CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ddss9411
id ddss9411
authors Bouillé, Francois
year 1994
title Mastering Urban Network Intersection And Superimposition, in an Object-oriented Knowledge System Integrating Rules, Neurons and Processes
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Many networks cover the urban texture, either superimposed at a variable distance, or really intersecting, or even in interconnection. We briefly recall the HBDS model, working on persistent abstract data types associated to graphical representations and carrying algorithms expressing conditions to be verified and/or actions to be performed. HBDS is an integrated system too, including database, expert system dealing with fuzzy rules and facts, discrete simulation engine, and neural engine; it has a general purpose programming language. Any urban network is associated to a given prototype, according to the same scheme named prototype with more specific components. These prototypes allow to build the different thematic structures instantiations of the prototypes. All possible cases of arc intersection or "pseudo-intersection" (simple superimposition)or interconnection are obtained by, owing to new prototypes. Moreover, such (pseudo)-intersections are automatically recognized and processed without a human intervention, owing to classes ofconstraints and classes of rules. They deal with particular constraints concerning the location of some urban furniture, and rules concerning the way a cable or a pipe must follow according to thepre-existing other networks in a given area, the minimal distances, minimal or maximal depths, and some required equipments. Urban classes of (pseudo-)intersections inserted in the hyperciass"neuron", inheriting of neural features, may be used for automated learning of urban knowledge; owing to their "behavior", these neurons can communicate and perform actions on other components. Urban classes inserted in the hyperciass "process" may be used for building very large models simulating complex urban phenomenons, thus allowing a better understanding of the real phenomenons. As a conclusion, we emphasize the methodological aspects of object-oriented integration for an efficient processing of the urban context, based on prototyping and mixing rules, neurons and processes.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9219
id ddss9219
authors Bourdakis, V. and Fellows, R.F.
year 1993
title A model appraising the performance of structural systems used in sports hall and swimming pool buildings in greece
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The selection of the best performing structural system (among steel, timber laminated, concrete, fabric tents) for medium span (30-50m) sports halls and swimming pools in Greece formed the impetus for this research. Decision-making concerning selection of the structural system is difficult in this sector of construction, as was explained in the "Long Span Structures" conference (November 1990, Athens. Greece). From the literature it has been found that most building appraisals end up at the level of data analysis and draw conclusions on the individual aspects they investigate. These approaches usually focus on a fraction of the problem, examining it very deeply and theoretically. Their drawback is loss of comprehensiveness and ability to draw conclusions on an overall level and consequently being applicable to the existing conditions. Research on an inclusive level is sparse. In this particular research project, an inclusive appraisal approach was adopted, leading to the identification of three main variables: resources, human-user-satisfaction, and technical. Consequently, this led to a combination of purely quantitative and qualitative data. Case studies were conducted on existing buildings in order to assess the actual performance of the various alternative structural systems. This paper presents the procedure followed for the identification of the research variables and the focus on the development of the model of quantification. The latter is of vital importance if the problem of incompatibility of data is to be solved, overall relation of findings is to be achieved and holistic conclusions are to be drawn.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddss9412
id ddss9412
authors Bradford, John and Will, Barry
year 1994
title The Temple Tutor Teaching System
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Temple Tutor is a multimedia CA! system developed at the University of Hong Kong to help teach architectural design students about certain fundamentals of building design and construction. It uses 3-D Cad models as user orientation and database access devices. This paper will demonstrate the operation of Temple Tutor, and discuss the types of Information and media used in Temple Tutor.
