CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ecaade2014_021
id ecaade2014_021
authors Aant van der Zee, Bauke de Vries and Theo Salet
year 2014
title From rapid prototyping to automated manufacturing
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 455-461
wos WOS:000361384700045
summary In this paper we present an outline of a newly started project to develop a tool which connects BIM to a manufacturing technique like 3D printing. First we will look some promising manufacturing techniques. We will design a small dwelling and export it into a BIM, from which we will extract our data to generate the path the nozzle has to follow. The chosen path is constrained by the material properties, the design and speed of the nozzle. To validate the system we develop a small VR tool in which we mimic a manufacturing tool.
keywords Rapid prototyping; rapid manufacturing; robotics; automation; building information model (bim)
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id acadia17_18
id acadia17_18
authors Abdel-Rahman, Amira; Michalatos, Panagiotis
year 2017
title Magnetic Morphing
source ACADIA 2017: DISCIPLINES & DISRUPTION [Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-96506-1] Cambridge, MA 2-4 November, 2017), pp. 18-27
summary In an attempt to design shape-morphing multifunctional objects, this thesis uses programmable matter to design self-organizing multi-agent systems capable of morphing from one shape into another. The research looks at various precedents of self-assembly and modular robotics to design and prototype passive agents that could be cheaply mass-produced. Intelligence will be embedded into these agents on a material level, designing different local interactions to perform different global goals. The initial exploratory study looks at various examples from nature like plankton and molecules. Magnetic actuation is chosen as the external actuation force between agents. The research uses simultaneous digital and physical investigations to understand and design the interactions between agents. The project offers a systemic investigation of the effect of shape, interparticle forces, and surface friction on the packing and reconfiguration of granular systems. The ability to change the system state from a gaseous, liquid, then solid state offers new possibilities in the field of material computation, where one can design a "material" and change its properties on demand.
keywords material and construction; construction/robotics; smart materials; smart assembly/construction; simulation & optimization
series ACADIA
last changed 2017/10/17 09:12

_id ecaade2017_054
id ecaade2017_054
authors Abramovic, Vasilija, Glynn, Ruairi and Achten, Henri
year 2017
title ROAMNITURE - Multi-Stable Soft Robotic Structures
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 327-336
summary The rise in robotics is not only changing fabrication research in architecture but increasingly providing opportunities for animating the materiality of architecture, offering responsive, performative and adaptive design possibilities for the built environment. A fundamental challenge with robotics is its suitability to safe, and comfortable use in proximity to the human body. Here we present the preliminary results of the Roamniture Project, a hybrid approach to developing kinetic architecture based on a combination of rigid and soft body dynamics.
keywords Kinetic Architecture; Soft Robotics; Soft Architecture; Furniture
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:21

_id acadia18_394
id acadia18_394
authors Adel, Arash; Thoma, Andreas; Helmreich, Matthias; Gramazio, Fabio; Kohler, Matthias
year 2018
title Design of Robotically Fabricated Timber Frame Structures
source ACADIA // 2018: Recalibration. On imprecisionand infidelity. [Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-17729-7] Mexico City, Mexico 18-20 October, 2018, pp. 394-403
summary This paper presents methods for designing nonstandard timber frame structures, which are enabled by cooperative multi-robotic fabrication at building-scale. In comparison to the current use of automated systems in the timber industry for the fabrication of plate-like timber frame components, this research relies on the ability of robotic arms to spatially assemble timber beams into bespoke timber frame modules. This paper investigates the following topics: 1) A suitable constructive system facilitating a just-in-time robotic fabrication process. 2) A set of assembly techniques enabling cooperative multi-robotic spatial assembly of bespoke timber frame modules, which rely on a man-machine collaborative scenario. 3) A computational design process, which integrates architectural requirements, fabrication constraints, and assembly logic. 4) Implementation of the research in the design and construction of a multi-story building, which validates the developed methods and highlights the architectural implications of this approach.
keywords full paper, fabrication & robotics, generative design, computation, timber architecture
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2019/01/07 11:22

