CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 20

_id cf2003_m_016
id cf2003_m_016
authors CHEN, Hong-Sheng and LIN, Feng-Tyan
year 2003
title A Simulation Study on Public Building's Staircase Fault Tolerance
source Digital Design - Research and Practice [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1] Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, pp. 393-402
summary This paper applies the concept of fault tolerance to staircase layout plan. Fire or smoke may cause some staircases in a building inaccessible. We argue that architects should assess the result from the possible fault of vertical routes. The capability of tolerating staircase faults depends on space usage, arrangement, and pedestrian attributes. In this study, a mathematical model is constructed. For analysing pedestrian's movement in interior space, we employ Monte Carol simulation and Agent-Based Modelling method in a CAAD environment. It helps us to visualise the dynamic process of agent's evacuation process, and to test the problem of possible staircase faults. Finally, a case study brings some important discoveries.
keywords agents, fault tolerance, simulation
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/09/22 10:21

_id caadria2003_b4-3
id caadria2003_b4-3
authors Chen, Hong-Sheng and Lin, Feng-Tyan
year 2003
title Computer Aided Performance Analysis of Staircase Fault Tolerance
source CAADRIA 2003 [Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 974-9584-13-9] Bangkok Thailand 18-20 October 2003, pp. 567-578
summary This study is to investigate the performance of staircases in a building with some faulty staircases. In this building, any unexpected hazard or repairs may cause vertical escaping routes inaccessible. Therefore, it is crucial that architects should assess this condition, and the users also need to be aware of this problem. Facing those staircase faults, architects need to consider space usage, staircases arrangement, and pedestrian attributes. This paper proposes a method to model the pedestrian's movement in the interior space of abovementioned building. We applied Monte Carlo simulation and AgentBased Modeling method in a CAAD environment. And we will apply two case studies to bring forward some important discoveries and support our arguments.
series CAADRIA
email d5544001@ms.cc.ntu.edu.tw, ftlin@ntu.edu.tw
last changed 2003/12/02 06:47