series DDSS
email bradford@hkucc.hku.hk, bfwill@hkucc.hku.hk
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9413
id ddss9413
authors Branki, Cherif
year 1994
title Communicative Acts in Cooperative Architectural Design Environments
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The purpose of this paper is to present a scheme, that can be used to support the communication process in cooperative design. Computational aids for design have largely been for a designerworking by himself/herself. These aids have also been supplemented by the widespread use of artificial intelligence approaches. However, design is so complex, and very rarely acted upon by a single designer but many more working towards the same aim. This involves a new paradigm in which designers need to cooperate with each other using a computational medium. A protocol analysis in cooperative design has been carried out and technological support has been proposed.Cooperative design becomes an important paradigm for the next generation of intelligent computer aided design systems. It will be conducted in many forms among several designers and willrequire the support of advanced communication facilities beyond the "passive" transmission of data and messages. Technological advances in communication networks have opened up new ways for cooperative design interaction across several processes of cooperation among designers, designers and computer aided design systems, computer aided design systems and knowledge based systems, and knowledge based systems themselves. In cooperative design environments, aunit of communication among designers is the transfer of a message from one designer (a sender) to another (a receiver). The aim of such communication is to provide the receiver with some information or to have the receiver take certain actions. Inspired by the speech act theory, a branch of the philosophy of language and linguistics, such a unit is called a communicative act. By analogy to architectural design, a communicative act is a performing act in designers communication.
series DDSS
email cos.branki@uk.ac.glasp
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 653a
id 653a
authors Brazier, F. and Treur, J.
year 1995
title DESIGN RESEARCH: EMPIRICAL, FOUNDATIONAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVES
source Oxman, R.M., Bax, M.F.Th., Achten, H.H. (eds.) Design research in the Netherlands, 141-149
series book
type normal paper
email H.H.Achten@tue.nl
more http://www.designresearch.nl/PDF/DRN1995_Brazier_Treur.pdf
last changed 2005/10/12 13:21

_id ecfd
authors Breen, Jack
year 1997
title Virtual Horizons
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 109-124
summary This essay explores directions for Computer Aided Architectural Design. It focuses on the state of the 'art' in the Netherlands - a country which is renowned for a high density of planning, both in its cultivated landscapes and in its urban environments - and investigates in which ways computer aided techniques may be broadening the horizons of Dutch design practitioners and builders. An attempt is made to characterise recent developments within the architectural design community, with respect to the influence of (digital) design media on - stylistic - architectural developments and on the building methods of the nineties.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id a6f1
authors Bridges, A.H.
year 1986
title Any Progress in Systematic Design?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 5-15
summary In order to discuss this question it is necessary to reflect awhile on design methods in general. The usual categorization discusses 'generations' of design methods, but Levy (1981) proposes an alternative approach. He identifies five paradigm shifts during the course of the twentieth century which have influenced design methods debate. The first paradigm shift was achieved by 1920, when concern with industrial arts could be seen to have replaced concern with craftsmanship. The second shift, occurring in the early 1930s, resulted in the conception of a design profession. The third happened in the 1950s, when the design methods debate emerged; the fourth took place around 1970 and saw the establishment of 'design research'. Now, in the 1980s, we are going through the fifth paradigm shift, associated with the adoption of a holistic approach to design theory and with the emergence of the concept of design ideology. A major point in Levy's paper was the observation that most of these paradigm shifts were associated with radical social reforms or political upheavals. For instance, we may associate concern about public participation with the 1970s shift and the possible use (or misuse) of knowledge, information and power with the 1980s shift. What has emerged, however, from the work of colleagues engaged since the 1970s in attempting to underpin the practice of design with a coherent body of design theory is increasing evidence of the fundamental nature of a person's engagement with the design activity. This includes evidence of the existence of two distinctive modes of thought, one of which can be described as cognitive modelling and the other which can be described as rational thinking. Cognitive modelling is imagining, seeing in the mind's eye. Rational thinking is linguistic thinking, engaging in a form of internal debate. Cognitive modelling is externalized through action, and through the construction of external representations, especially drawings. Rational thinking is externalized through verbal language and, more formally, through mathematical and scientific notations. Cognitive modelling is analogic, presentational, holistic, integrative and based upon pattern recognition and pattern manipulation. Rational thinking is digital, sequential, analytical, explicatory and based upon categorization and logical inference. There is some relationship between the evidence for two distinctive modes of thought and the evidence of specialization in cerebral hemispheres (Cross, 1984). Design methods have tended to focus upon the rational aspects of design and have, therefore, neglected the cognitive aspects. By recognizing that there are peculiar 'designerly' ways of thinking combining both types of thought process used to perceive, construct and comprehend design representations mentally and then transform them into an external manifestation current work in design theory is promising at last to have some relevance to design practice.
