CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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References

Hits 1 to 20 of 60

_id 28b9
authors Achten, Henri
year 2001
title Future Scenario for a Collaborative Design Session
source Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), ACCOLADE - Architecture, Collaboration, Design. Delft University Press (DUP Science) / ISBN 90-407-2216-1 / The Netherlands, pp. 163-168 [Book ordering info: m.c.stellingwerff@bk.tudelft.nl]
summary A collaborative design project consists of a team of design partners who are engaged during the period of the project in a particular design task. The group forms a short-lived community with the goal to create a design. The environment in which this is done today, consists of the participants office spaces, completed with equipment such as drawing tables, coffee machines, fax machines, CAD stations, etc. None of these elements reflect the existence of the (temporary) community that a design partner participates in. In this workshop paper we propose that the current two-dimensional desktop metaphor in a computer does not adequately support collaborative design. The typical 2D-desktop multiple open windows with different applications gives a fractured view of the design project in which by contrast the designer as a person conceives of himself as a whole. Moreover, the sense of place, or a consistent identity in which the design takes place is also lacking. The notion of _virtual environmentsÑ can assist in further developing design support for collaborative design in the future, as is sketched in the following outline.
series other
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2001/09/14 19:30

_id 4c79
authors Aguilar, Lorenzo
year 1986
title A Format for a Graphical Communications Protocol
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications vol. 6.no. 3 (March, 1986): pp. 52-62
summary This article describes the requirements for a graphical format on which a graphical on-line communications protocol can be based. It is argued that on-line graphical communications is similar to graphical session capture, and thus the author proposes an interactive graphical communications format using the GKSM session metafile. The discussion includes items that complement the GKSM metafile such as a format for on-line interactive exchange. One key application area of such a format is multimedia on-line conferencing. Therefore, a conferencing software architecture for processing the proposed format is presented. This format specification is made available to those planning multimedia conferencing systems
keywords user interface, communication, computer graphics, multimedia, standards
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 1636
authors Aly, Safwan and Krishnamurti, Ramesh
year 2002
title Can Doors and Windows Become Design Team Players?
source Gero JS and Brazier FMT (eds) (2002) Agents in Design 2002. Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, University of Sydney, pp. 3-22
summary In an architectural design session, suppose design objects such as doors, windows and rooms can look after themselves, what kind of recommendations would a designer get? What is the nature of a design environment that facilitates such interactions? Where would a design object acquire the knowledge that allows it to interact intelligently? How would such localized recommendations be aggregated to support global design decisions made by the designer? This paper investigates these questions through the notion of objects as agents in design.
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 849b
authors Amiel, Maurice
year 1991
title NOTES ON IN-SITU – FULL-SCALE EXPERIMENTATION AND THE DESIGN PROFESSIONS
source Proceedings of the 3rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / ISBN 91-7740044-5 / Lund (Sweden) 13-16 September 1990, pp. 40-43
summary In the north american academic context a workshop is different from a paper session in that it is simply an opportunity to exchange ideas and to raise questions among colleagues who can bring to bear in their discussion various points of view and experiences otherwise unavailable.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:18

_id ga9926
id ga9926
authors Antonini, Riccardo
year 1999
title Let's Improvise Together
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The creators of ‘Let's-Improvise-Together’ adhere to the idea that while there is a multitude of online games now available in cyberspace, it appears that relatively few are focused on providing a positive, friendly and productive experience for the user. Producing this kind of experience is one the goals of our Amusement Project.To this end, the creation of ‘Let's Improvise Together’ has been guided by dedication to the importance of three themes:* the importance of cooperation,* the importance of creativity, and* the importance of emotion.Description of the GameThe avatar arrives in a certain area where there are many sound-blocks/objects. Or he may add sound "property" to existing ones. He can add new objects at will. Each object may represents a different sound, they do not have to though. The avatar walks around and chooses which objects he likes. Makes copies of these and add sounds or change the sounds on existing ones, then with all of the sound-blocks combined make his personalized "instrument". Now any player can make sounds on the instrument by approaching or bumping into a sound-block. The way that the avatar makes sounds on the instrument can vary. At the end of the improvising session, the ‘composition’ will be saved on the instrument site, along with the personalized instrument. In this way, each