CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ecaade2010_148
id ecaade2010_148
authors Joyce, Sam; Tabak, Vincent; Sharma, Shrikant; Williams, Chris
year 2010
title Applied Multi-Scale Design and Optimization for People Flow
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.633-639
wos WOS:000340629400068
summary This paper presents an overview of the current developments in people flow analysis in Buro Happold’s analytical group SMART Solutions. The role of people flow analysis has become an established one, within many leading consultancy firms with their own specialist groups supporting the architects and planners in the design of buildings and urban spaces. This paper proposes that the key development in the progression of this work is a due to a change in emphasis, away from a passive analysis task where its key role is to validate assumptions of flow and alleviate areas of high concern to using the process as a design instigator/driver. The new paradigm emerging, involves calculating people flow at the conceptual stage of a project in collaboration with the respective architectural firm, and using this information as a primary design input. This paper describes and analyses the two objectives set out by Buro Happold’s SMART group in order to improve the process of design; firstly to make it more prominent in the design environment and secondly to see if it has the potential to work as a design driver. These objectives create a design methodology defined by people flow and suggest value in innovating and conceiving of robust simple methods of improving designs.
keywords People flow; Pedestrian flow; Multi-objective optimization; Masterplanning; Network analysis
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id a70b
authors Jung, Th., Do, E.Y.-L. and Gross, M.D.
year 1999
title Immersive Redlining and Annotation of 3D Design Models on the Web
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, pp. 81-98
summary The Web now enables people in different places to view three-dimensional models of buildings and places in a collaborative design discussion. Already design firms with offices around the world are exploiting this capability. In a typical application, design drawings and models are posted by one party for review by others, and a dialogue is carried out either synchronously using on line streamed video and audio, or asynchronously using email, chat room, and bulletin board software. However, most of these systems do not allow designers to embed annotations and proposed design changes in the threedimensional design model under discussion. We present a working prototype of a system that has these capabilities and describe the configuration of Web technologies we used to construct it.
keywords VRML, Immersive Environment, Virtual Annotation, Computer-aided Design, Building Models
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id e234
authors Kalay, Yehuda E. and Harfmann, Anton C.
year 1985
title An Integrative Approach to Computer-Aided Design Education in Architecture
source February, 1985. [17] p. : [8] p. of ill
summary With the advent of CAD, schools of architecture are now obliged to prepare their graduates for using the emerging new design tools and methods in architectural practices of the future. In addition to this educational obligation, schools of architecture (possibly in partnership with practicing firms) are also the most appropriate agents for pursuing research in CAD that will lead to the development of better CAD software for use by the profession as a whole. To meet these two rather different obligations, two kinds of CAD education curricula are required: one which prepares tool- users, and another that prepares tool-builders. The first educates students about the use of CAD tools for the design of buildings, whereas the second educates them about the design of CAD tools themselves. The School of Architecture and Planning in SUNY at Buffalo has recognized these two obligations, and in Fall 1982 began to meet them by planning and implementing an integrated CAD environment. This environment now consists of 3 components: a tool-building sequence of courses, an advanced research program, and a general tool-users architectural curriculum. Students in the tool-building course sequence learn the principles of CAD and may, upon graduation, become researchers and the managers of CAD systems in practicing offices. While in school they form a pool of research assistants who may be employed in the research component of the CAD environment, thereby facilitating the design and development of advanced CAD tools. The research component, through its various projects, develops and provides state of the art tools to be used by practitioners as well as by students in the school, in such courses as architectural studio, environmental controls, performance programming, and basic design courses. Students in these courses who use the tools developed by the research group constitute the tool-users component of the CAD environment. While they are being educated in the methods they will be using throughout their professional careers, they also act as a 'real-world' laboratory for testing the software and thereby provide feedback to the research component. The School of Architecture and Planning in SUNY at Buffalo has been the first school to incorporate such a comprehensive CAD environment in its curriculum, thereby successfully fulfilling its obligation to train students in the innovative methods of design that will be used in architectural practices of the future, and at the same time making a significant contribution to the profession of architecture as a whole. This paper describes the methodology and illustrates the history of the CAD environment's implementation in the School
keywords CAD, architecture, education
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ddss9830
id ddss9830
authors Kato, K., Iwasaki Y. and GONDA K.
