, the most possible realistic studies in colour, light and proportion take place exclusively on the computer.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 08:26

_id ijac20075206
id ijac20075206
authors Foni, Alessandro E.; Papagiannakis, George; Cadi-Yazli, Nedjma; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia
year 2007
title Time-Dependant Illumination and Animation of Virtual Hagia-Sophia
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 5 - no. 2, pp. 284-301
summary This paper presents a case study centered on the virtual restitution and virtual life simulation of a highly complex and endangered heritage edifice: the church of Hagia Sophia, in Istanbul, Turkey. The goal of this article is to describe the techniques used in order to achieve a real time rendering and animation of the selected space and its characters, as well as to point out the challenges and solutions that such a work implies at different stages in production. Most of these issues are focused on the reconstruction of the architecture of the site; however, in order to achieve an accurate simulation, the social aspect is not to be omitted. The importance of a heritage site resides as well in the historical characters and the social interactions that were taking place there: this information allows a better understanding of the function and the importance of the selected site in connection with the cultural aspects of the life at a certain time. In order to strengthen the feeling of immersion in a heritage edifice virtually restituted, it is important to recreate virtual life and describe the timely evolutionary aspects of the edifice as well.
series journal
last changed 2007/08/29 14:23

_id 7ce5
authors Gal, Shahaf
year 1992
title Computers and Design Activities: Their Mediating Role in Engineering Education
source Sociomedia, ed. Edward Barret. MIT Press
summary Sociomedia: With all the new words used to describe electronic communication (multimedia, hypertext, cyberspace, etc.), do we need another one? Edward Barrett thinks we do; hence, he coins the term "sociomedia." It is meant to displace a computing economy in which technicity is hypostasized over sociality. Sociomedia, a compilation of twenty-five articles on the theory, design and practice of educational multimedia and hypermedia, attempts to re-value the communicational face of computing. Value, of course, is "ultimately a social construct." As such, it has everything to do with knowledge, power, education and technology. The projects discussed in this book represent the leading edge of electronic knowledge production in academia (not to mention major funding) and are determining the future of educational media. For these reasons, Sociomedia warrants close inspection. Barrett's introduction sets the tone. For him, designing computer media involves hardwiring a mechanism for the social construction of knowledge (1). He links computing to a process of social and communicative interactivity for constructing and desseminating knowledge. Through a mechanistic mapping of the university as hypercontext (a huge network that includes classrooms as well as services and offices), Barrett models intellectual work in such a way as to avoid "limiting definitions of human nature or human development." Education, then, can remain "where it should be--in the human domain (public and private) of sharing ideas and information through the medium of language." By leaving education in a virtual realm (where we can continue to disagree about its meaning and execution), it remains viral, mutating and contaminating in an intellectually healthy way. He concludes that his mechanistic model, by means of its reductionist approach, preserves value (7). This "value" is the social construction of knowledge. While I support the social orientation of Barrett's argument, discussions of value are related to power. I am not referring to the traditional teacher-student power structure that is supposedly dismantled through cooperative and constructivist learning strategies. The power to be reckoned with in the educational arena is foundational, that which (pre)determines value and the circulation of knowledge. "Since each of you reading this paragraph has a different perspective on the meaning of 'education' or 'learning,' and on the processes involved in 'getting an education,' think of the hybris in trying to capture education in a programmable function, in a displayable object, in a 'teaching machine'" (7). Actually, we must think about that hybris because it is, precisely, what informs teaching machines. Moreover, the basic epistemological premises that give rise to such productions are too often assumed. In the case of instructional design, the episteme of cognitive sciences are often taken for granted. It is ironic that many of the "postmodernists" who support electronic hypertextuality seem to have missed Jacques Derrida's and Michel Foucault's "deconstructions" of the epistemology underpinning cognitive sciences (if not of epistemology itself). Perhaps it is the glitz of the technology that blinds some users (qua developers) to the belief systems operating beneath the surface. Barrett is not guilty of reactionary thinking or politics; he is, in fact, quite in line with much American deconstructive and postmodern thinking. The problem arises in that he leaves open the definitions of "education," "learning" and "getting an education." One cannot engage in the production of new knowledge without orienting its design, production and dissemination, and without negotiating with others' orientations, especially where largescale funding is involved. Notions of human nature and development are structural, even infrastructural, whatever the medium of the teaching machine. Although he addresses some dynamics of power, money and politics when he talks about the recession and its effects on the conference, they are readily visible dynamics of power (3-4). Where does the critical factor of value determination, of power, of who gets what and why, get mapped onto a mechanistic model of learning institutions? Perhaps a mapping of contributors' institutions, of