series CAAD Futures
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cef3
authors Bridges, Alan H.
year 1992
title Computing and Problem Based Learning at Delft University of Technology Faculty of Architecture
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 289-294
summary Delft University of Technology, founded in 1842, is the oldest and largest technical university in the Netherlands. It provides education for more than 13,000 students in fifteen main subject areas. The Faculty of Architecture, Housing, Urban Design and Planning is one of the largest faculties of the DUT with some 2000 students and over 500 staff members. The course of study takes four academic years: a first year (Propaedeuse) and a further three years (Doctoraal) leading to the "ingenieur" qualification. The basic course material is delivered in the first two years and is taken by all students. The third and fourth years consist of a smaller number of compulsory subjects in each of the department's specialist areas together with a wide range of option choices. The five main subject areas the students may choose from for their specialisation are Architecture, Building and Project Management, Building Technology, Urban Design and Planning, and Housing.

The curriculum of the Faculty has been radically revised over the last two years and is now based on the concept of "Problem-Based Learning". The subject matter taught is divided thematically into specific issues that are taught in six week blocks. The vehicles for these blocks are specially selected and adapted case studies prepared by teams of staff members. These provide a focus for integrating specialist subjects around a studio based design theme. In the case of second year this studio is largely computer-based: many drawings are produced by computer and several specially written computer applications are used in association with the specialist inputs.

This paper describes the "block structure" used in second year, giving examples of the special computer programs used, but also raises a number of broader educational issues. Introduction of the block system arose as a method of curriculum integration in response to difficulties emerging from the independent functioning of strong discipline areas in the traditional work groups. The need for a greater level of selfdirected learning was recognised as opposed to the "passive information model" of student learning in which the students are seen as empty vessels to be filled with knowledge - which they are then usually unable to apply in design related contexts in the studio. Furthermore, the value of electives had been questioned: whilst enabling some diversity of choice, they may also be seen as diverting attention and resources from the real problems of teaching architecture.

series eCAADe
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 2006_182
id 2006_182
authors Bridges, Alan
year 2006
title A Critical Review of Problem Based Learning in Architectural Education
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 182-189
summary There is limited research and discussion on pedagogical approaches in architectural education, simply because it is considered as one of the “unimportant” areas that researchers “do not bother studying” (Teymur, 2001). Problem Based Learning has been known to provide competent graduates in other professional disciplines, and, consequently, there have been attempts to utilise the same pedagogical approach in architectural education where PBL is seen as a potential solution to the problems encountered in architectural education. This paper critically reviews PBL implementations at TU Delft Netherlands and Newcastle University, N.S.W. Australia and draws conclusions with particular respect to the teaching of architectural computing
keywords PBL; architecture; computing
series eCAADe
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id ddss9414
id ddss9414
authors Bright, Elise N.
year 1994
title THe "Allots" Model: A PC-Based Approach to Demand Distribution for Siting and Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper reports on the development and application of ALLOT: a user-friendly, flexible computer model which has been designed to help governmental jurisdictions and private landowners throughout the world to achieve more economically efficient and environmentally sound land use and development patterns in a short period of time. ALLOT has the potential to drastically change the way that land use planning is conducted, since it has the capability to allow theincorporation of a wide variety of previously ignored environmental characteristics and up-to-date land use patterns. ALLOT, which is written in the SAS programming language, contains twomajor parts. The first part employs a GIS database to conduct land suitability analyses for the area. It then produces maps showing the most suitable areas for various land use types. The second part appears to be unique in the field of computerized land use planning models. It combines the results of the suitability analysis with forecasted demand for various land use types to produce "optimum" future land use patterns. The model is capable of quickly analyzing a wide variety of forecasts, allowing easy comparison of different growth scenarios; and it can also be modified to reflect community goals and objectives, such as protection of wildlife habitat orattraction of industry. The flexibility, combined with the fact that it runs on any IBM-compatible PC (286 or higher), make it a powerful land use planning tool. The model has been successfully applied in two "real world" situations. First, three alternative future land use patterns were developed for a rural lakeside area. The area had rural characteristics and was lacking infrastructure, but a large influx of people was expected as the lake was filled. The success of this effort led to decision to test it´s use as a method for facility siting (using landfill siting as an example).
