CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id sigradi2009_854
id sigradi2009_854
authors Antoniazzi, Asdrubal; Airton Cattani; Jaqueline Viel Caberlon Pedoni
year 2009
title Procedimentos metodológicos para simulação computacional de ambientes históricos [Methodological procedures for computer simulation of historical surroundings]
source SIGraDi 2009 - Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 16-18, 2009
summary This study aims to present a classification of methodological procedures for using computer programmes to simulate architectural historical heritage. Produced for a Master’s Degree dissertation in Architecture, the methodology was developed based on several analyses of applications, possibilities and restrictions, with the assistance of photogrammetric reconstruction and several computer-graphics programmes. The files generated enable production of animations recording the changes experienced by buildings at various historical periods. These procedures were applied to the simulation of several buildings around the Praça Dante Alighieri in the centre of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, demonstrating their appropriateness and effectiveness and also showing the potential of computer-simulation resources for the historical environment, both educationally and in appreciation of architectural heritage.
keywords Three-dimensional geometric modelling; Computer simulation; Digital reconstruction; Historical environment
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 592b
authors Apollonio, F., Carini, A., Farina, R., Nuti, F. and Tolomelli, F.
year 1994
source Beyond Tools for Architecture [Proceedings of the 5th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 90-6754-375-6] Wageningen (The Netherlands) 6-9 September 1994, pp. 71-82
summary The Italian simulation laboratory carries out most of its activity within the experimental programmes promoted by the Ministry of Works. Within this context, we conducted studies based on the topics of EUROPAN competitions for young architects, built models based on EUROREX programme's projects and analyzed experimental projects directly financed by the Ministry (mainly restoration projects).
keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 09:01

_id 1071
authors Asanowicz, Aleksander
year 1999
title Evolution of Computer Aided Design: Three Generations of CAD
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 94-100
summary This paper describes the three generations of CAD systems. The first generation of (primarily analytical) computer programmes really aided designing. These programmes were the tools for finding a functional solution in different areas of designing, from flat plans to the space organisation of a hospital. One of the shortcomings of these programmes was the lack of graphic interface. With time, however, this kind of interface was developed. As a result of this second generation of CAD systems the computer was transformed into a drafting machine and CAD meant Computer Aided Drafting. The main thesis of this consideration is that only now we have the chance to return to the idea of Computer Aided Design. One of the examples of these trends is the AVOCAAD programme in which Added Value of CAAD is analysed. The development of the third generation of CAD systems will be possible in the near future. Aiding the process of designing will demand the elaboration of new methods of using the computer at the early stages of this process. The computer should be used not for generating variants of functional solutions only but for also for the creation of 3D forms by 3D sketching. For this, the computer should be transformed from a tool into a medium; only then will designing become true Designing in Cyber Space.
keywords Generations of CAAD, Design Process, Creation, Medium
series eCAADe
last changed 2005/09/09 08:46

_id caadria2015_126
id caadria2015_126
authors Aydin, Serdar and Marc Aurel Schnabel
year 2015
title Fusing Conflicts Within Digital Heritage Through the Ambivalence of Gaming
source Emerging Experience in Past, Present and Future of Digital Architecture, Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2015) / Daegu 20-22 May 2015, pp. 839-848
summary Digital Heritage is amphibian by spanning between unreal-real (digital) and real-real (actual) environments. Or its amphiboly derives from a fact that relies not on contrasting realities but a hub from which an oscillation occurs between the real and the actual. Inferring to Baudrillard’s criticism of contemporary art, this paper presents these disparities and ambivalent conditions found in digital heritage by examining a full-dome media-art application called Look-Up. Touching upon the authenticity issue in cultural heritage, a design research project, Augmenting Kashgar, is then introduced on the basis of the claim that a design manner can fuse conflicts within Digital Heritage. Developed within the special context of Kashgar, China’s westernmost city, the methodology of the project that follows a Research through Design (RtD) approach is provided. Making use of the architectural features of Kashgar, designing a digital game as a counter-strategy to existing cultural heritage programmes is discussed with references to Baudrillard’s perspective on video games and gamers.
keywords Digital Heritage; Research through Design; game design; Augmenting Kashgar Project; Baudriallard.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2015/06/05 05:14