year 1998
title The Influence of Changing Planning Methods on the Characteristics ofIndustrial Activities in Japan
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The object of this paper is to clarify the scope of planning method for industrial supporting facilities through the analysis of the characteristics of services and questionnaire survey. The results are as follows: 1) For upgrading of needs from the firms, establishment bodies that organize the ISFs shifts from government-leading toward non-government-leading. 2) The industrial supporting facilities in the industrial park has higher tendency to offer services required for the business creation and exchanges.3) The most important point secures the flexible communicational environment, carry out communicational service in consideration of changing the industrial supporting facilities’s organization for planning method.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ecaade2009_139
id ecaade2009_139
authors Knight, Michael; Dokonal, Wolfgang
year 2009
title State of Affairs - Digital Architectural Design in Europe: A Look into into Education and Practice – Snapshot and Outlook
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 191-196
wos WOS:000334282200023
summary This paper updates a research project that tries to take a snapshot on the use of computers in the average architectural firms in two European countries. Our main interest is to see whether the digital design methods are starting to have an impact in these offices. First results of this research using an online web questionnaire have been presented at the eCAADe 2007 conference in Frankfurt and have been updated and presented at the Sigradi 2008 conference in Havana. At the moment we are working with additional interviews and we are preparing a rerun of the questionnaire to have an idea about the current developments. This paper is still based mainly on the findings we presented at the Sigradi conference to bring this information to the eCAADe community as well. We will be presenting the results of the new questionnaire in Istanbul.
keywords Digital design, early stage design
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2009_126
id ecaade2009_126
authors Kocatürk, Tuba; Codinhoto, Ricardo
year 2009
title Dynamic Coordination of Distributed Intelligence in Design
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 61-68
wos WOS:000334282200006
summary Recent introduction and coupling of digitally mediated design and production environments facilitated a radical deviation from the traditional ways of using representations, knowledge assets, organizational forms and standards. Consequently, we observe an abundance of the traditional views of design and the emergence of new cognitive models/constructs based on the emerging relationships between the designer, the design object (artefact), the design tools/systems and the organizational network of the various actors and their activities in building design & production. The paper reports on the initial findings of an ongoing research which aims to uncover the ways in which digitalization and digital tools have recently been adopted to the work practices of multidisciplinary firms and the evolving socio-technical networks and organizational infrastructures within architectural practice.
keywords Distributed intelligence, coordination of digital design, socio-technical change, building information modelling, parametric design
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id caadria2007_057
id caadria2007_057
authors Kouide, Tahar; G. Paterson
year 2007
title BIM as a Viable Collaborative Working Tool: A Case Study
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary For the majority of design practices in the construction industry the use of CAD systems have been used to merely automate hand drafting (Cohen 2003). This is the traditional way of working that has changed very little since the introduction of commercial CAD systems. These practices as means of communication are being replaced by a virtual building model environment which encapsulates all of the information for an entire construction project and thereby enables computer-supported co-operative working practices. (Newton 2003) This study aims to determine whether Building Information Modelling (BIM) can, and whether it will, replace traditional communication media as the standard in the industry for computersupported co-operative working practices in the Architecture Engineering and construction (AEC) sector. The bulk of the research comprises an extensive literature review looking at the principal reasons behind the development of BIM, the potential advantages and drawbacks of the technology, and the barriers and obstacles which inhibit its adoption as a means of computer-supported co-operative working. The findings of the study have been validated and analysed against current practice in the field through a live case study analysis of the on-going Heathrow airport Terminal 5 Project in London (UK). The Terminal 5 case study demonstrates that present software tools, although usable, still present significant implicit technical constraints to wider implementation among Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The case study has also shown that in practice, the success of BIM depends just as much on the working practices and ethos of participants in the project chain as it does on the capabilities of the software itself, in particular the willingness of practitioners to change traditional working practices. The case study has shown that the present investment, in terms of time, cost, and effort required to implementing the technology means that BIM is unlikely to be adopted on small simple projects where conventional CAD is still adequate. It also highlighted that BIM tools currently available are not yet adequately developed to satisfy the requirements of the many procurement and especially contractual arrangements which presently exist and many firms will be frightened off by the unresolved legal issues which may arise from implementing BIM in their practices.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id cee4
