CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ascaad2016_049
id ascaad2016_049
authors Abdelsabour, Inas; Heba Farouk
year 2016
title Impact of Using Structural Models on Form Finding - Incorporating Practical Structural Knowledge into Design Studio
source Parametricism Vs. Materialism: Evolution of Digital Technologies for Development [8th ASCAAD Conference Proceedings ISBN 978-0-9955691-0-2] London (United Kingdom) 7-8 November 2016, pp. 483-492
summary Physical Models as an architectural design tool, had major effect on architecture learning process. In structural form finding, it helped in improving visual design thinking to track form creation processes during form finding design stage. The aim is to study the impact of using physical models for second year architecture students in design studios learning. By analyzing and comparing students’ performance and progress; to clarify the effect of using physical models as a tool for designing progression, followed by analytical study on the students' structural models, in order to investigate the influence of models on their design educational progress. Research achieved that there were three basic phases the students pass through during form finding process when used manual physical models that improve the students' design capability.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2017/05/25 11:33

_id ascaad2010_241
id ascaad2010_241
authors Aboreeda, Faten; Dina Taha
year 2010
title Using Case-Based Reasoning to Aid Sustainable Design
source CAAD - Cities - Sustainability [5th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2010 / ISBN 978-1-907349-02-7], Fez (Morocco), 19-21 October 2010, pp. 241-246
summary Since so far there exists only one planet, sustainable design is considered the (ethical) future in all fields of design. Although both architecture and construction are being considered major emitters of green house gases, a wise design not only can lead to minimizing this impact but it can also lead to restoring and regenerating the environment to a sustainable state. This paper presents an on-going research that aims at simplifying the elements and facilitating the process of sustainable design by using case-based reasoning. This is achieved through learning from past experiences; both good and bad ones, by providing a database application with a process-friendly interface which divides the main pillars of sustainable design into categories. Each building contains different stories related to different sustainable related issues. Each story can be repeated in /linked to many buildings. By providing designers with those past experiences, it is believed that deeper-studied designs can be more easily developed. Also a deeper analysis and understanding can be further implemented and produced with less effort for experienced and non-experienced architects in sustainable design. This would also decrease the consumption of time during the design process and encourage even more designers to integrate the sustainability concept into more designs. This research discusses the influence of sustainable design within the architectural domain, and suggests a computer application that aids architects during the preliminary design processes.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2011/03/01 06:36

_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id cf2003_m_006
id cf2003_m_006
authors ACHTEN, Henri and JESSURUN, Joran
year 2003
title Learning From Mah Jong - Towards a Multi-Agent System that can Recognize Graphic Units
source Digital Design - Research and Practice [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1] Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, pp. 115-124
summary Sketching is a major means of exploiting the first conceptual developments in architectural design. If we want to support the architect in the ideas-developing phase of design, then we need to understand the conventions of depiction and encoding in drawings. The theory of graphic units provides an extended list of such conventions that are widely used. We propose that a multi-agent system for recognition of graphic units in drawings is fruitful: agents can specialize in graphic units, a multi-agent system can deal with ambiguity through negotiation and conflict resolution, and multi-agent systems function in dynamically changing environments. We first make a multi-agent system that can do something simpler: playing Mah Jong solitary. The Mah Jong solitary system shares the following important features with a multi-agent system that can recognize graphic units: (1) specialized agents for moves; (2) negotiation between agents to establish the best move; (3) dynamically changing environment; and (4) search activity in more advanced strategies. The paper presents the theoretical basis of graphic units and multi-agents systems. The multi-agent framework and its implementation is presented. Various levels of game play are distinguished, and these are correlated to the multi-agent system. The paper shows how the findings form the basis for graphic unit recognition.
keywords artificial intelligence, games, graphic units, agents
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/22 15:39

_id sigradi2016_448
id sigradi2016_448
authors Afsari, Kereshmeh; Eastman, Charles M.; Shelden, Dennis R.