user of the Amusement Center will leave behind him a unique instrumental creation, that others who visit the Center later will be able to play on and listen to. The fully creative experience of making a new instrument can be obtained connecting to Active Worlds world ‘Amuse’ and ‘Amuse2’.Animated colorful sounding objects can be assembled by the user in the Virtual Environment as a sort of sounding instrument. We refrain here deliberately from using the word musical instrument, because the level of control we have on the sound in terms of rythm and melody, among other parameters, is very limited. It resembles instead, very closely, to the primitive instruments used by humans in some civilizations or to the experience made by children making sound out of ordinary objects. The dimension of cooperation is of paramount importance in the process of building and using the virtual sounding instrument. The instrument can be built on ones own effort but preferably by a team of cooperating users. The cooperation has as an important corolary: the sharing of the experience. The shared experience finds its permanence in the collective memory of the sounding instruments built. The sounding instrument can be seen also as a virtual sculpture, indeed this sculpture is a multimedial one. The objects have properties that ranges from video animation to sound to virtual physical properties like solidity. The role of the user representation in the Virtual World, called avatar, is important because it conveys, among other things, the user’s emotions. It is worth pointing out that the Avatar has no emotions on its own but it simply expresses the emotions of the user behind it. In a way it could be considered a sort of actor performing the script that the user gives it in real-time while playing.The other important element of the integration is related to the memory of the experience left by the user into the Virtual World. The new layout is explored and experienced. The layout is a permanent editable memory. The generative aspects of Let's improvise together are the following.The multi-media virtual sculpture left behind any participating avatar is not the creation of a single author/artist. The outcome of the sinergic interaction of various authors is not deterministic, nor predictable. The authors can indeed use generative algorythm in order to create the texture to be used on the objects. Usually, in our experience, the visitors of the Amuse worlds use shareware programs in order to generate their texture. In most cases the shareware programs are simple fractals generators. In principle, it is possible to generate also the shape of the object in a generative way. Taking into account the usual audience of our world, we expected visitors to use very simple algorythm that could generate shapes as .rwx files. Indeed, noone has attempted to do so insofar. As far as the music is concerned, the availability of shareware programs that allow simple generation of sounds sequences has made possible, for some users, to generate sounds sequences to be put in our world. In conclusion, the Let's improvise section of the Amuse worlds could be open for experimentation on generative art as a very simple entry point platform. We will be very happy to help anybody that for educational purposes would try to use our platform in order to create and exhibit generative forms of art.
series other
email Riccardo.Antonini@UniRoma2.it
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 2fdd
authors Barsky, Brian A. and Thomas, Spencer W.
year 1980
title Transpline Curve Representation System
source April, 1980. 19 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary An interactive curve representation system has been developed based on the concept of transforming among several parametric spline curve formulations. The available formulations are the interpolatory spline, uniform B-spline, spline under tension, and NU-spline. The system implementation is described in the context of a sample design session
keywords computational geometry, curves, representation, splines
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 745f
id 745f
authors Bauni Hamid; Devin Defriza
year 2003
title A Preliminary Model of Community-based Integrated Information System for Urban Spatial Development
source Proceeding of the 3rd China Urban Housing Conference, July 3-5 2003, Center for Housing Innovations, Chinese University of Hong Kong, ISBN 962-8272-26-8, pp. 417-424
summary This paper describes a research on building Integrated Information System for Urban Spatial Development. The objective of the research phase discussed in this paper is to define a prototype of information system that basically facilitates information communication among involved participants in an urban spatial development planning. The system is designed by putting stress on local community. Their spatial perception and the availability of GIS technology in local context become constraints in building the system. Internet becomes the main alternative for information dissemination for this phase. This is also supported by the use of web-based GIS as framework of information system. Through few socialization sessions, the proposed model has indicated a prospected alternative to be seamless communication media among participants. To support an easy-access for local people in using this information system a mechanism of information access has been proposed in the form of local information center.
keywords information system, digital model, urban development, community, participation
series other
type paper session
email bauni@berkeley.edu
last changed 2007/02/04 05:15

_id 4491
authors Bouyat, M., H. Botta and Vignat, J. C.