_id acadia16_152
id acadia16_152
authors Ahlquist, Sean
year 2016
title Generative Robotics
source ACADIA // 2016: POSTHUMAN FRONTIERS: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines [Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-77095-5] Ann Arbor 27-29 October, 2016, pp. 152-153
series ACADIA
type introduction
last changed 2016/10/24 11:12

_id acadia17_38
id acadia17_38
authors Ahlquist, Sean; McGee, Wes; Sharmin, Shahida
year 2017
title PneumaKnit: Actuated Architectures Through Wale- and Course-Wise Tubular Knit-Constrained Pneumatic Systems
source ACADIA 2017: DISCIPLINES & DISRUPTION [Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-96506-1] Cambridge, MA 2-4 November, 2017), pp. 38-51
summary This research explores the development of seamless pneumatically actuated systems whose motion is controlled by the combination of differentially knitted textiles and standardized thin-walled silicone tubing. This work proposes a fundamental material strategy that addresses challenges ranging from soft robotics to pneumatic architecture. Research in soft robotics seeks to achieve complex motions through non-mechanical monolithic systems, comprised of highly articulated shapes molded with a combination of elastic and inelastic materials. Inflatables in architecture focus largely on the active structuring of static forms, as facade systems or as structured envelopes. An emerging use of pneumatic architecture proposes morphable, adaptive systems accomplished through differentiated mechanically interconnected components. In the research described in this paper, a wide array of capabilities in motion and geometric articulation are accomplished through the design of knitted sleeves that generate a series of actuated “elbows.” As opposed to molding silicone bladders, differentiation in motion is generated through the more facile ability of changing stitch structure, and shaping of the knitted textile sleeve, which constrains the standard silicone tubing. The relationship between knit differentiation, pneumatic pressure, and the resultant motion profile is studied initially with individual actuators, and ultimately in propositions for larger seamless assemblies. As opposed to a cellular study of individual components, this research proposes structures with multi-scalar articulation, from fiber and stitch to overall form, composed into seamless, massively deformable architectures.
keywords material and construction; fabrication; construction/robotics
series ACADIA
last changed 2017/10/17 09:12

_id acadia18_216
id acadia18_216
authors Ahrens, Chandler; Chamberlain, Roger; Mitchell, Scott; Barnstorff, Adam
year 2018
title Catoptric Surface
source ACADIA // 2018: Recalibration. On imprecisionand infidelity. [Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-17729-7] Mexico City, Mexico 18-20 October, 2018, pp. 216-225
summary The Catoptric Surface research project explores methods of reflecting daylight through a building envelope to form an image-based pattern of light on the interior environment. This research investigates the generation of atmospheric effects from daylighting projected onto architectural surfaces within a built environment in an attempt to amplify or reduce spatial perception. The mapping of variable organizations of light onto existing or new surfaces creates a condition where the perception of space does not rely on form alone. This condition creates a visual effect of a formless atmosphere and affects the way people use the space. Often the desired quantity and quality of daylight varies due to factors such as physiological differences due to age or the types of tasks people perform (Lechner 2009). Yet the dominant mode of thought toward the use of daylighting tends to promote a homogeneous environment, in that the resulting lighting level is the same throughout a space. This research project questions the desire for uniform lighting levels in favor of variegated and heterogeneous conditions. The main objective of this research is the production of a unique facade system that is capable of dynamically redirecting daylight to key locations deep within a building. Mirrors in a vertical array are individually adjusted via stepper motors in order to reflect more or less intense daylight into the interior space according to sun position and an image-based map. The image-based approach provides a way to specifically target lighting conditions, atmospheric effects, and the perception of space.
keywords full paper, non-production robotics, representation + perception, performance + simulation, building technologies
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2019/01/07 11:21