authors Kristianto, Mandau Apri
year 2003
title Performance Evaluation of 3D-Model CAAD Implementation in Dutch Architecture Firms
source South Bank University [In cooperation with Hogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen - The Netherlands]
summary The principal theme of this research is to provide information regarding the implementation of 3D Model CAAD, CAAD system which uses 3D Drawing Production Method (DPM) instead of 2D DPM This research is focused on its implementation in architecture firms and on justifies its performance and investment value. Principally there are two evaluations conducted in this research. First evaluation aimed to justify 3D-Model CAAD influence on design process and the second is investment evaluation which aimed to provide information for current and prospective user regarding their current and future investment on 3D-Model CAAD.

The results of the evaluations are: 3D Model CAAD has improved performance through efficiency on time and cost of design process also improvement on design quality. However correlation between the use of 3D-Model C.4AD and better performance, while tested using Chi-Square Test, is not significantly. This fact indicates that there are some other strong factors to influence design performance. Second, 3D-Model CAAD, according the Importance-Performance Map is positioned at top right quadrant which categorised as 'keep the good work' which means it has good investment value.

keywords Evaluation; Performance; 3D-Modeling C.4AD; Investment; Drawing Production Method
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/06/09 07:28

_id dfa1
authors Laiserin, Jerry
year 1999
title CAD in Practice Profile: R.M. Kliment and Frances Halsband Architects
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 15-18
summary R.M. Kliment and Frances Halsband Architects (KHA) is a firm recognized—among many outstanding achievements— for designing award-winning computer science centers at major universities (e.g., Columbia, Dartmouth, Princeton). With that design experience, it is no surprise that the firm has adopted an aggressive stance towards its own use of information technology (IT). One indication of this proactive approach to technology is that KHA, with a total staff of 33, carries a full-time CAD/systems manager position, as contrasted with the A/E-firm industry-wide average of one such full-time equivalent staff position for every 40 total employees. In effect, the firm has set its investment in and commitment to the role of IT at a rate twenty percent higher than the industry average. Such above-average investment in IT is consistent with other high-profile design firms that have won the prestigious Firm Award of the American Institute of Architects. (1)
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id 8f39
authors Laiserin, Jerry
year 1999
title CAD in Practice Profile: Polshek Partnership Architects LLP
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 10-14
summary Since the advent of computers for architecture, James Stewart Polshek, FAIA, founding partner of Polshek Partnership Architects LLP, has insisted that his firm's technology standards match the same high level they maintain for their awardwinning designs. As explained by Senior Associate Don Weinreich, AIA, this objective translates into computing priorities that differ significantly from those of the average firm. Weinreich observes that many "typical" firms use computer technology for profitability first, consistency of documentation second, and enhancement of the design process last. At Polshek Partnership these priorities are reversed. Supporting and enriching the design process is the overriding objective of all computing activity at the firm. Consistency of documentation, as a second-level priority, is pursued not just for routine coordination and quality control, but in a proactive effort to maintain control over every detail in the process of communicating design intent—in other words, to further support design. The potential to increase profitability through computerization (e.g., by doing the same work in less time) ranks low among the computing priorities at Polshek Partnership. According to Weinreich, "the guiding principle is to do no harm," that is, to exploit the maximum potential of computers to support the design process without incurring additional net costs. In effect, the firm is taking the time and effort that computerization can save on many routine, procedural tasks and reinvesting those savings in additional design studies and details. This approach to computers for design is consistent with that of other AIA Firm Award-winning practices profiled in this series. (1)(2)
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id 6960
authors Langendorf, Richard
year 1986
title Alternative Models of Architectural Practice: The Impact of Computers -- 1990 and 2000
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 7-27
summary Though many architectural firms have only recently begun to use computers, and most firms still do not use computers for design, it is likely that by the turn of the century computers will have transformed architectural practice. First this paper assesses the likelihood of change by examining the potential use of computers in architectural practice, summarizing technology forecasts for computer hardware, software, and standards. -However, because there is an opportunity, architectural firms will not necessarily computerize. Next is a brief review of impediments to change and the process of organizational adaptation of new technology. Finally, the paper concludes with a number of forecasts in architectural practice in 1990 and 2000. A variety of professional practice options are defined, with the suggestion that there will be increasing experimentation and diversity within the profession. Finally, the implications of these changes are explored for architectural education.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id acadia06_317
id acadia06_317
authors Lee, E. S., Hong, S., Johnson, Brian R.