year 2016
title Data Transmission Opportunities for Collaborative Cloud-Based Building Information Modeling
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.907-913
summary Collaboration within Building Information Modeling process is mainly based on file transfer while BIM data being exchanged in either vendor specific file formats or neutral format using Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). However, since the Web enables Cloud-based BIM services, it provides an opportunity to exchange data via Web transfer services. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to investigate what features of Cloud interoperability can assist a network-based BIM data transmission for a collaborative work flow in the Architecture, Construction, and Engineering (AEC) industry. This study indicates that Cloud-BIM interoperability needs to deploy major components such as APIs, data transfer protocols, data formats, and standardization to redefine BIM data flow in the Cloud and to reshape the collaboration process.
keywords BIM; Cloud Computing; Data Transmission; Interoperability; IFC
series SIGraDi
last changed 2017/06/21 12:18

_id 2005_083
id 2005_083
authors Agostinho, Francisco Santos
year 2005
title Architecture as Drawing, Perception and Cognition
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 83-90
summary This work is about realizing that human perception is inherent to architecture. It is an asset and a trait subject to training and development in an empirical way, involving physical and manual action. It cannot be taught literally through convention and logic reasoning. It is a human achievement of great significance built on intellectual and scientific knowledge. It is something, being physical and empirical, that is supported on instrumental procedure. The computer, as a machine and an instrument, does not shorten the empirical experience of manipulation; on the contrary, it enhances J.J. Gibson’s findings about the perception of space in relation to eye and body movement. Being a cybernetic machine the computer may, and shall, evolve, and become perceptive. In order for that to happen, it is important to keep in mind the mechanism of human perception. Through producing a computerized model of a major architectural work, we develop natural knowledge about its physical features and the thought that lies underneath. To be able to use the computer as an instrument provides a user with explicit knowledge about its ways and mechanism that has to be made available. It involves training, which is to a great extent self-explanatory, and also explicit knowledge about the conventions that are being used, such as programming, reasoning and trigonometry.
keywords Visualization; Environmental Simulation; Knowledge Modelling (KM); 3D Modeling
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id 9b44
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E. and Karboulonis, P.
year 2000
title The Importance of Virtual Environments in the Design of Electronic Games and Their Relevance to Architecture
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 181-185
summary Ever increasing complexity in architectural design and the need to deliver a cost effective solution requires the employment and adoption of innovative design methods. Although technological changes have entered the field of architecture at a slower pace, the recent adoption of 3D modelling, Virtual Environment and multimedia represent significant changes in architectural design, visualisation and presentation. These now include tools for conceptualisation, design synthesis, design presentation, desktop publishing, animation, Internet and hypermedia authoring. Uddin argues that the major activities involved in the creative and dynamic process of architectural design deal with conceptualisation, visualisation and expression of alternative ideas through two-dimensional and three-dimensional model. This paper highlights the need for the employment of emerging computer based real-time interactive technologies that are expected to enhance the design process through better decision-making, higher quality communication and collaboration, error reduction, spatial awareness, interactive design and real-time visualisation.
keywords CAD, Game Design, Virtual Reality, Virtual Environments, Virtual Prototyping, Internet Technologies, Architecture
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ecaade2014_055
id ecaade2014_055
authors Ahmet Emre Dincer, Gülen Cagdas and Hakan Tong
year 2014
title A Digital Tool for Customized Mass Housing Design
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 201-211
wos WOS:000361384700020
summary Innovative design approaches are needed for mass housing implementations. Especially increasing interaction between user and designer is major important in the design decisions of these buildings. For this, it is seriously necessary to benefit from technological advances in computational designs, because digital tools like shape grammar, cellular automata, genetic algorithm, l-systems and agent-based models in this field provide not only to save time and to manage the relationships but also to generate many different alternatives. Accordingly, a digital support tool for designers has been developed by using cellular automata approach and scripts of 3Ds Max software. It produces samples of housing design plans which is generated by cellular automata approach according to the data of users' preferences. In this paper the interface and contributions of the developed model are introduced and discussed.
keywords Computational design; mass customization; innovative housing design; plugin
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 1fb3
authors Akin, O., Cumming, M., Shealey, M. and Tuncer, B.