_id 50ce
authors Baker, R.
year 1993
title Designing the Future: The Computer Transformation of Reality
source Thames and Hudson, Hong Kong
summary A coffee table book on computer applications? Well, yes, because it does deal largely with matters of graphic design in architecture, fashion and textiles, painting, and photography; but it also has items which might be of interest in its sections on digital publication, typography, and electronic communication in general. It also seeks to discuss the way in which these applications may force us to change the way we think. Robin Baker writes in an unfortunately stiff and abstract manner about the impact computer programmes have had on the world of art and design, but the graphic images and extended picture captions help to keep the reader awake - even though the main text sometimes disappears for two or three double page spreads on end. There are also smatterings of pretentious art-world-speak about 'solving certain spatial problems' (in the design of curtain fabrics or teapots) and the introduction (inevitable?) of new jargon: 'shape grammar'(a list of so-called shape 'rules'), 'repurposing' (putting somebody else's work to new use) and 'genetic algorithms' (sculptural designs based on re-processed organic shapes - most of which look like stomach tumours). In his favour, Baker very generously credits students and commercial designers who have produced the effects he describes and illustrates so well. For writers, he sketches in the possibilities of Hypertext and Hypermedia and points to the future of Hyper publishing which he (and Rupert Murdoch)believes will be with us before the end of the century. He seems to have a good oversight of what is possible and practicable - though one wonders how up-to-date the view is when his book may have begun its life anything up to three years ago. He usefully points out that much new technology exists in or drags along with it the forms of earlier periods - so that in an age of electronic communication we still have printed books as a dominant cultural form. Maybe this is as it should be - but Baker makes a persuasive case for the claim that All This is Going to Change.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss9408
id ddss9408
authors Bax, Thijs and Trum, Henk
year 1994
title A Taxonomy of Architecture: Core of a Theory of Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The authors developed a taxonomy of concepts in architectural design. It was accepted by the Advisory Committee for education in the field of architecture, a committee advising the European Commission and Member States, as a reference for their task to harmonize architectural education in Europe. The taxonomy is based on Domain theory, a theory developed by the authors, based on General Systems Theory and the notion of structure according to French Structuralism, takes a participatory viewpoint for the integration of knowledge and interests by parties in the architectural design process. The paper discusses recent developments of the taxonomy, firstly as a result of a confrontation with similar endeavours to structure the field of architectural design, secondly as a result of applications of education and architectural design practice, and thirdly as a result of theapplication of some views derived from the philosophical work from Charles Benjamin Peirce. Developments concern the structural form of the taxonomy comprising basic concepts and levelbound scale concepts, and the specification of the content of the fields which these concepts represent. The confrontation with similar endeavours concerns mainly the work of an ARCUK workingparty, chaired by Tom Marcus, based on the European Directive from 1985. The application concerns experiences with a taxonomy-based enquiry in order to represent the profile of educational programmes of schools and faculties of architecture in Europe in qualitative and quantitative terms. This enquiry was carried out in order to achieve a basis for comparison and judgement, and a basis for future guidelines including quantitative aspects. Views of Peirce, more specifically his views on triarchy as a way of ordering and structuring processes of thinking,provide keys for a re-definition of concepts as building stones of the taxonomy in terms of the form-function-process-triad, which strengthens the coherence of the taxonomy, allowing for a more regular representation in the form of a hierarchical ordered matrix.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 2cb4
authors Bille, Pia
year 1992
title CAD at the AAA
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 279-288
summary Teaching computer science at the Aarhus School of Architecture goes back as far as to the beginning of the 80’s, when a few teachers and students were curious towards the new media seeing its great developing perspectives and its possible use in the design of architecture. The curiosity and excitement about technology continued, although the results were modest and the usefulness not a dominant aspect in this early period. In the middle of the 80’s the School of Architecture was given the opportunity by means of state funding to buy the first 10 IBM PC's to run AutoCad among other programmes. Beside this a bigger CAD-system Gable 4D Series was introduced running on MicroVax Workstations. The software was dedicated to drafting buildings in 2 and 3 dimensions - an important task within the profession of architects.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 6378
authors Burry, M., Prentice, R. and Wood, P.
year 1995
title Walking Before Running: A Prelude to Multimedia Construction Information
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 257-266
summary An inherent problem with creating a multimedia application is generating the mass of information needed in order for it to be comprehensively useful. This is especially true when the subject is building construction for which any informative resource must cover the whole range of the material within its scope from the outset rather than merely be a sampler. Construction studies involve a large and diverse range of ´generic´ or ´model solutions´ which, in an ideal learning situation, are placed in context with historical and contemporary examples to aid a sense of critical evaluation. An obstacle, then, against creating resources dealing with detailed design is the risk that if it is not completed in its entirely there is no useful outcome. This paper also describes the problems and solutions involved in treating this material as data in a generic format so that its future usefulness is not compromised by current needs. It also outlines the programmes written to streamline an otherwise unwieldy process and deal with the inevitable non-conforming output from the participants.
series eCAADe
last changed 2000/12/02 12:22