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9809
id ddss9809
authors Brondino, Nair Cristina Margarido and Da Silva, Antônio Nélson Rodrigues
year 1998
title A comparison of land valuation methods supported by GIS
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The purpose of this work was to study three different strategies for the appraisal of urban land. The first, a theoretical strategy created by the authors of this study to reproduce the common conditions of Brazilian cities, uses increments and reductions in the value of a square meter of land according to each lot’s individual features. The second method, based on Multiple Regression techniques, is widely used for valuation purposes. Finally, the effectiveness of Artificial Neural Networks to deal with thiskind of problem is studied. A sample of 157 lots was collected from several neighbourhoods of a small Brazilian city for the case study. The lot features recorded were area, width, shape, distance to the downtown district of the city through the street network, existence of fences and paved sidewalks, and market price. Prediction errors have been estimated for each of the three methods in order to compare their results. Predicted and error values, added to Geographical Information Systems, may be used to build thematic maps and to check how each strategy applies to different areas of the city. The analyses of error values conducted in this study showed that Artificial Neural Networks presented the best performance as a land appraisal method for the case studied.
series DDSS
email anelson@sc.usp.br
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id a469
authors Brown, Andre and Berridge, Phil
year 2001
title Games One : Two : Three A triangle of virtual game scenarios for architectural collaboration
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 95-120 [Book ordering info: m.c.stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl]
summary This paper is split into three parts, each of which deals with different aspects of, and approaches to, the collaboration process. Each of the approaches shares a common root in an aspect of games or gaming. Together the three approaches represent a tripartite attack on the spectrum of problems that need to be addressed to achieve successful collaboration. The first technique is dealt with in Game One One. This deals with the issue of encouraging collaboration. It is based on work using a role playing game scenario and is intended to allow construction industry professionals and clients to develop a common framework for discussion. It originally existed as a paper based game and is now being tested in a web-based environment. Game Two is based on work that has evolved from contemporary game and meeting place environments that have been attracting attention recently. Here internet-based three-dimensional worlds are used as a virtual replacement of real spaces and participants meet as avatars. In the architectural context we have investigated the potential for application of such 3D worlds as meeting, and discussion places where architectural information and ideas can be exchanged. In Game Three we take the idea that currently, virtual environments are still rather uncomfortable and unnatural in terms of human interaction, and in particular in the way that we move around and display architectural scenes. We develop the idea that games software incorporates techniques that make the representation of animated, interactive 3D architectural environments computationally efficient. We have augmented the software used in games environments and have considered how we construct architectural models and man-machine interfaces to improve the effectiveness of such environments in an architectural context.
series other
email andygpb@liverpool.ac.uk
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id 03a5
id 03a5
authors Buijs, J.
year 2001
title DEVELOPING NPD-PROCESS KNOWLEDGE
source Achten, H.H., de Vries, B. and Hennessey, J. (eds). Design Research in the Netherlands 2000, 75-79
series book
type normal paper
email H.H.Achten@tue.nl
more http://www.designresearch.nl/PDF/DRN2000_Buijs.pdf
last changed 2005/10/12 13:35

_id ecaade2013_135
id ecaade2013_135
authors Buš, Peter
year 2013
title Emergent Urban Strategies
source Stouffs, Rudi and Sariyildiz, Sevil (eds.), Computation and Performance – Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference – Volume 1, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 18-20 September 2013, pp. 283-290
wos WOS:000340635300029
summary This paper presents the results of partial research in the area of designing processes and methods of spatial and social interaction of multi-agent system with its environment in the city urban structure. According to the logic defined by the intrinsic rules of the simulation model of the selected area,there will be verified and tested the emergent phenomena resulting in changes in the configurations of urban structures.