year 1997
title An electronic design assistance tool for case-based representation of designs
source Automation in Construction 6 (4) (1997) pp. 265-274
summary In precedent based design, solutions to problems are developed by drawing from an understanding of landmark designs. Many of the key design operations in this mode are similar to the functionalities present in case-based reasoning systems: case matching, case adapting, and case representation. It is clear that a rich case-base, encoding all major product types in a design domain would be the centerpiece of such an approach. EDAT (Electronic Design Assistance Tool) is intended to assist in precedent based design in the studio with the potential of expansion into the office setting. EDAT has been designed using object oriented system development methods. EDAT was used in a design studio at Carnegie Mellon University, during Spring 1996.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 4cda
authors Akin, O., Cumming, M. , Shealey, M. and Tuncer, B.
year 1996
title An Electronic Design Assistance Tool for Case Based Representation of Designs
source Design Computation: Collaboration, Reasoning, Pedagogy [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-05-5] Tucson (Arizona / USA) October 31 - November 2, 1996, pp. 123-132
summary In precedent based design, solutions to problems are developed by drawing from an understanding of landmark designs. Many of the key design operations in this mode are similar to the functionalities present in case based reasoning systems: case matching, case adapting, and case representation. It is clear that a rich case base, encoding all major product types in a design domain would be the centerpiece of such an approach. EDAT (Electronic Design Assistance Tool) is intended to assist in precedent based design in the studio with the potential of expansion into the office setting. EDAT has been designed using object oriented system development methods. EDAT was used in a design studio at Carnegie Mellon University, during Spring 1996, and will be used in future studios, as well.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 450c
authors Akin, Ömer
year 1990
title Computational Design Instruction: Toward a Pedagogy
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 302-316
summary The computer offers enormous potential both in and out of the classroom that is realized only in limited ways through the applications available to us today. In the early days of the computer it was generally argued that it would replace the architect. When this idea became obsolete, the prevailing opinion of proponents and opponents alike shifted to the notion of the computer as merely adding to present design capabilities. This idea is so ingrained in our thinking that we still speak of "aiding" design with computers. It is clear to those who grasp the real potential of this still new technology - as in the case of many other major technological innovations - that it continues to change the way we design, rather than to merely augment or replace human designers. In the classroom the computer has the potential to radically change three fundamental ingredients: student, instruction, and instructor. It is obvious that changes of this kind spell out a commensurate change in design pedagogy. If the computer is going to be more than a passive instrument in the design studio, then design pedagogy will have to be changed, fundamentally. While the practice of computing in the studio continues to be a significant I aspect of architectural education, articulation of viable pedagogy for use in the design studio is truly rare. In this paper the question of pedagogy in the CAD studio will be considered first. Then one particular design studio taught during Fall 1988 at Carnegie Mellon University will be presented. Finally, we shall return to issues of change in the student, instruction, and instructor, as highlighted by this particular experience.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id eb5f
authors Al-Sallal, Khaled A. and Degelman, Larry 0.
year 1994
title A Hypermedia Model for Supporting Energy Design in Buildings
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 39-49
summary Several studies have discussed the limitations of the available CAAD tools and have proposed solutions [Brown and Novitski 1987, Brown 1990, Degelman and Kim 1988, Schuman et al 1988]. The lack of integration between the different tasks that these programs address and the design process is a major problem. Schuman et al [1988] argued that in architectural design many issues must be considered simultaneously before the synthesis of a final product can take place. Studies by Brown and Novitski [1987] and Brown [1990] discussed the difficulties involved with integrating technical considerations in the creative architectural process. One aspect of the problem is the neglect of technical factors during the initial phase of the design that, as the authors argued, results from changing the work environment and the laborious nature of the design process. Many of the current programs require the user to input a great deal of numerical values that are needed for the energy analysis. Although there are some programs that attempt to assist the user by setting default values, these programs distract the user with their extensive arrays of data. The appropriate design tool is the one that helps the user to easily view the principal components of the building design and specify their behaviors and interactions. Data abstraction and information parsimony are the key concepts in developing a successful design tool. Three different approaches for developing an appropriate CAAD tool were found in the literature. Although there are several similarities among them, each is unique in solving certain aspects of the problem. Brown and Novitski [1987] emphasize the learning factor of the tool as well as its highly graphical user interface. Degelman and Kim [1988] emphasize knowledge acquisition and the provision of simulation modules. The Windows and Daylighting Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) emphasizes the dynamic structuring of information, the intelligent linking of data, the integrity of the different issues of design and the design process, and the extensive use of images [Schuman et al 19881, these attributes incidentally define the word hypermedia. The LBL model, which uses hypermedia, seems to be the more promising direction for this type of research. However, there is still a need to establish a new model that integrates all aspects of the problem. The areas in which the present research departs from the LBL model can be listed as follows: it acknowledges the necessity of regarding the user as the center of the CAAD tool design, it develops a model that is based on one of the high level theories of human-computer interaction, and it develops a prototype tool that conforms to the model.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 8a25
authors Alshawi, M. and Underwood, J.
