CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ascaad2007_058
id ascaad2007_058
authors Abdelhameed, W. and Y. Kobayashi
year 2007
title Developing a New Approach of Computer Use ‘KISS Modeling’ for Design-Ideas Alternatives of Form Massing: A framework for three-Dimensional Shape Recognition in Initial Design Phases
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 745-756
summary This research aims at developing a new approach called ‘KISS Modeling’. KISS is generally a rule of ‘Keep It Simple, Stupid’ that will be applied in modeling process investigated and presented by the research. The new approach is implemented in a computer program ‘KISS Modeling’ that generates three dimensional forms based on simplifying the concept of shape recognition in design. The research, however, does not employ totally concepts of shape recognition or shape understanding in Artificial Intelligence and psychology. The research, in summary, investigates and describes: 1) a new approach of computer use contributing to generating design-ideas alternatives of form massing in initial design phases, within a simple way that any designer can understand at single glance, 2) implementation of shape recognition for generative three dimensional forms, 3) function to generate different outputs from different recognition, and 4) case studies introduced through applications and functions of the three dimensional modeling system presented by the research. The research concluded that the introduced processes help the user improve the management of conceptual designing through facilitating a discourse of his/her modeling of design-ideas massing.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id ijac201210203
id ijac201210203
authors Abdelhameed, Wael A.
year 2012
title Micro-Simulation Function to Display Textual Data in Virtual Reality
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 10 - no. 2, 205-218
summary Virtual reality creates an effective communication platform with a high degree of perception and exploration, increasing the benefits of VR applied functions.This research paper reports a virtual reality function of using the micro-simulation editor-player with XML file in the virtual reality environment.The details of the function are presented.The function aiming at combining visual and textual data in VR model visualisation, was developed by the researcher, and was included in the micro-simulation plug-in of a virtual reality program,VR Studio version 6, previously known as UC-Win/Road, by the program developers.The research paper discusses the computer simulation techniques and uses in virtual reality in general.The research paper proceeds to introduce a case study of construction process visualization in the virtual reality environment, in which the newly developed function is utilized to simultaneously visualise data reports related to the stages of VR model visualisation.The concluding remarks accentuate this micro-simulation function with its potential uses in different fields.
keywords Micro-Simulation, XML,Virtual Reality, Construction Process Visualisation
series journal
last changed 2019/05/24 07:55

_id ascaad2004_paper5
id ascaad2004_paper5
authors Abdelhameed, Wael A.
year 2004
title A Java Program Model for Design-Idea Exploration in Three Dimensions
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary Visual Perception of depictions is the basis of the act of imagining employed in visual design thinking of design process, and consequently in design-idea exploration. Digital-media use plays a significantly important role in these exploration processes. The underlying assumption of the research is that Visual Perception affects Design-Idea Exploration processes. The research investigates and sheds more light on the processes of Visual Perception, which architects use in mass exploration of design ideas. The research is a part of a series that presents a Java program based on creating 3d shapes, in order for architects to explore initial shapes related to design ideas. The initial version of the program, which is a part of another research, creates 3d shapes through controlling their dimensions and insertion point. Functions of painting, controlling the light position, and shading are added to the program that is presented in this research. The research discusses Design-Idea Exploration and Visual Perception and their correlation. The added features of the program that is used as a design medium are also presented and linked to the investigated areas.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id sigradi2009_1086
id sigradi2009_1086
authors Abdelhameed, Wael; Yoshiro Kobayashi
year 2009
title Urban Wiki: An online urban design system
source SIGraDi 2009 - Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 16-18, 2009
summary This research involves the framework and design of Urban Wiki, an online urban design system employing Wiki concept. The term Urban Wiki is created by the researchers; its concepts and methodology will be introduced and presented. Urban Wiki aims to creating a networking system of urban designs, enabling the collaborative work between users around the world. The presented system framework is created and tested by the researchers from two different locations in the world. The purpose of the research is to study how the users can share effectively designing/modeling large scale urban projects. An urban project of a village scale is used to demonstrate the potentials of Urban Wiki, presenting its functions and highlighting the possible uses in the urban area. Moreover, using the created models opens up various urban paths of designing, decision-making, and sharing. Techniques employed in the design of Urban Wiki can potentially be used to build up scalable, easily navigable and extensible models of large-scale entities.