year 1983
title VERDI : A Computer Aided Design System for Development and City Planning
source ACM IEEE Design Automation Conference Proceedings (20th : 1983 : Miami Beach, Florida). pp. 382-385 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The system presented is a CAD system for use in planning road and other facility networks. Taking a draft master plan as its point of departure the system makes it possible: (1) To plan in a dynamic fashion since it permits the back-and-forth study of the interconnections between the design of the master plan and network design; (2) to preserve, from one work session to another, data that has already been acquired and calculated; (3) to make relevant technical evaluations in the following three fields: earthworks, roads, and sewage networks
keywords CAD, urban planning, applications
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ecaade2007_077
id ecaade2007_077
authors Breen, Jack; Stellingwerff, Martijn
year 2007
title The DigiTile Project
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 59-66
summary The influx of computer-based design and presentation platforms, particularly in conjunction with computer aided physical modelling and manufacturing techniques, has stimulated a renewed focus on imaginative, innovative architectural product design. Essentially, the ambition of the DigiTile exercise was to stimulate the development of individual proposals for new kinds of surface articulations on the basis of a tile-like unit, or set of units. Inspirations varied widely: from precedents ranging from history to nature, as well as from contemporary design practice and graphic imagery. The prevailing freshness and technical inquisitiveness amongst the participants contributed to the generation and concretisation of distinctive tiling concepts, many of which have arguably not been seen before. The findings and conclusions are based upon the array of outcomes from the programme so far, as well from a very recent session. Furthermore, the paper highlights the kinds of opportunities for hands-on education-based compositional studies that we foresee in the near future.
keywords Computer aided manufacturing and modelling, composition, prototyping, tiling, ornamatics, education-based research
series eCAADe
email j.l.h.breen@tudelft.nl,m.c.stellingwerff@tudelft.nl
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id 4202
authors Brown, Michael E. and Gallimore, Jennie J.
year 1995
title Visualization of Three-Dimensional Structure During Computer-Aided Design
source International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 1995 v.7 n.1 pp. 37-56
summary The visual image presented to an engineer using a computer-aided design (CAD) system influences design activities such as decision making, problem solving, cognizance of complex relationships, and error correction. Because of the three-dimensional (3-D) nature of the object being created, an important attribute of the CAD visual interface concerns the various methods of presenting depth on the display's two-dimensional (2-D) surface. The objective of this research is to examine the effects of stereopsis on subjects' ability to (a) accurately transfer to, and retrieve from, long-term memory spatial information about 3-D objects; and (b) visualize spatial characteristics in a quick and direct manner. Subjects were instructed to memorize the shape of a 3-D object presented on a stereoscopic CRT during a study period. Following the study period, a series of static trial stimuli were shown. Each trial stimulus was rotated (relative to the original) about the vertical axis in one of six 36° increments between 0° and 180°. In each trial, the subject's task was to determine, as quickly and as accurately as possible, whether the trial object was the same shape as the memorized object or its mirrored image. One of the two cases was always true. To assess the relative merits associated with disparity and interposition, the two depth cues were manipulated in a within-subject manner during the study period and during the trials that followed. Subject response time and error rate were evaluated. Improved performance due to hidden surface is the most convincing experimental finding. Interposition is a powerful cue to object structure and should not be limited to late stages of design. The study also found a significant, albeit limited, effect of stereopsis. Under specific study object conditions, adding disparity to monocular trial objects significantly decreased response time. Response latency was also decreased by adding disparity information to stimuli in the study session.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 2698
authors Chien, Sheng Fen and Flemming, Ulrich
year 1997
title Information Navigation in Generative Design Systems
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 355-365
summary Generative design systems take an active part in the generation of computational design models. They make it easier for designers to explore conceptual alternatives, but the amount of information generated during a design session can become very large. Intelligent navigation aids are needed to enable designers to access the information with ease and low cognitive loads. We present an approach to support navigation in generative design systems. Our approach takes account of studies related to navigation in physical environments as well as information navigation in electronic media. Results of studies from the physical environment and electronic media reveal that 1) people exhibit similar cognitive behaviours (spatial cognition and the use of spatial knowledge) while navigating in physical and information spaces; and 2) the information space lacks legibility and imageability. The proposed information navigation model take these findings into account.