_id 31f5
authors Alfares, M. and Seireg, A.
year 1996
title An integrated system for computer-aided design and construction of reinforced concrete buildings using modular forms
source Automation in Construction 5 (4) (1996) pp. 323-341
summary The study reported in this paper investigates the feasibility of automating the on-site construction of reinforced concrete residential buildings. The basic construction tasks are identified, analyzed and modified with a view towards potential for automation. Emphasis is placed on developing modular forms that facilitate automation. The majority of work in the field of construction robotics has focused on the adaptation of existing industrial robots to automate traditional construction processes. This paper outlines a computer-aided construction system approach specially suited for integrating design and implementation by on-site robots. A Computer-Integrated Construction (CIC) system, similar to CIM, is developed that includes a CIC data-base, a construction design system, a construction production/process planning system, and a robotics execution system. This approach is intended to minimize the redesign effort as well as the need for on-site manual work.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id acadia07_276
id acadia07_276
authors Anders, Peter
year 2007
title Designing Mixed Reality: Principles, Projects and Practice
source Expanding Bodies: Art • Cities• Environment [Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 978-0-9780978-6-8] Halifax (Nova Scotia) 1-7 October 2007, 276-283
summary Mixed Reality is an increasingly prevalent technology that merges digital simulations with physical objects or environments. This paper presents principles for the design of mixed reality compositions. The principles are illustrated by projects and experiments by the author involving architecture and robotics.
series ACADIA
last changed 2007/10/02 06:11

_id acadia16_54
id acadia16_54
authors Andreen, David; Jenning, Petra; Napp, Nils; Petersen, Kirstin
year 2016
title Emergent Structures Assembled by Large Swarms of Simple Robots
source ACADIA // 2016: POSTHUMAN FRONTIERS: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines [Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-77095-5] Ann Arbor 27-29 October, 2016, pp. 54-61
summary Traditional architecture relies on construction processes that require careful planning and strictly defined outcomes at every stage; yet in nature, millions of relatively simple social insects collectively build large complex nests without any global coordination or blueprint. Here, we present a testbed designed to explore how emergent structures can be assembled using swarms of active robots manipulating passive building blocks in two dimensions. The robot swarm is based on the toy “bristlebot”; a simple vibrating motor mounted on top of bristles to propel the body forward. Since shape largely determines the details of physical interactions, the robot behavior is altered by carefully designing its geometry instead of uploading a digital program. Through this mechanical programming, we plan to investigate how to tune emergent structural properties such as the size and temporal stability of assemblies. Alongside a physical testbed with 200 robots, this work involves comprehensive simulation and analysis tools. This simple, reliable platform will help provide better insight on how to coordinate large swarms of robots to construct functional structures.
keywords emergent structures, mechanical intelligence, swarm robotics
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2016/10/24 11:12