year 1996
title Applying object-oriented analysis to the integration of design and construction
source Automation in Construction 5 (2) (1996) pp. 105-121
summary This paper implements an Object Oriented Analysis technique to model information related to design and construction. In a previous study, an approach to integrate design and construction processes based upon information analysis and modelling has been proposed. By breaking down the project's vast information into groups of related information, construction related problems have been identified and then traced back too their relevant design processes. This paper models this process using a relatively young and new method of analysis rather than a traditional structured approach. An Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA) method has been applied to model the information in terms of the fundamental ideas that underlie object-oriented technology i.e. object types and classes, methods, requests, encapsulation and inheritance. Proceeding through the five major activities of Coad and Yourdon's OOA method, a complete OOA model has been developed with potential to improve the construction related problems.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 28f3
authors Alvarado, R.G., Vildósola, G.V., Parra, J.C. and Jara, M.R.
year 2000
title Creacion/Creatividad: Evaluando Diseños Arquitectónicos con Realidad Virtual (Creation/Creativity: Evaluating Architectural Designs by means of Virtual Reality)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 243-246
summary ¿Can the computer improves the architectural creativity? This question is explored through a Virtual-Reality system developed for the modeling of timber structures, based on parametric elements, constructive programming and immersive visualization on real-time. Making experiences of evaluation with advanced students of architecture, whose use the system in the beginning of projects, compared with other group use not the system. This research faces the possibilities to rationalizate part of the creative process in architecture, broading the role of computer and its contribution to quality of design, and extending the possibilities to teach and share the creation of project. It is argue that major potential in this field is the swiftness, formal variety and spatial living of design, challenging the differences between objective and subjective.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 1a52
authors Amor, R., Augenbroe, G., Hosking, J., Rombouts and W., Grundy, J.
year 1995
title Directions in modelling environments
source Automation in Construction 4 (3) (1995) pp. 173-187
summary Schema definition is a vital component in the computerised A/E/C projects. existing tools to manage this task are limited both in terms of the scope Of problems they can tackle and their integration with each other. This paper describes a global modellling and development environment for large modelling projects. This environment provides a total solution from initial design of schemas to validation, manipulation arid navigation through final models. A major benefit of the described system is the ability to provide multiple views of evolving schemas (or models) in both graphical and textual forms This allows modellers to visualise their schemas and instance models either textually or graphically as desired. The system automatically maintains the Conisistency of the informalion in these views even when modifications are made in other views. Simple and intuitive view navigation methods allow required information to he rapidly accessed. The environment supports strict checking of model instances and schemas in one of the major ISO-standardised modelling languages no used in product data technology. Ill this paper we show how such a modelling environment has been constructed for evaluation in the JOULE founded COMBINE project.
keywords Modelling Environment; Consistency; Multiple Views: Views; Building Models; Information Management; Integrated System; Product Modelling
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 12:33

_id caadria2007_677
id caadria2007_677
authors Anbusivan, R.
