CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id avocaad_2003_17
id avocaad_2003_17
authors Anna Maria Chrabin, Jaroslaw Szewczyk and Herman Neuckermans
year 2003
title A Critical Evaluation of Early Stages Software in its Capacity of Coping with Contextual Issues
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary In this paper we analyse critically early design stages software in its capacity of coping with contextual data at large (i.e. representing cultural, aesthetical context, etc.). We identified 5 categories of early stages software: geometry based graphic editors, evaluation architectural software, generative and shape-grammar based systems, evolutionary systems and other systems. Calling the object under creation during of the early stages a CAD conceptual model, we will investigate to what extend this software allows the architect to experience and represent the context in which a design is situated. Especially we will focus on its capacity to allow interaction, playful interaction on our way to the design. Designers, and particularly architects, interact with the local context similarly to interacting in a game: the context influences the users’ decisions, surprises them and causes permanent changes to their ways of thinking. On the other hand, architects permanently shape and reshape the context, and reduce the context to a protean point of reference. Such behaviour characterises creative thinking that is crucial for the early stage of design. The investigation led us to the conclusions that the effective interactivity with the context needs simple rules, a plain interface and data reduced as simple as possible, especially when interaction with the context is performed during the early stages of a design process. The findings can be used in organising computer environments for early-stage design.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id ee96
authors Johnson, Scott
year 1998
title Making Models Architectural: Protean Representations to Fit Architects’ Minds
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 354-365
summary A rich vocabulary has evolved for describing architecture. It serves not only as a means of communication, but also as an embodiment of concepts relating to form, space, structure, function, mood, and symbolism. We architects not only speak in terms of walls, rooms, roofs, arches, etc., we see in terms of them and think in terms of them, as well. Such concepts are integral to our ability to design. Typical CAD representations, however, are based on geometric/mathematical elements like points, lines, planes, and symbols. Even more experimental approaches like parametric shapes or procedural assemblies correspond poorly to architectural elements, and seldom lend themselves well to making conceptual changes that would allow exploration of design alternatives. Small wonder some architecture schools experience a division between computer and studio courses, or even between computer and studio faculty. Different ways of talking and thinking are involved. The concepts involved are often mutually exclusive. This paper discusses an attempt to address this conceptual mismatch, using what are termed “protean” (meaning “very changeable”) elements. These are high-level elements corresponding to architectural concepts like “wall,” or “dome.” They each have parameters appropriate for the particular type of element they represent, and produce the polyhedra necessary for graphics based on these parameters. A system is being implemented to allow models to be constructed using these elements. The protean elements form a loosely structured model, in which some elements hierarchically contain others, and some elements are essentially freestanding, being created and manipulated independently of other elements. Characteristics of protean element are discussed, including the underlying object-oriented structure, the relationship between elements and graphics, and functions associated with the objects. A scheme is explained whereby all parts of a design can be represented even when the design includes extremely unusual forms not conforming to predictable classes of elements. The necessary support framework is also discussed; general flow of the system and mechanisms for viewing the model and editing subcomponents are explained. The current status of the project, and intentions for future work are discussed. The project has been partially implemented, and the necessary framework to support the system is mostly complete.

series ACADIA
last changed 1998/12/16 07:39

_id 0a31
authors Johnson, Scott
year 1998
title Toward Making the Language of CAAD Match the Language of Architecture: A Protean Elements Approach
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 93-100
summary Both in education and in practice, architecture is experiencing a division between designers and "CAD specialists." One reason for the division may be the inherent division between design concepts and CAD concepts. In a very real sense, computer use and design utilize different languages. Becoming an expert in the "craft" of CAD means having to learn to recognize and manipulate a different set of conceptual elements than is used in design. The set of concepts we use affects our thought and behavior incredibly deeply, and translation from one set of concepts to another has significant cognitive cost. This paper discusses the mismatch between architectural and CAD concepts, and proposes protean elements as a solution to the problem. Protean elements are CAD system elements which correspond to architectural elements and have attributes appropriate for the elements they represent. They can be gradually refined in a top-down manner, without demands for certain pieces of missing data, or requirements for "correctness." The goal is to help CAD systems come closer to speaking the same language as architects. A test implementation of a system based on protean elements is currently underway, and aspects of this implementation are discussed.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/25 16:10

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