year 2006
title Context Aware Paper-Based Review Instrument A Tangible User Interface for Architecture Design Review
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 317-327
summary We describe the design and implementation of a prototype computer-supported collaborative work (CSCW) environment for review of architectural construction documents. This environment utilizes a novel plain-paper tangible interface that supports shared activity such as review of construction documents using an “over the shoulder” computational assistant called CAPRI.Despite the increasing use of computers, work in most architecture firms still largely revolves around paper drawings. Architects structure their work around paper instead of digital representations for reasons of legal liability and tradition, as well as technical limitations. While hardcopy is intuitive, dense, and easy to access, it lacks direct connection to the wide range of design knowledge increasingly available in interactive design environments. This lack is felt most acutely during design review processes, when the designer or reviewer is often called upon to consult and consider holistically a variety of supporting (backing) documents, a task which requires focused attention and a good memory, if errors are to be avoided.Our prototype system enables multiple reviewers to interact equally with a paper construction document using a tangible interface to query detail and backing data from a project knowledge base. We believe this will decrease the reviewer’s cognitive load by bringing design data to them in a contextual and timely way. In doing so, we believe errors will be caught sooner and mistakes reduced.
series ACADIA
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id 0d7d
authors Lefebvre, Olivier
year 2003
title The glocal as a challenge for local actors having plans for the future
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary About the glocal very much has been said by Michael Porter . According to this author, in some countries there is a competitive advantage, in some industry . It is explained by a « diamond » with four facets : competition and rivalry inside the country, factors endowment, demand, related industries (providers, firms selling components etc … ) . The competitive advantage appears when the facets are efficient, and stimulating one another, in a country. Then the firms of this country invest abroad, to benefit from thecompetitive advantage, grabing market shares and making profits . The country itself is the place of the competitive advantage . Theinternational market is the place of the challenge, where the result of the competition appears .