keywords Emergence; multi-agent modeling; bottom-up; city reconfiguration, collective design.
series eCAADe
email buspeter@fa.cvut.cz
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ddss9415
id ddss9415
authors Cajati, Claudio
year 1994
title Innovative Expert Systems With Hypertextual User Interfaces: A Special Support for the Building Recovering Project
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In this paper, first of all a short account on the peculiarity of knowledge in the domain of Architectural and Building Project, particularly in the Building Recovering Project is given. Thatmeans to focus the concept of "degree of authority" of different types of knowledge with regard to project: regulations; specialist literature having in practice the value of self-regulation; technical updating; exemplary design cases; warnings; analysis methods; heuristics; orientating references. Consequently, the different roles of two basic design & decision support systems, that is expert systems and hypertexts, are considered. The former seem to be quite fit for representing information and knowledge linked to a clear "authority", the one of experts in a certain domain; the latter seem to be quite fit for illustrating the interdisciplinary complexity, different historicinterpretations, various analogous references, and so on. Afterwards, the limits of expert systems based on the logic "true-false" are underlined, and the perspective of expert systems based on more sophisticated and appropriate rules and metarules is proposed. At last, the possible structure of such an innovative expert system, with a hypertextual interface, in the domain of Building Recovering Project is exemplified.
series DDSS
email wide@inacriai.criai.it
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9416
id ddss9416
authors Campbell, Noel and O'Reilly, Thomas
year 1994
title GIS: Science or Tool - The Built Environment Perspective
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper attempts to locate GIS in the context of the built environment professions, rather than in the context of computer science, recognizing the integrated but limiting approach of viewingGIS from a strictly computer / spatial science perspective. The paper reviews the conflicts and tensions appearing in the GIS debate seeing them as reflecting the differences between the perceptions and interests of software developers and those of the professions. The "spatial science versus professional tool" dilemma is therefore critically assessed. Science is identified as the dominant paradigm within which GIS development has taken place. This encompasses the emphasis on GIS as spatial science; the interest in particular forms of spatial analysis; a narrow approach to the idea of information; the debate about the appropriate emphasis on the location for GIS in undergraduate education. The interests and activities of the professions cannot be encompassed within the pre-existing science paradigm. The paper identifies the interest the professions have had in broad geographical issues (as distinct from narrow spatial issues). It recognizes the different conventions and procedures used in recording and using geographical information, not all of them objective or scientific. It views the computer, not as a "scientific engine", but as a modern medium for representing and analyzing information. This includes storage and analysis, both internally (algorithmic manipulation) and outside (qualitative manipulation, beyond formal -"computer"- logic). This approach suggests a framework for research of a nature more sympathetic to the needs of the built environment professions in particular and an agenda which would include an examination of: (i) the conventions and procedures used in the professions to collect, store and process information and how these translate to computer technology; (ii) the types of software used and the way procedures may be accommodated by combining and integrating packages; (iii) the dynamism of GIS development (terms such as "dedicated", "mainframe", "PC-based", "distributed", "pseudo-", etc. are identified as indicativeof the need for professions-based approaches to GIS development); (iv) a critique of "information" (modelling of information flows within the professions, may yield valuable insights into the (modelling of information flows within the professions , may yield valuable insights into the similarity of requirements for a variety of "workplace scenarios").
series DDSS
email n.campbell@uk.ac.greenwich
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ecaade2013_137
id ecaade2013_137
authors Camporeale, Patricia
year 2013
title Genetic Algorithms Applied to Urban Growth Optimization
source Stouffs, Rudi and Sariyildiz, Sevil (eds.), Computation and Performance – Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference – Volume 2, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 18-20 September 2013, pp. 227-236
wos WOS:000340643600022
summary This work is a research on the application of genetic algorithms (GA) to urban growth taking into account the optimization of solar envelope and sunlight in open spaces.It was considered a typical block of a Spanish grid, which is the most common subdivision of the urban land in towns situated in Argentina. Two models are compared, one in which the growth has no more limitations than building codes. The other one, in which the growth incorporates the solar radiation as a desirable parameter.This way of parameterizing configures a bottom-up method of urban growth. No top-down decisions intervenes in the growth process.This tool proves to be useful at early stages of urban planning when decisions—which will influence along the development of the city for a long time—are taken.