_id 7f0a
authors Chen, K.-Z.,Feng, X.-A. and Ding, L.
year 2002
title Intelligent approaches for generating assembly drawings from 3-D computer models of mechanical products
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 34 (5) (2002) pp. 347-355
summary In order to reduce the time of mechanical product design and ensure the high quality of their assembly drawings, this paper develops an intelligent approach for generatingassembly drawings automatically from three-dimensional (3-D) computer assembly models of mechanical products by simulating the experienced human designer's thinkingmode with the aid of computer graphics and knowledge-based expert system. The key issues include the strategies and methods for selecting the necessary views in anassembly drawing, determining necessary sectional views in each view, eliminating the unreasonable projective overlap of the components in each view, and minimizing thenumbers of both the views in an assembly drawing and the sectional views in each view. Based on the approach, corresponding software prototype was developed. Finally, itis demonstrated, from an example of the fixture in a modularized drilling machine, that its assembly drawing was generated successfully using this intelligent softwareprototype.
keywords CAD, Intelligent CAD, Expert System, Artificial Intelligence, Assembly, Drawing
series journal paper
email kzchen@hkucc.hku.hk
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 0b84
authors De Silva Garza, Andrés Gómez and Maher, Mary Lou
year 1999
title Evolving Design Layout Cases to Satisfy Feng Shui Constraints
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 115-124
summary We present a computational process model for design that combines the functionalities of case-based reasoning (CBR) and genetic algorithms (GAÌs). CBR provides a precedent-based framework in which prior design cases are retrieved and adapted in order to meet the requirements of a new design problem. GAÌs provide a general-purpose mechanism for randomly combining and modifying potential solutions to a new problem repeatedly until an adequate solution is found. In our model we use a GA to perform the case-adaptation subtask of CBR. In this manner, a gradual improvement in the overall quality of the proposed designs is obtained as more and more adaptations of the design cases originally retrieved from memory are evolved. We describe how these ideas can be used to perform layout design of residences such that the final designs satisfy the requirements imposed by feng shui, the Chinese art of placement.
series CAADRIA
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id caadria2010_057
id caadria2010_057
authors Feng, Han
year 2010
title Quantum architecture: an indeterministic and interactive computational design system
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 619-628
summary The evolution of computational design technique from mere substitution of hand drawing to customised design algorithms exhibiting a certain degree of intelligence, naturally opens up a new research frontier that studies the relationship between designers and customized design algorithms. Most of current customised architecture design algorithm adopts a deterministic paradigm to raise their design questions, that is to say, given the explicit rules and parameters, only one solution is allowed at each discrete computation step. Due to this deterministic nature, an intuitive and efficient communication between design algorithm and designer is hard to achieve, as there is almost no space for designer to step into the running generative process. This lack of progressive communication channels and the inefficiency of translating perceptual judgment into computer language directly results in the unconscious rejection of non-parameterisable design factors like intuition, aesthetic judgment and associational reasoning that are essential to any design activity. This paper introduces the quantum design paradigm as alternative computation paradigm for constructing an interactive and intuitive design system. An algorithm prototype, probability field, will be introduced to illustrate the logic and possible application of the proposed quantum design paradigm.
keywords Quantum design paradigm; intuition; algorithm prototype; interactivity; probability fi eld
series CAADRIA
email qa.hanfeng@gmail.com
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id 5225
authors Gomez de Silva Garza, Andres and Maher, Mary Lou
year 2001
title Using Evolutionary Methods for Design Case Adaptation
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 180-191
summary Case-based reasoning (CBR) provides a methodology for directly using previous designs in the development of a new design. An aspect of CBR that is not well developed for designing is the combination and adaptation of previous designs. The difficulty with this aspect of case-based design is partly due to the extensive amounts of specialised knowledge needed to select the appropriate features of a previous design to include in the new design and the adaptation of these features to fit the context of a new design problem. In this paper we present a design process model that combines ideas from CBR and genetic algorithms (GA’s). The CBR paradigm provides a method for the overall process of case selection and adaptation. The GA paradigm provides a method for adapting design cases by combining and mutating their features until a set of new design requirements and constraints are satisfied. We have implemented the process model and illustrate the model for residential floor plan layout. We use a set of Frank Lloyd Wright prairie house layouts as the case base. The constraints used to determine whether new designs proposed by the process model are acceptable are taken from feng shui, the Chinese art of placement. This illustration not only clarifies how our process model for design through the evolutionary adaptation of cases works, but it also shows how knowledge sources with distinct origins can be used within the same design framework.
keywords Evolutionary Design, Case-Based Reasoning, Floor Plan Layout
series ACADIA
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id sigradi2014_132
id sigradi2014_132
authors Hu, Yongheng; Qinying Li, Feng Yuang, Han Li
year 2014
title The BIM based Responsive Environmental Performance Design Methodology
source SIGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay- Montevideo 12,13,14 November 2014, pp. 120-125
summary The concept of “families” lies in the core of internal data structure in Building Information Modeling (BIM). The elements of this modeling platform are all associated with each other as parts of the “families”, independent of their geometrical structure, materiality, parametric dependencies or their physical connection to other elements. Through the associations introduced among the parameters of the ‘families’ members, this study aims at establishing a methodology for a multi-objective evaluation of the environmental performance of the building as an organism. The methodology is founded on a system of different values and weights attributed to the parameters of the families members which are adjusted and fine-tuned through a series of iterations, thus affecting the overall building performance towards an optimum goal. The performance evaluation method used in the “families” methodology is not limited to the individual assessment of the environmental performance objectives or to an integrated multi-objective weighting mechanism; as an overall evaluation platform it checks and balances the individual characteristics of the system not as static conclusive results but as dynamic criteria intended to guide the overall design and building process. The importance of this paper lies in the construction of a concrete methodological set of tools for the assessment of the environmental performance of the building. It will lead the way in independent research in the field of architectural design and the development of ecological thinking and building in China.
keywords BIM ‘families’; Multi-Objective Generic Algorithm; Environmental Performance Simulation; Multi-Objective Environmental Performance Optimization
series SIGRADI
email toto4356@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id 1873
authors Ji, Guohua and Feng, Jinlong
year 1999
title Structural Approach to the Organization of Information: A Teaching Experiment at SEU
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 153-159
summary Design studio still plays a very important role in architectural design education today since teachers and students can exchange their thinking directly. In the whole teaching/learning process, there are a lot of information to be exchanged between the teachers and the students. How to organize the information and record the whole teaching/learning process is very interesting to us. The increasing use of CAD raises some problems with its advantages when the amount of compute-files becomes very big and they are in different formats. In the third year design studio teaching in the academic year 1998/99 at Department of Architecture in Southeast University, we try to use WWW techniques and features to organise the design information. We try to integrate the teaching programme, the project information, the reference material and the students' work together, to record and monitor the teaching process. Since the teaching programme is clearly organised, we could use some strategies and ideas to control the organisation of file storage and presentation. It creates the basis for the further development of applying network to aid the studio teaching.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2002/09/05 07:21