the funding sources for the projects showcased and for participation in the conference, and of the disciplines receiving funding for these sorts of projects would help visualize the configurations of power operative in the rising field of educational multimedia. Questions of power and money notwithstanding, Barrett's introduction sets the social and textual thematics for the collection of essays. His stress on interactivity, on communal knowledge production, on the society of texts, and on media producers and users is carried foward through the other essays, two of which I will discuss. Section I of the book, "Perspectives...," highlights the foundations, uses and possible consequences of multimedia and hypertextuality. The second essay in this section, "Is There a Class in This Text?," plays on the robust exchange surrounding Stanley Fish's book, Is There a Text in This Class?, which presents an attack on authority in reading. The author, John Slatin, has introduced electronic hypertextuality and interaction into his courses. His article maps the transformations in "the content and nature of work, and the workplace itself"-- which, in this case, is not industry but an English poetry class (25). Slatin discovered an increase of productive and cooperative learning in his electronically- mediated classroom. For him, creating knowledge in the electronic classroom involves interaction between students, instructors and course materials through the medium of interactive written discourse. These interactions lead to a new and persistent understanding of the course materials and of the participants' relation to the materials and to one another. The work of the course is to build relationships that, in my view, constitute not only the meaning of individual poems, but poetry itself. The class carries out its work in the continual and usually interactive production of text (31). While I applaud his strategies which dismantle traditional hierarchical structures in academia, the evidence does not convince me that the students know enough to ask important questions or to form a self-directing, learning community. Stanley Fish has not relinquished professing, though he, too, espouses the indeterminancy of the sign. By the fourth week of his course, Slatin's input is, by his own reckoning, reduced to 4% (39). In the transcript of the "controversial" Week 6 exchange on Gertrude Stein--the most disliked poet they were discussing at the time (40)--we see the blind leading the blind. One student parodies Stein for three lines and sums up his input with "I like it." Another, finds Stein's poetry "almost completey [sic] lacking in emotion or any artistic merit" (emphasis added). On what grounds has this student become an arbiter of "artistic merit"? Another student, after admitting being "lost" during the Wallace Steven discussion, talks of having more "respect for Stevens' work than Stein's" and adds that Stein's poetry lacks "conceptual significance[, s]omething which people of varied opinion can intelligently discuss without feeling like total dimwits...." This student has progressed from admitted incomprehension of Stevens' work to imposing her (groundless) respect for his work over Stein's. Then, she exposes her real dislike for Stein's poetry: that she (the student) missed the "conceptual significance" and hence cannot, being a person "of varied opinion," intelligently discuss it "without feeling like [a] total dimwit." Slatin's comment is frightening: " this point in the semester students have come to feel increasingly free to challenge the instructor" (41). The students that I have cited are neither thinking critically nor are their preconceptions challenged by student-governed interaction. Thanks to the class format, one student feels self-righteous in her ignorance, and empowered to censure. I believe strongly in student empowerment in the classroom, but only once students have accrued enough knowledge to make informed judgments. Admittedly, Slatin's essay presents only partial data (there are six hundred pages of course transcripts!); still, I wonder how much valuable knowledge and metaknowledge was gained by the students. I also question the extent to which authority and professorial dictature were addressed in this course format. The power structures that make it possible for a college to require such a course, and the choice of texts and pedagogy, were not "on the table." The traditional professorial position may have been displaced, but what took its place?--the authority of consensus with its unidentifiable strong arm, and the faceless reign of software design? Despite Slatin's claim that the students learned about the learning process, there is no evidence (in the article) that the students considered where their attitudes came from, how consensus operates in the construction of knowledge, how power is established and what relationship they have to bureaucratic insitutions. How do we, as teaching professionals, negotiate a balance between an enlightened despotism in education and student-created knowledge? Slatin, and other authors in this book, bring this fundamental question to the fore. There is no definitive answer because the factors involved are ultimately social, and hence, always shifting and reconfiguring. Slatin ends his article with the caveat that computerization can bring about greater estrangement between students, faculty and administration through greater regimentation and control. Of course, it can also "distribute authority and power more widely" (50). Power or authority without a specific face, however, is not necessarily good or just. Shahaf Gal's "Computers and Design Activities: Their Mediating Role in Engineering Education" is found in the second half of the volume, and does not allow for a theory/praxis dichotomy. Gal recounts a brief history of engineering education up to the introduction of Growltiger (GT), a computer-assisted learning aid for design. He demonstrates GT's potential to impact the learning of engineering design by tracking its use by four students in a bridge-building contest. What his text demonstrates clearly is that