keywords Genetic algorithms; solar envelope.
series eCAADe
email patricia@disenobioambiental.com.ar
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2013_007
id ecaade2013_007
authors Canavezzi de Abreu, Sandro
year 2013
title Permeability Regimes between Man and Interactive Spaces
source Stouffs, Rudi and Sariyildiz, Sevil (eds.), Computation and Performance – Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference – Volume 1, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 18-20 September 2013, pp. 449-457
wos WOS:000340635300047
summary In this paper we will present the permeability regimes: concepts conceived to contribute with the understanding of the new roles and necessary skills for the architect and designer to design performative and interactive spaces. This contribution, as will be shown here, is based on theoretical and empirical bases that will address a specific context: the methods for introducing and making tangible the relation between information, human and space for architecture students. Therefore, we will describe the dynamics of an interactive installation developed by undergraduate students, relating it to the permeability regimes.
keywords Digitalization; interface; mapping; hibridization; permeability.
series eCAADe
email sandroid.ufu@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ddssup0204
id ddssup0204
authors Caratù, G., Concilio, G. and Monno, V.
year 2002
title Structuring Lay Knowledge in a GI Perspective: Problems and Pitfall
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary The present contribution, starting from some considerations developed in environmental planning domain, discusses the representation of lay knowledge in a GIS environment. Two paths of exploration in dealing with representational problems are sketched. The first is concerned with the structuring of an acquired cognitive base and, the other is about the implementation of cognitive routines. In particular the structuring process of a lay cognitive base is discussed starting from recent developments in GIS technologies and information theories. Difficulties and pitfalls, which arouse during a case study related to an environmental planning experience being carried on for a national natural park, are presented. The experimentation work is discussed also in relation with a preliminary attempt of outputs validation carried out with people who, in a preliminary stage, were interviewed in order to acquire lay knowledge.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 63d0
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1986
title Constraint-bounded design search
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 146-157
summary The design process requires continual checking of the consistency of design choices against given sets of goals that have been fulfilled. Such a check is generally performed by comparing abstract representations of design goals with these of the sought real building objects (RBO) resulting from complex intellectual activities closely related to the designer's culture and to the environment in which he operates. In this chapter we define a possible formalization of such representations concerning the goals and the RBO that are usually considered in the architectural design process by our culture in our environment. The representation of design goals is performed by expressing their objective aspects (requirements) and by defining their allowable values (performance specifications). The resulting system of requirements defines the set of allowable solutions and infers an abstract representation of the sought building objects (BO) that consists of the set of characteristics (attributes and relations) which are considered relevant to represent the particular kind of RBO with respect to the consistency check with design goals. The values related to such characteristics define the performances of the RBO while their set establishes its behaviour. Generally speaking, there is no single real object corresponding to an abstract representation but the whole class of the RBO that are equivalent with respect to the values assumed by the considered characteristics. The more we increase the number of these, as well as their specifications, the smaller the class becomes until it coincides with a single real object - given that the assessed specifications be fully consistent. On the other hand, the corresponding representation evolves to the total prefiguration of the RBO. It is not therefore possible to completely define a BO representation in advance since this is inferred by the considered goals and is itself a result of the design process. What can only be established in advance is that any set of characteristics assumed to represent any RBO consists of hierarchic, topological, geometrical and functional relations among the parts of the object at any level of aggregation (from components to space units, to building units, to the whole building) that we define representation structure (RS). Consequently the RS may be thought as the elementary structures that, by superposition and interaction, set up the abstract representation that best fit with design goals.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

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