series other
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id cdc2008_243
id cdc2008_243
authors Loukissas, Yanni
year 2008
title Keepers of the Geometry: Architects in a Culture of Simulation
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 243-244
summary “Why do we have to change? We’ve been building buildings for years without CATIA?” Roger Norfleet, a practicing architect in his thirties poses this question to Tim Quix, a generation older and an expert in CATIA, a computer-aided design tool developed by Dassault Systemes in the early 1980’s for use by aerospace engineers. It is 2005 and CATIA has just come into use at Paul Morris Associates, the thirty-person architecture firm where Norfleet works; he is struggling with what it will mean for him, for his firm, for his profession. Computer-aided design is about creativity, but also about jurisdiction, about who controls the design process. In Architecture: The Story of Practice, Architectural theorist Dana Cuff writes that each generation of architects is educated to understand what constitutes a creative act and who in the system of their profession is empowered to use it and at what time. Creativity is socially constructed and Norfleet is coming of age as an architect in a time of technological but also social transition. He must come to terms with the increasingly complex computeraided design tools that have changed both creativity and the rules by which it can operate. In today’s practices, architects use computer-aided design software to produce threedimensional geometric models. Sometimes they use off-the-shelf commercial software like CATIA, sometimes they customize this software through plug-ins and macros, sometimes they work with software that they have themselves programmed. And yet, conforming to Larson’s ideas that they claim the higher ground by identifying with art and not with science, contemporary architects do not often use the term “simulation.” Rather, they have held onto traditional terms such as “modeling” to describe the buzz of new activity with digital technology. But whether or not they use the term, simulation is creating new architectural identities and transforming relationships among a range of design collaborators: masters and apprentices, students and teachers, technical experts and virtuoso programmers. These days, constructing an identity as an architect requires that one define oneself in relation to simulation. Case studies, primarily from two architectural firms, illustrate the transformation of traditional relationships, in particular that of master and apprentice, and the emergence of new roles, including a new professional identity, “keeper of the geometry,” defined by the fusion of person and machine. Like any profession, architecture may be seen as a system in flux. However, with their new roles and relationships, architects are learning that the fight for professional jurisdiction is increasingly for jurisdiction over simulation. Computer-aided design is changing professional patterns of production in architecture, the very way in which professionals compete with each other by making new claims to knowledge. Even today, employees at Paul Morris squabble about the role that simulation software should play in the office. Among other things, they fight about the role it should play in promotion and firm hierarchy. They bicker about the selection of new simulation software, knowing that choosing software implies greater power for those who are expert in it. Architects and their collaborators are in a continual struggle to define the creative roles that can bring them professional acceptance and greater control over design. New technologies for computer-aided design do not change this reality, they become players in it.
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

_id ddss2008-44
id ddss2008-44
authors Manzato, Gustavo G.; Theo A. Arentze, Harry J. P. Timmermans and Dick Ettema
year 2008
title An Agent for Supporting and Simulating Locations Decisions of Firms
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary The objective of this paper is to present the scope and the contents of an agent for supporting and simulating location decisions of firms. An application of one of its features, which is related to finding a location for a given firm, is developed here as an illustration of the approach. We can conclude that the agent is able to perform an evaluation of suitable locations in space given a set of firm’s characteristics or requirements. Other features may also be derived, for example, finding firms that meet the environmental characteristics and also an attempt to simulate the allocation of firms, seeking a location, to the set of available locations.
keywords Design & Decision Support Systems, Firm Location Decisions
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id caadria2014_034
id caadria2014_034
authors Nguyen, Danny D. and M. Hank Haeusler
year 2014
title Exploring Immersive Digital Environments
source Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014) / Kyoto 14-16 May 2014, pp. 87–96
summary In contemporary architecture firms, most design drawings are done via use of 3D modelling software. This method requires advanced knowledge of the software in order to produce an accurate representation of space into the digital environment. The paper argues that conventional 3D visualization methods to design and analyse are restrictive to how well the user understands the space on a computer, as drawings are done ex-situ and without testing the design concept in-situ, hence there might be a level of disparity between the design and final fabrication. This is particularly a challenge when designing Urban Interaction Design concepts, as combinations of variables play a role in how the design will be received by the audience. Observing the design challenges for Urban Interaction Design and applying knowledge to architectural representation, potentially an alternative sketching process can be developed to alleviate the disparity between the conceptual design and post fabrication. This paper discusses an experimental process of using wireless spatial sensing devices to digitize physical spaces in real-time and to use on-the-spot analysis. In its conclusion the paper argues that this method enables the designer to gain advanced conceptual understandings of the intended space and thus make more informed decisions.