keywords Urban design; urban planning; networking; urban wiki; modeling systems
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id cf2019_052
id cf2019_052
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif ;Passaint Massoud, Rana El-Dabaa, Aly Ibrahim and Tasbeh Mokbel
year 2019
title The Effect of Hygroscopic Design Parameters on the Programmability of Laminated Wood Composites for Adaptive Façades
source Ji-Hyun Lee (Eds.) "Hello, Culture!"  [18th International Conference, CAAD Futures 2019, Proceedings / ISBN 978-89-89453-05-5] Daejeon, Korea, p. 435
summary Typical adaptive façades respond to external conditions to enhance indoor spaces based on complex mechanical actuators and programmable functions. Hygroscopic embedded properties of wood, as low-cost low-tech programmable material, have been utilized to induce passive motion mechanisms. Wood as anisotropic material allows for different passive programmable motion configurations that relies on several hygroscopic design parameters. This paper explores the effect of these parameters on programmability of laminated wood composites through physical experiments in controlled humidity environment. The paper studies variety of laminated configurations involving different grain orientations, and their effect on maximum angle of deflection and its durability. Angle of deflection is measured using image analysis software that is used for continuous tracking of deflection in relation to time. Durability is studied as the number of complete programmable cycles that wood could withstand before reaching point of failure. Results revealed that samples with highest deflection angle have least programmability durability.
keywords Wood, hygroscopic design, lamination, deflection, durability, adaptive façades
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2019/07/29 12:18

_id ascaad2009_mai_abdelsalam
id ascaad2009_mai_abdelsalam
authors Abdelsalam, Mai
year 2009
title The Use of the Smart Geometry through Various Design Processes: Using the programming platform (parametric features) and generative components
source Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content [4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2009) / ISBN 978-99901-06-77-0], Manama (Kingdom of Bahrain), 11-12 May 2009, pp. 297-304
summary The emergence of parametric generative design tools and prototyping manufacturing technology led to radical changes in architectural morphologies. This change increased the opportunity to develop innovative smart geometries. Integrating these algorithms in the parametric softwares led to variations in building design concepts increasing alternatives and decreasing the repetitive work previously needed in conventional CAD software. The chosen software in this research is Generative Components (GC). It is a software design tool for an associative and parametric design platform. It is tested for using Global Variables with associative functions during the concept creation and form GC comprises features. The results presented in this research may be considered an introduction to the smart geometry revolution. It deals with the generative design which applied in the design process from conceptual design phase, defining the problem, exploring design solutions, then how to develop the design phases. Office building is a building type which encourages new forms that needs computational processes to deal with repetitive functions and modular spaces and enclosed in a flexible creative structural skin. Generative design helps the office buildings to be arranged, analysed, and optimized using parameters in early stages in design process. By the end of the research, the use of the smart geometry in a high rise office building is defined and explained. The research is divided into three parts, first a summary of the basic theories of office buildings design and the sustainable requirements that affect it, and should be integrated. Secondly, the previous experiences in generating office buildings by Norman foster and Sergio Araya. At last, a case study is proposed to test and evaluate the use of the parametric generative methodology in designing an office building with specific emphasis on the function, environmental aspects and form generation using Generative Components (GC) Software.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2009/06/30 06:12

_id ascaad2016_052
id ascaad2016_052
authors Al-Badry, Sally; Cesar Cheng, Sebastian Lundberg and Georgios Berdos
year 2016
title Living on the Edge - Reinventing the amphibiotic habitat of the Mesopotamian Marshlands
source Parametricism Vs. Materialism: Evolution of Digital Technologies for Development [8th ASCAAD Conference Proceedings ISBN 978-0-9955691-0-2] London (United Kingdom) 7-8 November 2016, pp. 513-526