computers are "inscribing and imaging devices" that add another viewpoint to an on-going dialogue between student, teacher, earlier coursework, and other teaching/learning tools. The less proficient students made a serious error by relying too heavily on the technology, or treating it as a "blueprint provider." They "interacted with GT in a way that trusted the data to represent reality. They did not see their interaction with GT as a negotiation between two knowledge systems" (495). Students who were more thoroughly informed in engineering discourses knew to use the technology as one voice among others--they knew enough not simply to accept the input of the computer as authoritative. The less-advanced students learned a valuable lesson from the competition itself: the fact that their designs were not able to hold up under pressure (literally) brought the fact of their insufficient knowledge crashing down on them (and their bridges). They also had, post factum, several other designs to study, especially the winning one. Although competition and comparison are not good pedagogical strategies for everyone (in this case the competitors had volunteered), at some point what we think we know has to be challenged within the society of discourses to which it belongs. Students need critique in order to learn to push their learning into auto-critique. This is what is lacking in Slatin's discussion and in the writings of other avatars of constructivist, collaborative and computer-mediated pedagogies. Obviously there are differences between instrumental types of knowledge acquisition and discoursive knowledge accumulation. Indeed, I do not promote the teaching of reading, thinking and writing as "skills" per se (then again, Gal's teaching of design is quite discursive, if not dialogic). Nevertheless, the "soft" sciences might benefit from "bridge-building" competitions or the re-institution of some forms of agonia. Not everything agonistic is inhuman agony--the joy of confronting or creating a sound argument supported by defensible evidence, for example. Students need to know that soundbites are not sound arguments despite predictions that electronic writing will be aphoristic rather than periodic. Just because writing and learning can be conceived of hypertextually does not mean that rigor goes the way of the dinosaur. Rigor and hypertextuality are not mutually incompatible. Nor is rigorous thinking and hard intellectual work unpleasurable, although American anti-intellectualism, especially in the mass media, would make it so. At a time when the spurious dogmatics of a Rush Limbaugh and Holocaust revisionist historians circulate "aphoristically" in cyberspace, and at a time when knowledge is becoming increasingly textualized, the role of critical thinking in education will ultimately determine the value(s) of socially constructed knowledge. This volume affords the reader an opportunity to reconsider knowledge, power, and new communications technologies with respect to social dynamics and power relationships.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id cf2003_m_094
id cf2003_m_094
authors GARCIA, Renato
year 2003
title Feeling the Heat - Exploring the Impact of Fire in Architectural Structures though Multimodal Interaction
source Digital Design - Research and Practice [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1] Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, pp. 383-392
summary This paper discusses the background and basis behind a computer program developed by the author that incorporates a haptic feedback and audio interface into a visually interactive simulation of the structural response of buildings to fire. Structures are limited to steel in particular. The audio interface makes use of sonification and affective techniques while the haptic interface takes advantage of force feedback technology. The simulation is also meant to be holistic, qualitative, intuitive, temporal yet interactive. The primary innovation in this fire simulation system is the incorporation of audio and haptic feedback interaction into the usual visual interface.
keywords computing, force feedback, HCI, interface, sonification
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/09/22 10:21

_id 1627
authors Gorczyca, Adam
year 2002
title Changes in Group Communication in the Context of “virtual/real Ratio”
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 378-381
summary It is generally perceived that within the everyday work, there is a growing level of both the abstract and the virtual, especially for the teamwork participants dispersed within the global network. Purpose of this paper is to “translate” this feeling into a systematic scientific apparatus. The paper examines following factors: the time and place of mediation between participants, as well as personal and modal dimension. These factors are specified for communication tools used by architects.
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 4fc4
authors Jakimowicz, Adam
year 1996
title Towards Affective Architectural Computing: An Additional Element in CAAD
source CAD Creativeness [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-0-2] Bialystock (Poland), 25-27 April 1996 pp. 121-135
summary The sphere of computing, in general, is the sphere of confusion. First, computers', thanks to (or because o) the indirect way of communicating "with" them, have not become yet the obvious and natural extension of human abilities - as TV set, radio or cars already have. It is probably because of the feeling, that they are, more or less, for specialists and that they require special knowledge or skills. In a way it is true, but surely it will change within a few years, when they become everyday tools of education at schools or just toys for children. Second, there is also the feeling or wish, that every computer is able to do everything we want - from, lets say, writing a letter, washing the dishes to very complex things as, for example, designing architecture. This is the dream of universal artificial intelligence, which should be a perfect servant, which not only listens to, but also predicts our wishes.