_id 209caadria2004
id 209caadria2004
authors Ji-Hyun Lee and Wei-Feng Hong
year 2004
title POSTMODERN ARCHITECTURE VS. FENG-SHUI
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 335-346
summary We start with two paradigms, Postmodernism and FengShui, which seem to be no commonalities between them –western and eastern, new and old–. In both, however, they deeply root in the essence of “place” interweaved culture and social interaction with physical design. Hence, this paper presents a particular viewpoint and method to examine the coherency between the two paradigms. In accordance with the evolution of information technology, a full of metaphoric phenomena and codes within Feng-shui and postmodern architecture is able to visualize by means of computational knowledge. This gives a flexible knowledge-based system to trigger captivating concepts, which are seeds of creative thought.
keywords Feng-shui, postmodern, context, knowledge-based system
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
email jihyun@yuntech.edu.tw
last changed 2004/05/22 09:17

_id 2004_508
id 2004_508
authors Lan-Ting Clare Tseng and Feng-Tyan Lin
year 2004
title Comprehend the Term ‘Info-City’ - A Comparison between Two Primary Cities in Taiwan
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 508-514
summary The rising of Information Communication Technology influences cities globally. ‘Info-city’ is the very topic to be reconsidered if each city acts as a combination of the physical and virtual. This research is an attempt to understand and formalize the comprehension of Taiwan people about ‘Info-city’. For the sake of reliability, there are 37 interviewees from Taiwan’s enterprises providing experiences of daily urban lives as a field to explore. In order to organize oral corpus, the research method applies encoding in term of cognitive semantics. Every sentence in the database is regarded as a basic unit to analyze. Besides that, there’s a framework consisted of two analytical dimensions to reveal a clear picture of the collective minds. The results are concluded that concepts of ‘info-city’ in Taiwan value the mechanism of synergy most instead of the effect of substitution as an arbitrary assumption among urban studies.
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id 2006_244
id 2006_244
authors Lee, Ji-Hyun and Shu-Feng Pan
year 2006
title eCAADe: An Educational Commendation Mechanism for the Adaptive Semantic Web to Use in the Architectural Design Environment
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 244-251
summary The “Case Studies in Architecture” phase of a course in architectural design includes in-depth comparisons and analyses of architectural precedents. However, with the large number of cases now readily available, Web searching and navigation is a time-consuming, low precision activity. In the work described in this paper, we built eCAADe, an educational commendation system for the adaptive semantic Web to allow students to query and retrieve semantically for architectural cases during the case study phase of an architectural design process. In our suggested system, we built a Semantic Web for design knowledge representation to make query and retrieval efficient. We also applied a hybrid recommendation mechanism, which is combining both content-based filtering and collaborative filtering to help for students to find relevant cases more efficient and precise with their preferences. We illustrate our concepts with several concrete examples.
keywords Recommendation mechanism; adaptive; semantic Web; architectural cases; ontology
series eCAADe
email jihyun@yuntech.edu.tw
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id 02c5
authors Lin, Feng Tyan and Wang, Hung Hsiang
year 1997
title A Case Study of Cooperative Design Using Video Conference
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 153-162
summary In this case study we observed an experimental cooperative design project: a parking lot design using a video conference system. Twelve graduate students of planning and design were divided into two teams for landscape design and traffic planning. They used ProShareTM, a computer-supported video conference system, to co-design at two separate rooms. We used video equipment to record this conference for a detailed analysis. Some experiences on using this system are described. The results indicate the relationships within the work organization, physical workplace and cooperative design. We argued that this workplace becomes more important, even though much research has put emphasis on the cyberspace in cooperative design. The team members’ tacit protocol has importance, but it does not guarantee any resolution of conflicts. This cooperative design is not only a social process, but also a logic of iterative verifications and falsifications. It is dangerous to construct a theory of computer-supported cooperative design simply based on this case study; however, such an observation could be the first step towards the theory.
series CAADRIA
email ftlin@ccms.ntu.edu.tw, d4544006@cc.ntu.edu.tw
last changed 1999/02/01 11:57

_id 2470
authors Lin, Feng Tyen and Cheng, Hong Sheng
year 1997
title Urban Block Logic
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 389-396
summary Urban block logic is an explicit method to deal with space rule. It is written in formal logic, and benefit from logic theories. The characters of urban block formulate these rules. Rules could be changed by meta-rules. Urban block logic is a new way to realize our environment.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/02/01 14:13