summary The Mesopotamian Marshlands form one of the first landscapes where people started to transform and manipulate the natural environment in order to sustain human habitation. For thousands of years, people have transformed natural ecosystems into agricultural fields, residential clusters and other agglomerated environments to sustain long-term settlement. In this way, the development of human society has been intricately linked to the extraction, processing and consumption of natural resources. The Mesopotamian Marshlands, located in one of the hottest and most arid areas on the planet, formed a unique wetlands ecosystem, which apart from millions of people, sustained a very high number of wildlife and endemic species. Several historical, political, social and climatic changes, which densely occurred during the past century, completely destroyed the unique civilisation of the area, made all the wild flora and fauna disappear and forced hundreds of thousands of people to migrate. During the last decade, many efforts have been made to restore the marshlands. However, these efforts are lacking a comprehensive design strategy, coherent goals and deep understanding of the complex current geopolitical situation, making the restoration process an extremely difficult task. This work aims at providing strategies for recovering the Mesopotamian Marshlands, organising productive functions in order to sustain the local population and design a new inhabitation model, using advanced computational tools while taking into account the extreme climatic conditions and several unique cultural aspects. Part of the aim of this work is to advance the use of computation and explore the opportunities that digital tools afford in helping find solutions to complex design problems where various design variables need to be coordinated to satisfy the design goals. Today, advanced computation enables designers to use population consumption demands, ecological processes and environmental inputs as design parameters to develop more robust and resilient regional planning strategies. This work has the double aim of first, presenting a framework for re-inhabiting the Marshlands of Mesopotamia. Second, the work suggests a design methodology based on computer-aided design for developing and organising productive functions and patterns of human occupation in wetland environments.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2017/05/25 11:34

_id caadria2008_27_session3b_221
id caadria2008_27_session3b_221
authors Al-Haddad, Tristan
year 2008
title Parametric modulations in Masonry
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 221-228
summary The focus of the research presented in this paper asks how a designer can create a flexible system of physical making which can accommodate multiple programmatic functions within a smooth whole, rather than creating an a priori singular formal object. This adaptable system of construction works through the development of an intelligent CAD model that can be mapped to a flexible manufacturing mechanism, i.e. a reconfigurable mold. This system of manufacturing can be used to cast totally unique solid modules without creating a unique mold for each part by manipulating the topological structure of the system. This approach takes the notion of mass-customization beyond the expensive and unsustainable one-offs that the design world has seen recently, and into a new paradigm of a sustainable, economically viable world of mass-customizable form and space.
keywords Parametrics, Variability, Reconfigurability, UHPC, Topology, Molding, Casting
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id sigradi2014_330
id sigradi2014_330
authors Alaçam, Sema
year 2014
title The Many Functions of Hand Gestures While Communicating Spatial Ideas - An Empirical Case Study
source SIGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay- Montevideo 12,13,14 November 2014, pp. 106-109
summary Physical dimensions of the designing activity these representations will probably exist Architects substantially develop their ideas in space through a visual apprehension of spatial relations. We aim to explore how hand gestures play role in presenting geometric features, spatial relations and ideas through a qualitative evaluation of an empirical case study. (100 words)
keywords Architectural design environments; Hand gestures; Iconic gestures; Spatial thinking
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id c204
authors Aleksander Asanowicz
year 1996
title Teaching and Learning - Full Brainwash
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 51-54
summary We often speak of changes in design process due to an application of computers. But in my opinion we more often rather speak of lack of changes. Lets hope that some day we will be able to witness full integrity and compatibility of design process and tools applied in it. Quite possible such an integrity may occur in the cyberspace. Nevertheless before that could happen some changes within the teaching methods at faculties of architecture, where despite great numbers of computer equipment used, the students are still being taught as in the XIX century. In terms of achieved results it proves ineffective because application of chalk and blackboard only will always loose to new media, which allow visual perception of dinosaurs in Jurassic Park. Our civilisation is the iconographic one. And that is why teaching methods are about to change. An application of computer as simply a slide projector seems to be way too expensive. New media demands new process and new process demands new media. Lets hope that could be achieved in cyberspace as being a combination of: classic ways of teaching, hypertext, multimedia, virtual reality and a new teaching methodology (as used in Berlitz English School - full brainwash). At our faculty several years ago we experimentally undertook and applied an Integrated Design Teaching Method. A student during design process of an object simultaneously learnt all aspects and functions of the object being designing i.e.: its structure, piping and wiring, material cost and even historic evolution of its form and function. Unfortunately that concept was too extravagant as for the seventies in our reality. At present due to wide implementation of new media and tools in design process we come to consider reimplementation of IDTM again.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id sigradi2014_128