series plCAD
last changed 2003/05/17 08:01

_id ga9809
id ga9809
authors Kälviäinen, Mirja
year 1998
title The ideological basis of generative expression in design
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper will discuss issues concerning the design ideology supporting the use and development of generative design. This design ideology is based on the unique qualities of craft production and on the forms or ideas from nature or the natural characteristics of materials. The main ideology presented here is the ideology of the 1980´s art craft production in Finland. It is connected with the general Finnish design ideology and with the design ideology of other western countries. The ideology for these professions is based on the common background of design principles stated in 19th century England. The early principles developed through the Arts and Crafts tradition which had a great impact on design thinking in Europe and in the United States. The strong continuity of this design ideology from 19th century England to the present computerized age can be detected. The application of these design principles through different eras shows the difference in the interpretations and in the permission of natural decorative forms. The ideology of the 1980ïs art craft in Finland supports the ideas and fulfilment of generative design in many ways. The reasons often given as the basis for making generative design with computers are in very many respects the same as the ideology for art craft. In Finland there is a strong connection between art craft and design ideology. The characteristics of craft have often been seen as the basis for industrial design skills. The main themes in the ideology of the 1980´s art craft in Finland can be compared to the ideas of generative design. The main issues in which the generative approach reflects a distinctive ideological thinking are: Way of Life: The work is the communication of the maker´s inner ideas. The concrete relationship with the environment, personality, uniqueness, communication, visionary qualities, development and growth of the maker are important. The experiments serve as a media for learning. Taste and Aesthetic Education: The real love affair is created by the non living object with the help of memories and thought. At their best objects create the basis in their stability and communication for durable human relationships. People have warm relationships especially with handmade products in which they can detect unique qualities and the feeling that the product has been made solely for them. Counter-culture: The aim of the work is to produce alternatives for technoburocracy and mechanical production and to bring subjective and unique experiences into the customerïs monotonious life. This ideology rejects the usual standardized mass production of our times. Mythical character: There is a metamorphosis in the birth of the product. In many ways the design process is about birth and growth. The creative process is a development story of the maker. The complexity of communication is the expression of the moments that have been lived. If you can sense the process of making in the product it makes it more real and nearer to life. Each piece of wood has its own beauty. Before you can work with it you must find the deep soul of its quality. The distinctive traits of the material, technique and the object are an essential part of the metamorphosis which brings the product into life. The form is not only for formïs sake but for other purposes, too. You cannot find loose forms in nature. Products have their beginnings in the material and are a part of the nature. This art craft ideology that supports the ideas of generative design can be applied either to the hand made crafts production or to the production exploiting new technology. The unique characteristics of craft and the expression of the material based development are a way to broaden the expression and forms of industrial products. However, for a crafts person it is not meaningful to fill the world with objects. In generative, computer based production this is possible. But maybe the production of unique pieces is still slower and makes the industrial production in that sense more ecological. People will be more attached to personal and unique objects, and thus the life cycle of the objects produced will be longer.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ddss2004_ra-113
id ddss2004_ra-113
authors Lee, J.-H. and W. Qian
year 2004
title Color Your Feeling
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 1-4020-2408-8, p. 113-125
summary Color selection plays a vitally important role in creating impressions of individuals or companies because colors have sensibility aspects and relate to some images or associations. Based on both the theory of color harmony and the sensibility ergonomics, some quantitative and systematic researches on the color image have been developed. In this paper, we suggest a color coordinate system that supports the color analysis and the color harmony functions using color images, which can be captured by corresponding adjective words. We focus on a system prototype for interior design domain to exemplify our concepts in this paper, even though this system can be applied for all design domains.