_id ad19
id ad19
authors Calderon, C., and Noble, R
year 2005
source I Jornadas de Investigacion en Construccion, Madrid, 2-4 June, 2005.
summary If the result of computer innovations can be interpreted as an emerging “difference” in the quality of constructed space, then in order to truly understand what future applications may be regarding architecture at present, we should look at what advanced functions are available in the process of designing forms and space (DeLuca and Nardini, 2002). Recently the so called parametric approach, a technique for describing a large class of designs with a small description in programming code, has become a focus of attention in architectural computing. In this paper, we reflect on the current use of parametric tools using real case studies as well as our own proof of concept parametric programmes and report on how the avant-garde computer techniques may help to increase the quality of residential building.
keywords Building Quality, Parametric Design
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2005/12/02 10:42

_id 37d1
authors Corona Martíne, Alfonso and Vigo, Libertad
year 1999
title Before the Digital Design Studio
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 247-252
summary This paper contains some observations which derive from our work as Studio Professors . In the last years, studios are in a transition phase with the progressive introduction of computers in later stages of the design process. The initiative generally belongs to students rather than to studio masters, since the former are aware that a knowledge of CAD systems will make them able to get work in architects offices. It is the first few Studios that will guide the student in forming a conception of what is architecture . Therefore, we have observer more attentively the way in which he establishes his first competence as a designer. We believe it is useful to clarify design training before we can integrate computers into it. The ways we all learn to design and which we transmit in the Studio were obviously created a long time ago, when Architecture became a subject taught in Schools, no longer a craft to be acquired under a master. The conception of architecture that the student forms in his mind is largely dependent on a long tradition of Beaux-Arts training which survives (under different forms) in Modern Architecture. The methods he or she acquires will become the basis of his creative design process also in professional life. Computer programmes are designed to adapt into the stages of this design process simply as time saving tools. We are interested in finding out how they can become an active part in the creative process and how to control this integration in teaching. Therefore, our work deals mainly with the tradition of the Studio and the conditioning it produces. The next step will be to explore the possiblities and restrictions that will inevitably issue from the introduction of new media.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id ecaade2014_137
id ecaade2014_137
authors Elif Erdine and Alexandros Kallegias
year 2014
title Reprogramming Architecture - Learning via Practical Methodologies
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 373-380
wos WOS:000361384700037
summary This paper aims to address innovative approaches in the pedagogical aspects of architecture by describing the work of AA Summer DLAB and Athens | Istanbul (AI) Visiting Schools of the Architectural Association (AA) School of Architecture in London. The presented work is part of a research which enables a more seamless transition from design to fabrication and from academia to profession. The paper formulates the pedagogical and methodological approach towards the integration of generative design thinking, large-scale prototyping, kinetic/interactive design, and participatory design. As such, a discussion on the methods of overcoming the fragmented nature of architectural education via the elaboration of the methodology, computational setup, fabrication strategies, and interaction / kinetic modes of the selected programmes is aspired.
keywords Computational design research and teaching; biomimetics; generative design; kinetic / interactive design; participatory design
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2017_140
id ecaade2017_140
authors Eversmann, Philipp
year 2017
title Digital Fabrication in Education - Strategies and Concepts for Large-Scale Projects
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 333-342
summary The consequences of automation technology on industry are currently widely discussed in terms of future tasks, work organisation and working environments. Even though various novel education programmes specialise in digital fabrication, relatively little has been written on concepts for a deeper integration of digital technologies in the architectural curriculum. This paper gives an overview of interdisciplinary educational approaches and digital project development techniques and describes a teaching method featuring intensive collaboration with research and industry, an iterative teaching method employing digital production of large-scale prototypes and a moderated self-learning process. We describe two examples of teaching initiatives in particular that were undertaken at TU Munich and ETH Zurich and analyse their results in terms of physical outcomes, teaching accomplishments, resource efficiency and connection to research. We discuss the relationship between necessary teaching intensity, project size and complexity of digital fabrication equipment and conclude by giving an outlook for future initiatives.
keywords interdisciplinary collaboration; iterative process; self-learning
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:12