id sigradi2014_128
authors Alves Veloso, Pedro Luís
year 2014
title Explorando o diagrama de bolhas [Exploring the bubble diagram]
source SIGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay - Montevideo 12 - 14 November 2014, pp. 115-119
summary This paper presents an interactive bubble diagram developed to support design exploration. The proposed diagram consists of multiple goal-oriented agents, whose interaction with the user stimulates the analysis and exploration of new spatial patterns. Until now, there are two versions implemented. The first was developed combining scripting language and a graphical editor of algorithms embedded in modeling software. The second was developed with event-driven programming techniques emphasizing functions to amplify the interaction between user and agents. Finally, as the result of this exploratory stage of the research, we propose new paths of development for the next versions of the diagram.
keywords Architectural design; bubble diagram; graph; interaction
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 8a88
authors Anderson, David P.
year 1982
title Hidden Line Elimination in Projected Grid Surfaces
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. October, 1982. vol. 1: pp. 274-288 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary The hidden line and hidden surface problems are simpler when restricted to special classes of objects. An example is the class of grid surfaces, that is, graphs of bivariate functions represented by their values on a set of grid points. Projected grid surfaces have geometric properties which permit hidden line or hidden surface elimination to be done more easily than in the general case. These properties are discussed in this paper, and an algorithm is given which exploits them
keywords algorithms, hidden lines, hidden surfaces, grids, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id ecaade2016_017
id ecaade2016_017
authors Androutsopoulou, Eirini
year 2016
title Autopoietic Features of the Urban Body's Elements - Similarity studies on network elements' attributes
source Herneoja, Aulikki; Toni Österlund and Piia Markkanen (eds.), Complexity & Simplicity - Proceedings of the 34th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 22-26 August 2016, pp. 71-78
summary The methodology presented in this paper is grounded on the analysis and relational relocation of attributes of the urban body, deriving from the reconstruction of the urban body as a network configuration. In contrast to the hierarchical constructions, network constructions allow for multiple connections between elements, therefore being closer to the complexity of the associative forces found in the structure of the urban body.Similarity function is applied in an attempt to restructure those attributes of the urban body which emerge from the position of each element (node) in relation to other elements of the network and not from the Cartesian topology. Being able to represent material elements as nodes, counter-bodies deriving from autopoietic -network functions emerge, allowing for an inquiry in what concerns the autopoietic features of the urban body in general, focusing on the application of autopoietic functions which generate the urban body parts and components and on the multiplicity of elements' structure, in terms of association of crowds of elements and sets of attributes' values, aiming at the redefinition of proximity as similarity and of remoteness as difference.
wos WOS:000402064400006
keywords Similarity; Autopoiesis; urban body; Attributes; network; complex systems
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/06/28 08:46

_id ecaade2014_214
id ecaade2014_214
authors António Leitão and Sara Proença
year 2014
title On the Expressive Power of Programming Languages for Generative Design - The Case of Higher-Order Functions
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 257-266
summary The expressive power of a language measures the breadth of ideas that can be described in that language and is strongly dependent on the constructs provided by the language. In the programming language area, one of the constructs that increases the expressive power is the concept of higher-order function (HOF). A HOF is a function that accepts functions as arguments and/or returns functions as results. HOF can drastically simplify the programming activity, reducing the development effort, and allowing for more adaptable programs. In this paper we explain the concept of HOFs and its use for Generative Design. We then compare the support for HOF in the most used programming languages in the GD field and we discuss the pedagogy of HOFs.