_id e869
authors Lin, Feng-Tyan and Wang, Hunghsiang
year 2001
title Using APL to Explore the Non-monotonicity in Design Process
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 131-136
summary The phenomenon of non-monotonicity is commonly found in design process. In addition to the traditional deductive logic, this article introduces an Abductive Propositional Logic (APL) to capture some characteristics of non-monotonicity. Statements of APL are called beliefs, including believed facts and believed rules, to reflect that they are only true in some situations. Accordingly, beliefs can be deductively true or abductively possible with respect to different reasoning methods. On the other hand, APL employs three retraction rules, namely, exclusive retraction, conclusive retraction, and premise retraction to maintain the consistency. A case study is illustrated.
keywords Logic, Design Reasoning, Non-Monotonicity, Abduction
series eCAADe
email ftlin@ccms.ntu.edu.tw, wanghh@ms28.hinet.net
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id ecaadesigradi2019_549
id ecaadesigradi2019_549
authors Reinhardt, Dagmar, Haeusler, M. Hank, Loke, Lian, de Oliveira Barata, Eduardo, Firth, Charlotte, Khean, Nariddh, London, Kerry, Feng, Yingbin and Watt, Rodney
year 2019
title CoBuilt - Towards a novel methodology for workflow capture and analysis of carpentry tasks for human-robot collaboration
source Sousa, JP, Xavier, JP and Castro Henriques, G (eds.), Architecture in the Age of the 4th Industrial Revolution - Proceedings of the 37th eCAADe and 23rd SIGraDi Conference - Volume 3, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 September 2019, pp. 207-216
summary Advanced manufacturing and robotic fabrication for the housing construction industry is mainly focused on the use of industrial robots in the pre-fabrication stage. Yet to be fully developed is the use on-site of collaborative robots, able to work cooperatively with humans in a range of construction trades. Our study focuses on the trade of carpentry in small-to-medium size enterprises in the Australian construction industry, seeking to understand and identify opportunities in the current workflows of carpenters for the role of collaborative robots. Prior to presenting solutions for this problem, we first developed a novel methodology for the capture and analysis of the body movements of carpenters, resulting in a suite of visual resources to aid us in thinking through where, what, and how a collaborative robot could participate in the carpentry task. We report on the challenges involved, and outline how the results of applying this methodology will inform the next stage of our research.
keywords Robotic Fabrication; Collaborative Robots; Training Methodology; Machine Learning; Interaction Analysis
series eCAADeSIGraDi
email dagmar.reinhardt@sydney.edu.au
last changed 2019/08/26 20:28

_id caadria2009_075
id caadria2009_075
authors Shih,Naai-Jung; Jah-Yu Lee, Ching-Feng Chang
year 2009
title 3D Scans of As-Built Urban Scenes in A City Scale
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 297-306
summary The purpose of this research is to build digital urban landscape, based on as-built environmental information. Scans were made to an expressway and surrounding buildings through the center of a city. A 3D long-range laser scanner was used to record buildings, plants, and open spaces in a static configuration, plus the records of pedestrians, vehicles, objects in a dynamic form. As the scan tolerance can be controlled in less than 4 mm/50 m, the final urban information management system creates a precise description of objects with colors and textures feasible for internet browsing as well as for infrastructure dimensioning and construction monitoring.
series CAADRIA
email shihnj@mail.ntust.edu.tw
last changed 2009/05/17 09:09