keywords Design Support System, Sensibility Ergonomics, Color Coordination, Color Image
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id avocaad_2001_03
id avocaad_2001_03
authors M.K.D. Coomans, J.P. van Leeuwen, H.J.P. Timmermans
year 2001
title Abstract but Tangible, Complex but Manageable
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the VR-DIS research program, an innovative design-information modelling technique has been proposed that is based on features. In this modelling technique, the designer is invited not only to model the form and spatial aspects of his or her design, but also to model the structure of the data behind the design. The designer is offered a way to control how abstract design data is structured and stored. In this way, the designer is given the power to model concepts like conformity, contrast, and scale on the formal data level, and this for both graphical and non-graphical design characteristics. Further, the designer is invited to input formal descriptions of own design concepts, and use these personal concepts during the design process. With this new information modelling technique, we expect that the designers will be better capable to handle the complexity of linking diverse kinds of information involved in a design process. This new way of computer aided design offers a unique design freedom: any design concept becomes addressable. On the other hand, this technique also puts the responsibility for the content of the CAD database entirely in the hands of the designer. In order to be able to enjoy the design freedom fully and at the same time handle the responsibility over the design database, a computer tool is needed that shows the precise content of the database, and that is easy and quick to interact with. Only with such a tool, the designer will be capable of keeping the complex data model in pace with his or her design reasoning. To realise this requirement, a “feature browser” has been developed with a 3D graphical user interface. It shows the data objects as 3D blocks, mutually linked by rubber-band arrows that closely reflect the database structure. The whole forms an interactive 3D graph. The intuitiveness and user friendliness of the interface was improved by adding features like the visualisation of the browsing history, the visualisation of link-semantics, and animated visual feedback effects. The hardware part of the interface is worked out as a Fish Tank VR set-up. This hardware configuration improves the experienced realism of the displayed 3D objects up to a feeling of physical presence. The interface as a whole therefore provides a highly attractive display of the abstract design data; abstract but tangible. It is a tool in which complex data structures can be explored and controlled: complex but manageable.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id sigradi2014_212
id sigradi2014_212
authors Neto de Faria, José
year 2014
title “Modelos afetivo-emocionais”: afeto, emoção e desejo no desenvolvimento de sistemas colaborativos dinâmicos de visualização de dados [Affective-emotional models: affection, emotion, bond and desire in the development of collaborative dynamic data visualization systems]
source SiGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay - Montevideo 12 - 14 November 2014, pp. 591-595
summary This paper aims to describe the theories behind “feeling analysis” techniques applied to digital electronic devices in order to discuss ways to employ them to establish an “affective-emotional model” that could be used to qualify the data visualization processes. The main goal is to analyze and describe “affective-emotional models” that could be used in “dynamic data visualization systems”. In theory, “feeling analysis” techniques, when used to dynamically reconfigure data visualization systems, due to the description of profiles and response patterns, prove to be able to qualify feeding, testing and consulting databases inducting and establishing relations.
keywords Data visualization; Affection; Emotion; Desire and bond; Induction and freedom
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:56

_id 24eaea2001
id 24eaea2001
authors Ohno, R., Katayama, M., Komatsuzaki, T. and Soeda, M.
year 2002
title Development of a Visual Simulation System Synchronized with Walking Motion - An application for a study of distance perception
source Environmental Simulation - New Impulses in Planning Processes [Proceedings of the 5th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-922602-85-1]
summary Conventional visual simulators allow observers to move in the simulated space by using a mouse or a joy-stick without the kinesthetic feeling of motion. However, the link between visual image and body motion is important to perceive the environment, especially when people are walking. In this paper, a visual simulation system was designed to synchronize the subject's walking motion on a treadmill with the video image shown on a HMD. In order to detect the walking motion, sensors were attached to both subject’s ankles. According to the detected motion, the treadmill rotates and a CCD camera moves in a model space. Because of the sensors’ low sensitivity and the time lag between the detected motion and treadmill rotation, the subjects couldn’t walk smoothly. Therefore, the walking speed which synchronizes with the video image was kept constant for each subject and the experimenter started up and stopped the simulator. The validity of this simulation system was examined by comparing the accuracy of distance estimation using the new simulator with that using the conventional system without walking motion. The “distance reproduction” method was applied to measure the perceived distance: subjects walked 25 meter in a real setting without being told the distance, and were asked to move the same distance in different conditions. Since the distance estimation became accurate in the condition with the walking motion, the validity of this simulator was secured. The following experiment was intended to investigate the influence of physical environmental features on perceived distance by using the simulation system. We operated some features using a scale model of a route and examined their influences. Subjects were asked to "walk" through a path consisted of two spaces with different physical features, and to respond by showing the proportion of the length of those two spaces. The result revealed that the distance of a narrower and lower ceiling path where people perceive clearer line perspective and faster optical flow tends to be perceived longer.
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id sigradi2014_217
id sigradi2014_217
authors Palos, Karine Itao; José Neto de Faria
year 2014
title Informação, navegação e interação na Televisão Digital Interativa: estruturas para a falsa sensação liberdade [Information, navigation and interaction in Interactive Digital Television: structures for false feeling freedom]
source SiGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay - Montevideo 12 - 14 November 2014, pp. 632-636
summary The Interactive Digital Television makes feasible the possibility of creating more in-depth interactions with the programming, so this text gives a description of the devices and navigation and information structures that makes up this media, in order to understand how these structures can be planned to promote a better use of the content, in this scenario, it was found that despite the Interactive television has been initially designed to allow the construction schedule by who is watching, but this freedom is illusory, because everything is planned in advance and is only can interact with what was requested.
keywords Interactive Digital Television; Design; Navigation; Information; and Interactivity
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

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