_id eb08
authors Gerlic, Krzysztof
year 1998
title Hanging Roof Forms Research
source Cyber-Real Design [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-2-9] Bialystock (Poland), 23-25 April 1998, pp. 93-99
summary This article presents a general description of the suspended roof forms. The concept covers all kinds of diaphragms, tents and cord nets. Depending on the roof construction, in particular the way of attachment, the used material or external factors, the roof forms undergo some decisive changes. The shape of the suspended roofs is difficult to define, especially in case of more complex roofs. Their surfaces are multi-curvature and do not comprise typical solids or geometrical forms, which make the design even more complicated. The shape of the surfaces is close to the minimal surfaces, i.e. those, which we would obtain form a bubble film spread over any limited outline. Unfortunately, the very designing, element dimensions as well as the tension design are still troublesome. Only the finite element method, if applied, allows the film form design. Nowadays, thanks to particular computer programmes, it is possible to simulate certain phenomena.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id c8de
id c8de
authors Horne, Margaret; Hamza, Neveen
year 2006
title Integration of Virtual Reality within the Built Environment Curriculum
source ITCon Vol.11 pp. 311-324
summary Virtual Reality (VR) technology is still perceived by many as being inaccessible and cost prohibitive with VR applications considered expensive to develop as well as challenging to operate. This paper reflects on current developments in VR technologies and describes an approach adopted for its phased integration into the academic curriculum of built environment students. The process and end results of implementing the integration are discussed and the paper illustrates the challenges of introducing VR, including the acceptance of the technology by academic staff and students, interest from industry, and issues pertaining to model development. It sets out to show that fairly sophisticated VR models can now be created by non-VR specialists using commercially available software and advocates that the implementation of VR will increase alongside industry’s adoption of these tools and the emergence of a new generation of students with VR skills. The study shows that current VR technologies, if integrated appropriately within built environment academic programmes, demonstrate clear promise to provide a foundation for more widespread collaborative working environments.
keywords virtual reality, built environment, integration, academic curriculum
series journal paper
type normal paper
last changed 2006/06/07 21:49