_id 2005_205
id 2005_205
authors Tseng, Lan-Ting, Lin, Feng-Tyan and Chen, Yi-Liang
year 2005
title Denotation of Concepts
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 205-210
summary In the process of co-design, there is no urban planner able to keep away from interdisciplinary collaboration. In order to negotiate with variant professionals, planners or designers usually spend so much energy to integrate information for their needs. Therefore, formalizing conceptual network among domain experts may be helpful to mine tacit knowledge. Based on cognitive semantics and ontological engineering, the research tries to identify concepts. An analytical mechanism is proposed to make terms comprehensible. The term ‘community’ is taken as the target artefact to illustrate possible contexts. Its senses and relationships would be explored in relevant knowledge domains.
keywords Conceptual Network; Denotation; Encapsulation; Ontology
series eCAADe
email d87544005@ntu.edu.tw, tslotty@ms24.hinet.net
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id ecaadesigradi2019_360
id ecaadesigradi2019_360
authors Wei, Likai, Ta, La, Li, Liang, Han, Yang, Feng, Yingying, Wang, Xin and Xu, Zhen
year 2019
title RAF: Robot Aware Fabrication - Hand-motion Augmented Robotic Fabrication Workflow and Case Study
source Sousa, JP, Xavier, JP and Castro Henriques, G (eds.), Architecture in the Age of the 4th Industrial Revolution - Proceedings of the 37th eCAADe and 23rd SIGraDi Conference - Volume 2, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 September 2019, pp. 241-250
summary Fabricating process with robotic awareness and creativity makes architect able to explore the new boundary between digital and material world. Although parametric and generative design method make diverse processing of materials possible for robots, it's still necessary to establish a new design-fabrication framework, where we could simultaneously deal with designers, robots, data, sensor technology and material natural characters. In order to develop a softer system without gap between preset program and robot's varying environments, this paper attempts to establish an environment-computer-robot workflow and transform traditional robotic fabrication from linear to more tangible and suitable for architects' and designers' intuitive motion and gesture. RAF (Robotic Aware Fabrication), a concept of real-time external enhancement fabrication is proposed, and a new workflow of HARF (Hand-motion Augmented Robotic Fabrication) is developed, where motion sensor captures designer's hand-motion, filter algorithm recognizes the intention and update the preset program, robotic controller and RSI (Robotic Sensor Interface) adjusts robot's TCP (Tool Center Point) path in real time. With HARF workflow, two case studies of Hand-motion robotic dance and Free-form concrete wall are made.
keywords RAF; HARF; Hand-motion Sensor; Styrofoam Mold; Concrete Wall; RSI
series eCAADeSIGraDi
email weilikai@tju.edu.cn
last changed 2019/08/26 20:26

_id caadria2016_353
id caadria2016_353
authors Yuan, Feng; Shuyi Huang and Tong Xiao
year 2016
title Physical and numerical simulation as a generative design tool
source Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing, Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2016) / Melbourne 30 March–2 April 2016, pp. 353-362
summary Environmentally sound and high-performance buildings are contributing towards a sustainable future. With increased density of contemporary urban space and the urgent desire to promote building performance, a better understanding of wind behaviour will positively influence future design explorations. In the traditional sequential ar- chitectural practice, there is a gap between design and performance simulation. This paper presents an experimental and systematic study of the performance-oriented design tools, strategies and workflows utilized in the concept prototyping of a high-rise building. It describes a new approach to incorporate wind tunnel testing, computational flu- id dynamics simulation as well as parametric software, sensors and open-source electronics platform into an accessible, interactive and low-cost form generation kit, rapidly evaluating the performance of potential design options in the early design stage. As indicated in this research, environmental simulation can be a decision-making tool, in- tegrating the concept of continuity into the design process.
keywords Environmental performance; building aerodynamics; wind tunnel testing; computational fluid dynamics
series CAADRIA
email philipyuan007@tongji.edu.cn
last changed 2016/03/11 09:21

_id acadia09_264
id acadia09_264
authors Zhang, Yu; Feng, Han; Wang, Jianguo
year 2009
title An Interactive Decision Support System for Deriving Plot Ratios Based on the Similarity Relations Between Land Attributes
source ACADIA 09: reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow [Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-9842705-0-7] Chicago (Illinois) 22-25 October, 2009), pp. 264-266
summary This paper presents a simple tool for deciding land attribute plot ratios by defining elementary entities and their relationships from the viewpoint of a complex adaptive system. Each entity in this case, a block in the city, is described according to its condition and potential for development, such as land function, accessibility, landscape control, and so on. This not only provides a rich yet subtle identification of each entity, but also creates the basis to establish dynamic interconnections between them. The similarity coefficient, calculated by the comparison between the different blocks’ factors fits well with the explanation of the spontaneous development of the city. The weight of every factor and the threshold of the similarity coefficient are both set as variables, with the optimized value recommended as a default, which ensures a multitudinal application of this software with a focus on different aspects of urban planning. The resultant self-regulatory system with flexible input is not only a credible tool for deriving plot ratios, but also an effective platform to activate urban design creations. The system, as a socio-technical tool, enhances the essential process of urban self-organization and hetero-organization.
keywords Decision Support, software, self-organization systems, parametric systems
series ACADIA
type Short paper
email zy033@163.com
last changed 2009/11/26 16:44

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