wos WOS:000361384700025
keywords Generative design; higher-order functions; programming languages
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2012_243
id ecaade2012_243
authors Araya, Sergio; Zolotovsky, Ekaterina; Gidekel, Manuel
year 2012
title Living Architecture: Micro Performances of Bio Fabrication
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-3-7, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 447-457
summary This ongoing research study explores novel modes of design and fabrication by combining digital tools and technologies with living biological systems within controlled environments in order to induce specifi c biological functions and material production processes. The main objective is to design and implement a biological fabrication technique, using bacteria, to produce physical components for architecture and product design.
wos WOS:000330320600047
keywords Synthetic Biology; Architecture; Design; Biofabrication; Biomaterial
series eCAADe
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id caadria2013_034
id caadria2013_034
authors Arenas, Ubaldo and José Manuel Falcón
year 2013
title ALOPS Constructive Systems – Towards the Design and Fabrication of Unsupervised Learning Construction Systems
source Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013) / Singapore 15-18 May 2013, pp. 905-914
summary In this paper we explore the concept and design guidelines for an Autonomous Learning Oriented Proto System (ALOPS), a construction system designed to enhance its own performance through time. Our research has been focused on the fabrication of a prototype for a porous wall system which reacts to light intensities by closing or opening its apertures. Taking that aim, we used a combination of robotics, programing, and material behaviour to endow the system with the capacity to record reactions towards encountered sets of conditions during its active energy periods, allowing the system to use this knowledge database to evolve autonomously by feeding this information back into the computation process. This approach in construction systems opens up the architectural design processes to address the creation of digital memory structures rather than complex algorithms in order to operate specific functions. With this development, the architect could think of architectures constantly evolving by learning from their environments as well as of users forming symbiotic and behavioural bonds with the emergent spatial personalities, thus affecting the underpinning relationships between architecture, user and context.  
wos WOS:000351496100093
keywords erformance architecture, Unsupervised learning, Machine learning 
series CAADRIA
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ddss9403
id ddss9403
authors Arentze, T., Borgers, A., Dellaert, B. and Timmermans, H.
year 1994
title A Multi-Purpose Multi-Stop Model Describing Consumers' Choices of Shopping Centres
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Recently, a number of interesting extensions to traditional decompositional and discrete choice models has been introduced that allow one to combine parameters estimated in different phases ofcomplex choice processes. These extensions offer new possibilities to model combinations of choices consumers make if they select shopping centres to visit. This paper will introduce a modelling approach that describes consumer choices of shopping centres involving multiple shopping functions (multi purpose) as well as locations (multi stop). The approach extends traditional decompositional models of single choices to a model of combinations of choices. It uses a recursive scaling procedure that combines attributes related to different shopping functions and to shopping centres at different locations. The model will be tested on data collected on shopping behaviour in Maastricht, the Netherlands.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id caadria2007_611
id caadria2007_611
authors Arpornwicharnop, Kittisak; Pinyo Jinuntuya and Pizzanu Kanongchaiyos
year 2007
title Simulation Software Development for Urban Landscape Possibility Analysis
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary This research paper proposes a simulation software development for possibility analysis of urban landscape development project. Normally, analysis of land potentiality and feasibility study for investment are necessary pre-processed for supporting urban planning, developing and architectural designing. However, most available tools are usually tailor made for each process individually, causing difficulties in information interchange between each processes. In this research, we propose a policy making support system for urban planning project development providing several functions such as testing land use and its physical character which are important to urban expansion and architectural design based on impact analysis of urban comprehensive plan. The proposed integrated system consists of a topological analysis module, constraint checking module and geographical information processing module. First, Geographical information stored in 3D graphic file format is converted to object-oriented data model and stored in a database. With several constraint and regulations, the stored information is then checked in the landscape topological analysis module. In evaluation process, the developed software is tested with geographical information of Bangkok area under constraints and regulations of Building Control Act of Thailand. While controlling building properties, the software can model the buildings and generate urban physical character. The result is then checked by several urban landscape planning experts. Experimental result shows that proposed system provides flexibility in information interchanging with constraints and regulations updating without system reconfiguration. The system also provides internet accessing for public participation in the process of making urban comprehensive plan.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id ca51