series CAADRIA
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/02/26 16:24

_id 4e8c
authors Chien, Sheng-Fen and Flemming, Ulrich
year 2001
title Design space navigation in generative design systems
source Automation in Construction 11 (1) (2002) pp. 1-22
summary Generative design systems make it easier for designers to generate and explore design alternatives, but the amount of information generated during a design session can become very large. Intelligent navigation aids are needed if designers wish to access the information they generate with ease. We present a comprehensive approach to support information navigation in requirement-driven generative design systems, which gain their power form explicit representations of design requirements, which in turn add to the information generated by the system. Our approach takes into account studies dealing with human spatial cognition, wayfinding in physical environments, and information navigation in electronic media. We structure the information to be accessed in terms of a five-dimensional design space model that applies across generative design systems of the type considered here. The model structure supports basic generic navigation operations along its five dimensions. We validated the model in the context of the SEED-Layout system and used it to extend the built-in navigation tools of the system through novel ones, which we subjected to a limited usability study. The study suggests that these tools have promise and warrant further investigation.
series journal paper
email ujf@cmu.edu
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id fb22
authors Chien, Sheng-Fen
year 1998
title Supporting information navigation in generative design systems
source Camegie Mellon University, School of Architecture
summary Generative design systems make it easier for designers to generate and explore design altematives, but the amount of information generated during a design session can become very large. Intelligent navigation aids are needed to enable designers to access the information with ease. Such aids may improve the usability of generative design systems and encourage their use in architectural practice. This dissertation presents a comprehensive approach to support navigation in generative design systems. This approach takes account of studies related to human spatial cognition, wayfinding in physical environments, and information navigation in electronic media. It contains a general model of design space, basic navigation operations, and principles for designing navigation support. The design space model describes how the space may grow and evolve along predictable dimensions. The basic operations facilitate navigation activities in this multi-dimensional design space. The design principles aim at guiding system developers in creating navigation utilities tailored to the needs of individual design systems. This approach is validated through prototype implementations and limited pilot usability studies. The validity of the design space model and basic navigation operations is examined through the development of a design space navigation framework that encapsulates the model and operations in a software environment and provides the infrastructure and mechanisms for supporting navigation. Three prototype navigation tools are implemented using this framework. These tools are subjected to usability studies. The studies show that these tools are easy to leam and are efficient in assisting designers locating desired information. In summary, it can be demonstrated that through the prototype implementations and usability studies, this approach offers sufficient support for the design and implementation of navigation aids in a generative design system. The research effort is a pioneer study on navigation support in generative design systems. It demonstrates why navigation support is necessary; how to provide the support; and what types of user interaction it can offer. This research contributes to information navigation studies not only in the specific domain of generative design system research, but also in the general field of human-computer interaction.
series thesis:PhD
email schien@mail.ntust.edu.tw
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id caadria2003_0
id caadria2003_0
authors Choutgrajank, A., Charoensilp, E., Keatruangkamala, K. and Nakapan, W. (eds.)
year 2003
title CAADRIA 2003
source Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 974-9584-13-9 / Bangkok (Thailand) 18-20 October 2003, 370 p.
summary The proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, presents 70 papers. These papers were selected from the 180 submissions through a blind review of 46 international review committee. Each submission was reviewed by three reviewers and the final acceptance was based on the reviewers' recommendations. Introduced in these proceedings are the papers presented at the Conference under the following session headings: - Collaborative Design - Knowledge Representation - Design Education - Virtual Environment and Computer Media - Information Systems - Simulations
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
email araya@rangsit.rsu.ac.th
more www.caadria.org
last changed 2007/07/23 05:33

_id cf2011_p051
id cf2011_p051
authors Cote, Pierre; Mohamed-Ahmed Ashraf, Tremblay Sebastien
year 2011
title A Quantitative Method to Compare the Impact of Design Mediums on the Architectural Ideation Process.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 539-556.