year 2007
title Automation of Passive Solar Design System
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary This research, focus on the automation of passive solar design system using computational method. The quantitative nature of passive solar design system makes the automation possible. The automation is done in stages, because implementing the passive solar design system is not an isolated process, but intertwined with the overall design process. The first phase of automation concentrates in conceptual stage, to avoid major deviations in later stages of the design. The conceptual stage use Eco-grammar (A preset Design guidelines for corresponding climate) and user inputs for initial form generation. The second stage of automation is done after the user finalize the model with respect to its position rotation and arrangements. In this stage manipulation of vertex, edges and faces of the forms were manipulated using genetic algorithm. The value of mutation or crossover done in genetic algorithm is suggested by knowledge engine (preloaded design knowledge). Until the form obtains or reach closer to the desired values of performance the loop between analysis and mutation, crossover will be continued. On the basis of analysis result further manipulations may change from the previous which is guided by the knowledge engine.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id ecaade2015_246
id ecaade2015_246
authors Andraos, Sebastian
year 2015
title DMR: A Semantic Robotic Control Language
source Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds.), Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16-18 September 2015, pp. 261-268
wos WOS:000372316000031
summary DMR is a semantic robot-control language that attempts to change our relationship with machines and create true human-robot collaboration through intuitive interfacing. To this end, DMR is demonstrated in the DMR Interface, an Android app, which accepts semantic vocal commands as well as containing a GUI for feedback and verification. This app is combined with a robot-mounted 3D camera to enable robotic interaction with the surroundings or compensate for unpredictable environments. This combination of tools gives users access to adaptive automation whereby a robot is no longer given explicit instructions but instead is given a job to do and will adapt its movements to execute this regardless of any slight changes to the goal or environment. The major advantages of this system come in the vagueness of the instructions given and a constant feedback of task accomplishment, approaching the manner in which we subconsciously control our bodies or would guide another person to achieve a goal.
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ddss9803
id ddss9803
authors Arentze, T., Borgers, A. and Timmermans, H.
year 1998
title Extending spatial DSS with spatial choice models of multipurpose shopping trip behaviour
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary Spatial choice or interaction models have been widely used in spatial DSS or customised GIS for analysing the impacts of retail location plans. The models typically used, however, do not account for spatial agglomeration effects on spatial choice behaviour. This study develops a model system for analysing the impacts of retail plans based on a choice model of multipurpose behaviour developed in earlier work. The model system is implemented in the spatial DSS called Location Planner. An empirical study demonstrates the empirical estimation and use of the model for analysing the impacts of an expansion of floor space in the major shopping centre of a middle-sized city in The Netherlands. The results indicate that agglomeration effects as predicted by the model can have substantial impacts on the performance of retail systems. Therefore, it is argued that when incorporated in a spatial DSS, the more complex models have the potential to improve the use of these systems for impact analysis.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddssup9602
id ddssup9602
authors Arentze, T.A., Borgers, A.W.J. and Harry J.P.
year 1996
title A knowledge-based model for developing location strategies in a DSS for retail planning
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary Most DSS for retail planning are based on impact assessment models to support the evaluation of plan scenario's. This paper introduces a complementary knowledge-based model to support also the earlier stage of formulating plan scenario's. An analysis of the retail planning problem reveals the main lines of the strategies adopted by most Dutch planners and retailers to achieve their goals. A basic strategy that seems to be appropriate in most problem contexts is formulated in the form of a set of decision tables. Each decision table or system of decision tables specifies for a problem area decision rules to identify and analyse problems and to formulate possible actions. The model is implemented in a DSS where it is used in combination with quantitative impact assessment models. A case study in the area of daily good facilities demonstrates the approach. The major conclusion is that the knowledge-based approach and in particular the decision table technique provides interesting possibilities to implement planning task structures in a DSS environment.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id e820
authors Armstrong, W.W., Green, M. and Lake, R.
year 1987
title Near- Real-Time Control of Human Figure Models
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1987. vol. 7: pp. 52-60 : ill
summary Includes bibliography. Animating human figures is one of the major problems in computer animation. A recent approach is the use of dynamic analysis to compute the movement of a human figure, given the forces and torques operating within and upon the body. One of the problems with this technique is computing the forces and torques required for particular motions: this has been called the control problem of dynamic analysis. To develop a better understanding of this problem, an interactive interface to a dynamics package has been produced. This interface, along with a collection of low-level motion processes, can be used to control the motion of a human figure model. This article describes both the user interface and the motion processes, along with experiences with this approach
keywords computer graphics, animation, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

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