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1994
title CAFE: Composition for Architects - Forms and Emotions
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 249
summary In the architectural creation process there has always been an inclination to improve the methods of designing in the way of ,,objectivization" of designing process. Objectivization which would explain why we do design in this way and not the other. In spite of the trend to the total objectivization (Vitruvius, Alberti, Palladio), the results appeared to be still subjective, i.e. they included methods of designing typical of the one and only architect. This fact made them completely useless in the designing practice. On the other hand one cannot underestimate their meaning as to this very practice. Because it is just thanks to them that the development of designing studies has taken place. We do learn not only watching works of great architects, but also studying their opinions concerning problems of form, function and construction. That is why it seems to be useful to collect experiences concerning the classic theory of architectural composition, which have been gathered through centuries, as well as to try once again to objectivize the process. Composition information arranged in the form of data-base would create the ground for proper functioning of an expert system uniting diagnostic and planning functions. Study of that kind, not claiming design applications could be an excellent educational equipment in teaching architectural composition. In the proposed teaching system attempts have been made to look at the architectural composition theory in the light of the perception of the form, and - emerging in this process - emotional and aesthetic evaluations. In order to define which evaluations have been most often expressed during the perception process of architectural forms, the students of Architecture Faculty in Bialystok Technical University have been polled on the subject: ,,Which words are most commonly used in the descriptions of architecture works?"

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0f4c
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1998
title From Real to Cyber Reality
source Cyber-Real Design [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-2-9] Bialystock (Poland), 23-25 April 1998, pp. 11-19
summary Human activity takes place in two planes, at two levels. Practical activity is present in one of the planes, the other level is occupied by purely cognitive activity. When observing sufficiently long sequences of practical and cognitive activities, one notices transitions between them, which prove true the suspicions of their functional relationship. Because on both of these planes of human activity there is always one and the same element present - an informative element - which on the first plane functions as subordinate, and in the other as an independent one, one can search for a common characteristic for both planes. Such common characteristic for both levels of human activity can be perceived in the fact that in both situations the activity of a human is based on CREATION. Human thinking is based on transitions between what is accessible through experience and what is referred to conceptually. The human thought exists only and exclusively in the vertical motion: from the phenomenal level to the structural level direction of abstraction) and from the conceptual level to the empirical level direction of concretisation). All human activity is multilayered or, more precisely, it is an activity within many layers: the sensual one as well as the structural one. The appearance of conceptual thinking has created a qualitatively new type of a situation. This novelty can be easily seen both in the sphere of the practical cognitive activity as well as in the sphere of the pure cognitive activity. In both cases, the cognitive activity of a human is of a "double-decker" character: image and concept. It is necessary to note here that the "image" does not only mean structural, concrete, but also one which is purely visual, abstract, of no physical form. Therefore, the human experience, being the result of the cognitive activity, is being expressed, becoming objective, materialising in two different but compatible ways. Firstly, in the material structures of practical significance - this way the material culture is created. Secondly - in material structures which have no practical meaning but are solely used for expressing the spiritual contents - thus creating the spiritual culture. Humans have developed an extraordinarily strong need for spiritual activity, which is manifested by the material activity, redundant from the point of view of the material needs.
series plCAD
last changed 2003/05/17 08:01

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