summary If we compare the architectural design process to a black box system, we can assume that we now know quite well both inputs and outputs of the system. Indeed, everything about the early project either feasibility studies, programming, context integration, site analysis (urban, rural or natural), as well as the integration of participants in a collaborative process can all be considered to initiate and sustain the architectural design and ideation process. Similarly, outputs from that process are also, and to some extent, well known and identifiable. We are referring here, among others, to the project representations or even to the concrete building construction and its post-evaluation. But what about the black box itself that produces the ideation. This is the question that attempts to answer the research. Currently, very few research works linger to identify how the human brain accomplishes those tasks; how to identify the cognitive functions that are playing this role; to what extent they operate and complement each other, and among other things, whether there possibly a chain of causality between these functions. Therefore, this study proposes to define a model that reflects the activity of the black box based on the cognitive activity of the human brain. From an extensive literature review, two cognitive functions have been identified and are investigated to account for some of the complex cognitive activity that occurs during a design process, namely the mental workload and mental imagery. These two variables are measured quantitatively in the context of real design task. Essentially, the mental load is measured using a Bakan's test and the mental imagery with eyes tracking. The statistical software G-Power was used to identify the necessary subject number to obtain for significant variance and correlation result analysis. Thus, in the context of an exploratory research, to ensure effective sample of 0.25 and a statistical power of 0.80, 32 participants are needed. All these participants are students from 3rd, 4th or 5th grade in architecture. They are also very familiar with the architectural design process and the design mediums used, i.e., analog model, freehand drawing and CAD software, SketchUp. In three experimental sessions, participants were asked to design three different projects, namely, a bus shelter, a recycling station and a public toilet. These projects were selected and defined for their complexity similarity, taking into account the available time of 22 minutes, using all three mediums of design, and this in a randomly manner to avoid the order effect. To analyze the two cognitive functions (mental load and mental imagery), two instruments are used. Mental imagery is measured using eye movement tracking with monitoring and quantitative analysis of scan paths and the resulting number and duration of participant eye fixations (Johansson et al, 2005). The mental workload is measured using the performance of a modality hearing secondary task inspired by Bakan'sworks (Bakan et al.; 1963). Each of these three experimental sessions, lasting 90 minutes, was composed of two phases: 1. After calibrating the glasses for eye movement, the subject had to exercise freely for 3 minutes while wearing the glasses and headphones (Bakan task) to get use to the wearing hardware. Then, after reading the guidelines and criteria for the design project (± 5 minutes), he had 22 minutes to execute the design task on a drawing table allowing an upright posture. Once the task is completed, the subject had to take the NASA TLX Test, on the assessment of mental load (± 5 minutes) and a written post-experimental questionnaire on his impressions of the experiment (± 10 minutes). 2. After a break of 5-10 minutes, the participant answered a psychometric test, which is different for each session. These tests (± 20 minutes) are administered in the same order to each participant. Thus, in the first experimental session, the subject had to take the psychometric test from Ekstrom et al. (1978), on spatial performance (Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests Kit). During the second session, the cognitive style is evaluated using Oltman's test (1971). Finally, in the third and final session, participant creativity is evaluated using Delis-Kaplan test (D-KEFS), Delis et al. (2001). Thus, this study will present the first results of quantitative measures to establish and validate the proposed model. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the relevance of the proposed approach, considering that currently teaching of ideation in ours schools of architecture in North America is essentially done in a holistic manner through the architectural project.
keywords design, ideation process, mental workload, mental imagery, quantitative mesure
series CAAD Futures
email pierre.cote@arc.ulaval.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 6126
authors De Grassi, M., Giretti A. and Pinese, P.
year 1999
title Knowledge Structures of Episodic Memory in Architectural Design: An Example of Protocol Analysis
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 576-583
summary The Protocol Analysis of the design process is a very recent and very promising research field. It is believed that good application-oriented developments are possible mainly in the tutorial field (ITS). The research conducted up to now has primarily dealt with the study of the design process. On the contrary, we propose an investigation experiment on the knowledge structures relative to the use of the episodic memory in the architectural design. The proposed experiment concerns the monitoring of the cognitive processes utilised by tutors and students in a brief, but yet complete design session. The results have lead to a synthetic model (computational model) of the adopted knowledge structures, and to a complete index system oriented and organised according to semantic fields. The application of the synthetic model to the design process analysis of students and tutors enabled the definition of the different utilisation strategies of episodic memory to be defined. The results obtained will make up the structure of a tutorial program for the architectural design.
keywords Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs), Architectural Design Education, Case Based Reasoning, Protocol Analisys, Design Cognition
series eCAADe
email giretti@idau.unian.it
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 7eb9
authors Dokonal, Wolfgang and Martens, Bob
year 2001
title A Working Session on 3-D City Modeling
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 417-422
summary On the occasion of a presentation on a city model for Graz at the eCAADe-conference in Weimar (2000), some attendees informed us about their previous work in this field and the idea of preparing a working session with collegues involved in 3-D city modeling was born. During the initial phase of research for this eCAADe conference activity it turned out that a large number of city models has been created in the course of time for different reasons resp. purposes. Therefore a rich variety in the production of city models can be noticed. This working session on 3-D city modeling brings together experts focusing on different aspects concerning the creation and use of city models, such as data input, data structure, data storage and data quality. Also the definition of a perspective on the future of 3-D city modeling can be regarded as an important topic. In this paper a rough overview on the different submissions will be presented. Furthermore three blitz statements are incorporated as time was too short to produce a full paper. Both with the individual contributions as with this overview paper it is intended to present a knowledge-base to this working field. Finally, the start for a growing bibliography was made in order to support future work in this area.