_id ga0118
id ga0118
authors Annunziato, Mauro and Pierucci, Piero
year 2001
title Learning and Contamination in Virtual Worlds
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The most recent advances of artificial life scientific research are opening up a new frontier: the creation of simulated life environments populated by autonomous agents. In these environments artificial beings can interact, reproduce and evolve [4, 6, 15], and can be seen as laboratories whereto explore the emergence of social behaviors like competition, cooperation, relationships and communication [5, 7] . It is still not possible to approach a reasonable simulation of the incredible complexity of human or animal societies, but these environments can be used as a scientific orartistic tool to explore some basic aspects of the evolution [1, 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14]. The combination of these concepts with robotics technology or with immersive-interactive 3D environments (virtual reality) are changing quickly well known paradigms like digital life, manmachineinterface, virtual world. The virtual world metaphor becomes interesting when the artificial beings can develop some form of learning, increasing their performances, adaptation, and developing the ability to exchange information with human visitors. In this sense the evolution enhances the creative power and meaningful of these environments, and human visitors experience an emotion of a shift from a simplified simulation of the reality to a real immersion into an imaginary life. We may think that these realization are the first sparks of a new form of life: simulated for the soft-alife thinkers, real for the hard-alife thinkers, or a simple imaginary vision for the artists.
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id e90b
authors Arbab, Farhad
year 1990
title Set Models and Boolean Operations for Solids and Assemblies
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications November, 1990. vol. 10: pp. 76-86 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary Application of solid modeling in computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, and robotics often involve aggregates or assembling of disconnected pieces. This article presents an alternative CSG-like formalism based on open sets, in which both assemblies and connected pieces are modeled as points sets. Consequently, the same Boolean operations apply uniformly to connected pieces and assemblies
keywords assemblies, CSG, solid modeling, boolean operations
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id caadria2013_034
id caadria2013_034
authors Arenas, Ubaldo and José Manuel Falcón
year 2013
title ALOPS Constructive Systems – Towards the Design and Fabrication of Unsupervised Learning Construction Systems
source Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013) / Singapore 15-18 May 2013, pp. 905-914
wos WOS:000351496100093
summary In this paper we explore the concept and design guidelines for an Autonomous Learning Oriented Proto System (ALOPS), a construction system designed to enhance its own performance through time. Our research has been focused on the fabrication of a prototype for a porous wall system which reacts to light intensities by closing or opening its apertures. Taking that aim, we used a combination of robotics, programing, and material behaviour to endow the system with the capacity to record reactions towards encountered sets of conditions during its active energy periods, allowing the system to use this knowledge database to evolve autonomously by feeding this information back into the computation process. This approach in construction systems opens up the architectural design processes to address the creation of digital memory structures rather than complex algorithms in order to operate specific functions. With this development, the architect could think of architectures constantly evolving by learning from their environments as well as of users forming symbiotic and behavioural bonds with the emergent spatial personalities, thus affecting the underpinning relationships between architecture, user and context.  
keywords erformance architecture, Unsupervised learning, Machine learning 
series CAADRIA
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id acadia18_312
id acadia18_312
authors Ariza, Inés; Mirjan, Ammar; Gandia, Augusto; Casas, Gonzalo; Cros, Samuel; Gramazio, Fabio; Kohler, Matthias.
year 2018
title In Place Detailing. Combining 3D printing and robotic assembly
source ACADIA // 2018: Recalibration. On imprecisionand infidelity. [Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-17729-7] Mexico City, Mexico 18-20 October, 2018, pp. 312-321
summary This research presents a novel construction method that links robotic assembly and in place 3D printing. Rather than producing custom joints in a separate prefabrication process, our approach enables creating highly customized connection details that are 3D printed directly onto off-the-shelf building members during their assembly process. Challenging the current fashion of highly predetermined joints in digital construction, detailing in place offers an adaptive fabrication method, enabling the expressive tailoring of connection details addressing its specific architectural conditions. In the present research, the in place detailing strategy is explored through robotic wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM), a metal 3D printing technique based on MIG welding. The robotic WAAM process coupled with localization and path-planning strategies allows a local control of the detail geometry enabling the fabrication of customized welded connections that can compensate material and construction tolerances. The paper outlines the potential of 3D printing in place details, describes methods and techniques to realize them and shows experimental results that validate the approach.
keywords work in progress, fabrication & robotics, robotic production, materials/adaptive systems, architectural detailing
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2019/01/07 11:22

_id 2475
authors Asimov, Isaac
year 1968
title The Perfect Machine
source Science Journal October, 1968. pp. 115-118 : ill.
summary The author takes a semi-serious look at the world of computers, robots and androids in an attempt to find a recipe for the perfect machine. Described in this article are the possible attributes of the perfect machine and some of the problems it might raise
keywords robotics, science fiction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id acadia18_136
id acadia18_136
authors Austern, Guy; Capeluto, Isaac Guedi; Grobman, Yasha Jacob
year 2018
title Fabrication-Aware Design of Concrete Façade Panels. A Computational Method For Evaluating the Fabrication of Large- Scale Molds in Complex Geometries
source ACADIA // 2018: Recalibration. On imprecisionand infidelity. [Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-17729-7] Mexico City, Mexico 18-20 October, 2018, pp. 136-145
summary This paper presents a design methodology for concrete façade panels that takes into consideration constraints related to digital fabrication machinery. A computational method for the real-time evaluation of industrial mold-making techniques, such as milling and hot wire cutting, was developed. The method rapidly evaluates the feasibility, material use, and machining time of complex geometry molds for architectural façade elements. Calculation speed is achieved by mathematically approximating CAM-machining operations. As results are obtained in nearly real time, the method can be easily incorporated into the architectural design process during its initial stages, when changes to the design are more effective.