_id ecaade2012_117
id ecaade2012_117
authors Kurilla, Lukas ; Ruzicka, Marek ; Florián, Milos
year 2012
title Architectural software tool for structural analysis (ATSA) intended for intuitive form-fi nding process
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-2-0, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 547-553
wos WOS:000330322400056
summary This paper presents Architectural software Tool for Structural Analysis (ATSA) which is designed as a software bridge between architectural and structural software programmes. It has been developed at university in cooperation with architects and structural engineers, intended to make their interdisciplinary cooperation more efficient. ATSA is aimed to provide structural analysis of drafts created by an architetct in the early stages of design in order to enable the architect to understand the mechanical responses of the structure to loading, and thus optimise it creatively through an intuitive form-finding process.
keywords Design tool development; interactive structural analysis; architect-engineer collaboration; intuitive form-finding;generative design
series eCAADe
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id c991
authors Moorhouse, Jon and Brown,Gary
year 1999
title Autonomous Spatial Redistribution for Cities
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 678-684
summary The paper investigates an automated methodology for the appropriate redistribution of usable space in distressed areas of inner cities. This is achieved by categorising activity space and making these spaces morphologically mobile in relation to the topography within a representative artificial space. The educational module has been influenced by theories from the natural environment, which possess patterns that have inherent evolutionary programmes in which the constituents are recyclable, Information is strategically related to the environment to produce forms of growth and behaviour. Artificial landscape patterns fail to evolve, the inhabited landscape needs a means of starting from simplicity and building into the most complex of systems that are capable of re-permutation over time. The paper then describes the latest methodological development in terms of a shift from the use of the computer as a tool for data manipulation to embracing the computer as a design partner. The use of GDL in particular is investigated as a facilitator for such generation within a global, vectorial environment.
keywords Animated, Urban, Programme, Education, Visual Database
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id f9f7
authors Mullins, Michael
year 1999
title Forming, Planning, Imaging and Connecting
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 178-185
summary This paper sets out to define aspects of the architectural design process, using historical precedent and architectural theory, and tests the relationship of those aspects to the application of computers in architectural design, particularly in an educational context. The design process sub-sets are defined as: Forming, Planning, Imaging and Connecting. Historical precedents are uncovered in Classical, Modern, Postmodern and Contemporary architecture. The defined categories of the design process are related to current usages of computers in architectural education towards elucidating the strengths and weaknesses of digital media in those areas. Indications of their concurrent usage in digital design will be demonstrated in analysis of design studio programs presented at recent ACADIA conferences. An example of a current design studio programme set at the School of Architecture University of Natal, South Africa in which the above described categories give an underlying structure to the introduction of 3D digital modelling to undergraduates through design process. The definition of this set of design activities may offer a useful method for other educators in assessing existing and future design programs where digital tools are used.
keywords Design-Process, Digital-Media, Design-Programmes
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id a4e9
authors Petrovic, Igor and Svetel, Igor
year 1999
title From Number Cruncher to Digital Being: The Changing Role of Computer in CAAD
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 33-39
summary The paper reflects on a thirteen-year period of CAAD research and development by a small group of researchers and practitioners. Starting with simple algorithmic drafting programmes, the work transcended to expert systems and distributed artificial intelligence, using computers as tools. The research cycle is about to begin afresh; computers in the next century shall not be detached entities but the extensions of man. The computer shall be the medium that will enable a designer to be what he/she really is. This future has already begun.
keywords History of CAAD, CAAD Design Paradigms, CAADfuture
series eCAADe
email aivan@eunet.yu,
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 6fc9
authors Ponomareva, E., Litvinova A., and Kozakova, R.
year 1995
title Multimedia and Special Architectural Disciplines
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 169-176
summary A person is a wonderful creature. His high organization helps him not only to see and to hear the world around him, but to feel and understand, to condole and pity. A person is a sacramental creature too. His complex organization helps him to see day as light and darkness, as delivery and death, as delight and grief. Every human reaction has biological, physiological and sensitive components. That is why environment is able to call up physical an emotional associations. A human being can "see" sound and "hear" colours. All history of human culture shows that the art can affect man in different ways: unconscious effects, spontaneous associations, general symbolic or specific conventional meanings. That is why architecture can not only protect (a safeguarded aspect), but give knowledge ( an informational aspect) and set up mood (an emotional aspect). And that is why we speak about ambiguity of sense and about multiartistic works. Such as Skriabin's symphony 'Prometheus'. Two scores - musical and colouristic - are connected in this masterpiece. Let us look through two architectural disciplines—from this point of view. The programmes of these disciplines are examples of such embedment. Any architectural discipline demands computer graphics. Any architectural discipline demands multimedia aided teaching, because multimedia in computer designing is a result of human being's complexity and ambivalence.
series eCAADe
last changed 2000/12/02 12:56

_id 6b1d
authors Porada, Mikhael
year 1994
title Architectural Briefing Data Representation and Sketch Simulation Computer Environment
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, pp. 55-59
summary Reflection about the architectural programme starts with the analysis of its writing, its "style" which bears not only the "griffe" of the programmer but as well the structure, methodology, codes of reading, etc. particular to a programming approach. The programme structure corresponds in most cases to the different levels in the text's format and the composition modes of representing data and their relations. The choice made can either facilitate or impede the reading as interpretation of the programme. The programmer’s aim should be to open the text to reading towards a "synthetic schematic" summary, a sort of cognitive threshold which allows the reader to understand both the client's objectives and the designer's intentions enhanced by his experience. Articulating a designer's experience means focusing on his knowhow and memory. The designer's recollected knowledge and heuristic approaches to the solution of a basic design problem - types, his readings and spatial evaluations permanently feed the knowhow. It is important for the architect to have access to past examples, to the collective memory of his workplace, and a repertoire of readings, notes, sketches, influences and citations. It is therfore equally important that a computer environment also have a multimodal "architect's memory" or "project memory" module in which different forms of representation are classified, and made accessible as memory components. It is also necessary to have the possibility to access at any moment in an interactive manner to the recomposition, addition and adaptation of these mnemonic components. The information coming from the programme, classified as descriptive, prescriptive and quantitative types of data, must be able to be interrogated in different modes of representation : text, matrices, nets, diagrams, and so on, so that the pertinent information can be extraded at any given design process stage. Analysis of competition programmes show that often the description of an activity, for example, the Great Stadium competition in Paris, is described by several pages of text, a circulation diagram with arrows and legend, a topological proximity diagram with legend and as table activity - areas . These different representations, which are supposed to be complementary and give the most pertinent view of the client needs, show in fact after analysis, many description problems, incoherance, and which result in a reading difficulty.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 07:20

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