keywords Spatial Design; Human-Computing Interfacing; Urban Interaction Design; Spatial 3D Visualization; Wireless Sensor Technology
series CAADRIA
last changed 2014/04/22 08:23

_id 338a
authors Noble, Douglas and Hsu, Jason
year 1999
title Computer Aided Animation in Architecture: Analysis of Use and the Views of the Profession
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 109-114
summary A traditional way to present three-dimensional representations of architectural design has been through the use of manually drawn perspective drawings. The perspective representation assists in the comprehension of the forms and spaces, but is difficult to manually generate. The computer revolution made perspectives much easier to generate and led to a dramatically increased use of three-dimensional representation as a presentation technique. We are just now seeing substantial uses of animation as a communication and presentation tool in architecture. This paper documents the results of two surveys of the architectural profession that sought to discover the current and near future intentions for the use of computer animation. Our belief is that current levels of computer animation use are low, but that many firms intend to start using animation both as a design and presentation tool. In early 1998 we conducted a survey of the uses of computer animation by architectural firms. We posited a set of 14 related hypotheses. This paper represents the tabulated results from 82 completed surveys out of 620 requests. While some level of confidence can be obtained from this sample size, we are publishing in the hope of encouraging continued response to the survey.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:56

_id sigradi2011_234
id sigradi2011_234
authors Nome, Carlos; Clayton, Mark J.; Aguiar, Marcela
year 2011
title BIM: configurações e desdobramentos para implementação prática e ensino de arquitetura [BIM: configurations and unfoldings for implementation in practice and architectural education]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 507-511
summary This paper reports on the initial findings of a long term case study. It focuses on the BIM implementation efforts for Brazilian public firms that are responsible for the design, construction and management of buildings, infrastructure and urban spaces. It was postulated that BIM implementation could bring to Brazilian public institutions benefits similar to the ones achieved in the US, yet at a different cost structure. Research follows a mixed methods approach using focus groups and quasi experiments. Results describe obstacles encountered, benefits realized, and process changes expected that result from Brazilian socio-cultural context applied to public institutions.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:56

_id ddss9470
id ddss9470
authors O'Brien, William J. and Fischer, Martin A.
year 1994
title Boundaries, Interdependence, and Coordination in ConstructionNetwork Organizations
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Of the profileration of new business paradigms in recent years, one of the primary foci has been building closer relationships between firms in the value adding chain. Lean production, which encompasses J1T, supply-chain management, and TQM/continuous improvement, has provided an important paradigm for reorganization of business practices and is in the process of revolutioni-zing western mass production industries, particularly the automotive industry. While lean production is attractive, it is not appropriate for all industries or production requirements. Lean production works best within a relatively stable production volume and stable range of products. "Mass customization" has proven difficult for accomplished lean producers such as Toyota, and requires a different set of organizational disciplines than those used in lean production. For example, in the lean production paradigm, relationships with suppliers are long-standing and steady, while in a mass customization paradigm, relationships with and between long-term suppliers will vary over time, and new suppliers will enter and leave the organization in a transient fashion. The organization form appropriate to mass customization is the network organization (also known as the virtual corporation in the popular business press), of which construction project organization is an instance, At the project level, we examine construction organization in the context of network organization theory. In particular, we examine boundaries between firms to highlight problems of coordination in a multi-firm environment, and the interdependencies that arise due to coordination needs. We provide a conceptual framework to describe these aspects of construction network organization, and discuss ways that different construction firms are dealing with coordination and boundary problems by rethinking contractual relationships and building closer ties with other firms in the network.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 3186
authors Price, Nicholas E. and Noble, Douglas
year 1999
title Animation and Multimedia: Interviews at Five Large Los Angeles Firms
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 1-3
summary Developments in digital media have created a myriad of tools to help architects communicate ideas. Three dimensional graphics software has revolutionized our ability to visualize our ideas. With the advent of animation and advanced methods of real time video presentation seem to have substantially upgraded the architects' tool chest. Significant advances have been made recently in bringing animation capabilities to the architectural desktop. To discover the level of integration of animation and multimedia in architectural firms, a series of interviews were conducted at five large Los Angeles firms. The interviews were structured with open-ended questions to allow the firms to emphasize their interests and capabilities. This document depicts the status of the current thinking at Gensler, Jerde, NBBJ, RTKL, and DMJM.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/15 15:37

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