In the paper, we describe the algorithms of the computational evaluation method. We also show how it can be used to introduce fabrication considerations into the design process by using it to rationalize several types of panels. Additionally, we demonstrate how the method can be used in complex, large-scale architectural projects to save machining time and materials by evaluating and altering the paneling subdivision.

keywords full paper, fabrication & robotics, digital fabrication, performance + simulation, geometry
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2019/01/07 11:21

_id ecaade2018_309
id ecaade2018_309
authors Aºut, Serdar, Eigenraam, Peter and Christidi, Nikoletta
year 2018
title Re-flex: Responsive Flexible Mold for Computer Aided Intuitive Design and Materialization
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 717-726
summary The paper presents an ongoing research about the design and a possible use of a responsive flexible mold. The mold is developed by integrating its precedents with automation and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). The objective of the design is to provide an immersive design tool which has direct link to fabrication. It allows intuitive interaction to its user in order to help with the design and production of complex forms by supporting the designer's implicit skills with computer. The paper presents the design by illustrating the use of the hardware such as the actuators, the sensor and the projector; and by defining the workflow within the software. The paper concludes with the description of a possible use case in which the system is used to design and materialize an object in different scales.
keywords Design tools development; Digital fabrication and robotics; Human-computer interaction in design; Shape, form and geometry; Inventive Making
series eCAADe
last changed 2018/07/24 10:23

_id acadia14_409
id acadia14_409
authors Bard, Joshua; Gannon, Madeline; Jacobson-Weaver, Zachary; Jeffers, Michael; Smith, Brian; Contreras, Mauricio
year 2014
title Seeing is Doing: Synthetic Tools for Robotically Augmented Fabrication in High-Skill Domains
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9781926724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 409-416
summary The historical split between visualization and actualization in architectural design has encouraged a disciplinary split between representation (the domain of the designer) and construction (a domain entirely removed from the Architect’s purview). This split between seeing and doing in architectural design can be questioned in the context of contemporary robotic technologies where physical and digital workflows comingle in high-skill, collaborative domains.
keywords Architectural Robotics, Human-Robot Collaboration, MOCAP, Adaptive Fabrication, High-Skill Domain, Robotics and Autonomous Design Systems
series ACADIA
type Normal Paper
last changed 2014/09/29 05:51

_id acadia18_276
id acadia18_276
authors Bilotti, Jeremy; Norman, Bennett; Rosenwasser, David; Leo Liu, Jingyang; Sabin, Jenny
year 2018
title Robosense 2.0. Robotic sensing and architectural ceramic fabrication
source ACADIA // 2018: Recalibration. On imprecisionand infidelity. [Proceedings of the 38th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-17729-7] Mexico City, Mexico 18-20 October, 2018, pp. 276-285
summary Robosense 2.0: Robotic Sensing and Architectural Ceramic Fabrication demonstrates a generative design process based on collaboration between designers, robotic tools, advanced software, and nuanced material behavior. The project employs fabrication tools which are typically used in highly precise and predetermined applications, but uniquely thematizes the unpredictable aspects of these processes as applied to architectural component design. By integrating responsive sensing systems, this paper demonstrates real-time feedback loops which consider the spontaneous agency and intuition of the architect (or craftsperson) rather than the execution of static or predetermined designs. This paper includes new developments in robotics software for architectural design applications, ceramic-deposition 3D printing, sensing systems, materially-driven pattern design, and techniques with roots in the arts and crafts. Considering the increasing accessibility and advancement of 3D printing and robotic technologies, this project seeks to challenge the erasure of materiality: when mistakes or accidents caused by inconsistencies in natural material are avoided or intentionally hidden. Instead, the incorporation of material and user-input data yields designs which are imbued with more nuanced traces of making. This paper suggests the potential for architects and craftspeople to maintain a more direct and active relationship with the production of their designs.
keywords full paper, fabrication & robotics, robotic production, digital fabrication, digital craft
series ACADIA
type paper
last changed 2019/01/07 11:22

_id 83a5
authors Bock, Thomas
year 1997
title CAD-So What?
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 15-43
summary Computers were applied in construction towards the end of the 50s. In the meantime CA-X technologies rapidly evolved in areas such as integration of application software, 3D modelling and simulation, multimedia systems, artificial intelligence, CAD/CAM, robotics, and computer-based integration of design, construction and facility management. The structural changes under way in the construction industry ask for a transition from mere CAD, where "D" stands for design and drafting, towards CAC, where the second "C" represents construction , thus farther processing the previously generated CAD data .
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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