keywords Urban Modeling, 3-D Modeling, Collaboration, City Information, Model Adaptation
series eCAADe
email dokonal@stdb.tu-graz.ac.at, b.martens@tugraz.at
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 9e0d
authors Dokonal, Wolfgang and Martens, Bob
year 2002
title Round Table Session on “3D-City-Modeling”
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 610-613
summary According to eCAADe’s mission, the exchange and collaboration within the area of computer aided architectural design education and research, while respecting the pedagogical and administrative approaches in the different schools and countries, can be regarded as a core activity. On the occasion of eCAADe 2001 in Helsinki a working session on the topic “3D-City-Modeling” was held, in which a varietybundle of papers was presented. The eCAADe 2002 round table session on “3D-City-Modeling” is opening up for an intensive discussion on a number of goals which were elaborated by a working group in Helsinki.
series eCAADe
email dokonal@stdb.tu-graz.ac.at, b.martens@tugraz.at
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id 7e02
authors Elger, Dietrich and Russell, Peter
year 2002
title The Virtual Campus: A new place for (lifelong) learning?
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 472-477
summary 472 eCAADe 20 [design e-ducation] Modeling Real and Virtual Worlds Session 13 In the early spring of 2001 a collection of German universities founded a virtual faculty of architecture, which was named „Liquid Campus“. Current thinking about future forms of education in the field of architecture combined with over 4 years of experience with net-based design studios, led to questions about the future of existing universities, their buildings and their use. This problem was put to 43 students in the form of a design exercise to create a place for a virtual university. In the current situation, in which the administration of knowledge is more and more located on the internet, and even the so-called meeting places themselves can be virtualised through the help of video-conference-software, the exercise was to design a virtual campus in the framework and to carry out this design work in a simulation of distributed practice. Initial criticism of the project came from the students in that exemplary working methods were not described, but left for the students to discover on their own. The creation of a concept for the Liquid Campus meant that the participants had to imagine working in a world without the face to face contacts that form the basis (at present) of personal interaction. Additionally, the assignment to create or design possible links between the real and the virtual was not an easy task for students who normally design and plan real physical buildings. Even the tutors had difficulties in producing focused constructive criticism about a virtual campus; in effect the virtualisation of the university leads to a distinctive blurring of its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the netzentwurf.de; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosophical approach to the design problem. The paper explores the implications of the student’s conclusions on the nature of the university in general and draws conclusions specific to architectural education and the role of architecture in this process.
series eCAADe
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id f586
authors Gabriel, G. and Maher, M.L.
year 2000
title Analysis of design communication with and without computer mediation
source Proceedings of Co-designing 2000, pp. 329-337
summary With recent developments in CAD and communication technologies, the way we visualise and communicate design representations is changing. A matter of great interest to architects, practitioners and researchers alike, is how computer technology might affect the way they think and work. The concern is not about the notion of 'support' alone, but about ensuring that computers do not disrupt the design process and collaborative activity already going on (Bannon and Schmidt, 1991). Designing new collaborative tools will then have to be guided by a better understanding of how collaborative work is accomplished and by understanding what resources the collaborators use and what hindrances they encounter in their work (Finholt et al., 1990). Designing, as a more abstract notion, is different than having a business meeting using video conferencing. In design it is more important to 'see' what is being discussed rather than 'watch' the other person(s) involved in the discussion. In other words the data being conveyed might be of more importance than the method with which it is communicated (See Kvan, 1994). Similarly, we believe that by using text instead of audio as a medium for verbal communication, verbal representations can then be recorded alongside graphical representations for later retrieval and use. In this paper we present the results of a study on collaborative design in three different environments: face-to-face (FTF), computer-mediated using video conferencing (CMCD-a), and computer-mediated using "talk by typing" (CMCD-b). The underlying aim is to establish a clearer notion of the collaborative needs of architects using computer-mediation. In turn this has the potential in assisting developers when designing new collaborative tools and in assisting designers when selecting an environment for a collaborative session.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

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