CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

PDF papers

Hits 1 to 20 of 40

_id sigradi2005_731
id sigradi2005_731
authors Albornoz Delgado, Humberto Ángel; Laura Talía Escalante Rodríguez, Leticia Gallegos Cazares
year 2005
title Didactic Design: light and optics for preschool level
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 2, pp. 731-737
summary Since 2003, we have been developing a pedagogic proposal and didactic material for teaching Light and Optics to kindergarden children that enhances the construction of the first scientific thinking schemes. The design (industrial and graphic) applied to this project has generated an educational product composed of 44 objects. These materials allow teaching concepts such as: combination of colors, light indispensable to see, formation of shadows and images are not objects. These have been developed as inciters of curiosity, capable to awake the innate restlessness of children, achieving to stimulate their creativity. The purpose is to explore knowledge and construct their own ideas; enrich their experiences and inquire a reality that was drawn grey and tedious, generating a process of manipulation-action and then representation-conceptualization. This product has been successfully used as a pilot test in a kindergarden, reflecting significant gains in students’ science learning. [Full paper in Spanish]
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id e29d
authors Arvesen, Liv
year 1996
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary With the unlimited supply of electric light our surroundings very easily may be illuminated too strongly. Too much light is unpleasant for our eyes, and a high level of light in many cases disturbs the conception of form. Just as in a forest, we need shadows, contrasts and variation when we compose with light. If we focus on the term compose, it is natural to conceive our environment as a wholeness. In fact, this is not only aesthetically important, it is true in a physical context. Inspired by old windows several similar examples have been built in the Trondheim Full-scale Laboratory where depth is obtained by constructing shelves on each side of the opening. When daylight is fading, indirect artificial light from above gradually lightens the window. The opening is perceived as a space of light both during the day and when it is dark outside.

Another of the built examples at Trondheim University which will be presented, is a doctor's waitingroom. It is a case study of special interest because it often appears to be a neglected area. Let us start asking: What do we have in common when we are waiting to come in to a doctor? We are nervous and we feel sometimes miserable. Analysing the situation we understand the need for an interior that cares for our state of mind. The level of light is important in this situation. Light has to speak softly. Instead of the ordinary strong light in the middle of the ceiling, several spots are selected to lighten the small tables separating the seats. The separation is supposed to give a feeling of privacy. By the low row of reflected planes we experience an intimate and warming atmosphere in the room. A special place for children contributes to the total impression of calm. In this corner the inside of some shelves are lit by indirect light, an effect which puts emphasis on the small scale suitable for a child. And it also demonstrates the good results of variation. The light setting in this room shows how light is “caught” two different ways.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 12:34

_id sigradi2006_e159b
id sigradi2006_e159b
authors Barrow, Larry
year 2006
title Digital Design Pedagogy - Basic Design - CADCAM Space Box Exploration
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 127-130
summary This proposed paper will highlight the work of a “pre-architecture” graduate student’s work produced in a “Digital Design II” course in Spring 06. This student has a bachelor’s degree in Architectural Technologies and hopes to attend a “professional” degree program in architecture after completing our Master of Science degree program. The student entered our “pre / post-professional” graduate program as a means of learning more about design, technology and architecture. This provided a rare opportunity to do “research” in the area of digital technology in the early formative phases of a new architecture / design students development. The student chose to study “shadows” as a means of design inquiry. The primary focus of the work was the study of various “4” x 4” x 4” “space-cubes.” The student was given various “design” constraints, and “transformative” operations for the study of positive-negative space relationships, light+shadows, and surface as a means of gaining in-sight to form. The CADCAM tools proved to be empowering for the student’s exploration and learning. With the recent emergence of both more user-friendly hardware and software, we are seeing a paradigm shift in design “ideation.” This is attributed to the evolving human-computer-interface (HCI) that now allows a fluidic means of creative design ideation, digital representation and physical making. Computing technology is now infusing early conceptual design ideation and allowing designers, and form, to follow their ideas. The argument will be supported with primary evidence generated in our pedagogy and research that has shown the visualization and representational power of emerging 2D and 3D CADCAM tools. This paper will analyze the basic “digital design” process used by the writer’s student. Architectural form concepts, heretofore, impossible to model and represent, are now possible due to CADCAM. Emerging designers are integrating “digital thinking” in their fundamental conceptualization of form. These creative free-forms are only feasible for translation to tectonic form using digital design-make techniques. CADCAM tools are empowering designers for form exploration and design creativity. Current computing technology is now infusing the creative design process; the computer is becoming a design “partner” with the designer and is changing form and architecture; thus, we are now seeing unprecedented design-make creativity in architecture.
keywords Basic Design; CADCAM; Digital Design; Virtual 3D Models; Physical 3D Printed Models
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ed51
authors Bergeron, Philippe
year 1986
title A General Version of Crow's Shadow Volumes
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications September, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 17-28 : col. ill. includes bibliography.
summary In 1977 Frank Crow introduced a new class of algorithms for the generation of shadows. His technique, based on the concept of shadow volumes, assumes a polygonal database and a constrained environment. For example, polyhedrons must be closed, and polygons must be planar. This article presents a new version of Crow's algorithm, developed at the Universite de Montreal, which attempts a less constrained environment. The method has allowed the handling of both open and closed models and nonplanar polygons with the viewpoint anywhere, including any shadow volume. It does not, however, sacrifice the essential features of Crow's original version: penetration between polygons is allowed, and any number of light sources can be defined anywhere in 3D space, including the view volume and any shadow volume. The method has been used successfully in the film Tony de Peltrie and is easily incorporated into an existing scan-line, hidden-surface algorithm
keywords algorithms, shadowing, polygons, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id sigradi2015_sp_8.78
id sigradi2015_sp_8.78
authors Bernal, Alberto Nope; Alvarado, Rodrigo García; Flores, Javier Guarachi; Carvajal, Ricardo Arellano
year 2015
title Analysis of active solar parameters in health
source SIGRADI 2015 [Proceedings of the 19th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - vol. 2 - ISBN: 978-85-8039-133-6] Florianópolis, SC, Brasil 23-27 November 2015, pp. 792-796.
summary This work was developed based on the register of health servicesin the municipality of Concepción Chile, selecting three establishments as models of concentrated consume. Technical morphological and location characteristics of each facility were analyzed in order to identify the volumetric relation, the influence of shadows and solar potential roofs and facades, linking with the future implementation of materials and technologies that present thermal and /or photovoltaic properties. The computer implementation of parameterization and simulation applied to the morphology of each facility analyzed the active parameters that affecting solar gain, stating a relationship between volume, solar collection, and the percentage of energy demand covered.
keywords Solar Energy, Parametric Design, Active Parameters, Health Facilities, Chile
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 088a
authors Brotman, Shapiro Lynne and Badler, Norman I.
year 1984
title Generating Soft Shadows With a Depth Buffer Algorithm
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. October, 1984. pp. 5-12 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The authors take a pragmatic approach to shadowing and describe an algorithm that combines an existing shadowing method with a popular visible surface rendering technique, called a 'depth buffer,' to generate soft shadows resulting from light sources of finite extent. Their method extend Crow's shadow volume algorithm to produce multiple shadows overlapped to yield the characteristic soft edges of a shadow penumbra
keywords rendering, algorithms, shadowing, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id sigradi2010_260
id sigradi2010_260
authors Christakou, Evangelos D.
year 2010
title Luz natural: avaliação dinâmica e interativa nos ambientes arquitetônicos virtuais [Natural light: assessment in dynamic and interactive virtual architectural environments]
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 260-263
summary Real time walkthrough is a valuable resource, especially in the early stages of the design process. Assessing how shadows and reflections behave enables architects to make better choices regarding materials, geometry and lighting. Traditional methods do not offer daylight simulations in real time, whereas interactive visualization requires large computational resources to allow an evaluation of behavior of light in architectural space. This project researched virtual environments that permit the real - time generation of interactive scenes that simulate natural light algorithms modeled. The goal of this is to meet the needs of architects when evaluating the changes of a dynamic and synchronous project.
keywords computer simulation, real - time rendering, architectural walkthrough
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id c341
authors Cohen, Michael F. and Greenberg, Donald P.
year 1985
title The Hemi-Cube: A Radiosity Solution for Complex Environments
source SIGGRAPH '85 conference proceedings. July, 1985. vol. 19 ; no. 3: pp. 31-39 : ill. (some col.). includes bibliography
summary This paper presents a comprehensive method to calculate object to object diffuse reflections within complex environments containing hidden surfaces and shadows. In essence, each object in the environment is treated as a secondary light source. The method provides an accurate representation of the 'diffuse' and 'ambient' terms found in typical image synthesis algorithms. The phenomena of 'color bleeding' from one surface to another, shading within shadow envelopes, and penumbras along shadow boundaries are accurately reproduced. Additional advantages result because computations are independent of viewer position. This allows the efficient rendering of multiple views of the same scene for dynamic sequences. Light sources can be modulated and object reflectivities can be changed, with minimal extra computation. The procedures extend the radiosity method beyond the bounds previously imposed
keywords hidden surfaces, shadowing, computer graphics, geometric modeling, radiosity
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id f9f4
authors Cook, R.L., Porter, Th. and Carpenter, L.
year 1984
title Distributed Ray Tracing
source Computer Graphics, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 137145, July 1984. SIGGRAPH '84 Proceedings
summary Ray tracing is one of the most elegant techniques in computer graphics. Many phenomena that are difficult or impossible with other techniques are simple with ray tracing, including shadows, reflections, and refracted light. Ray directions, however, have been determined precisely, and this has limited the capabilities of ray tracing. By distributing the directions of the rays according to the analytic function they sample, ray tracing can incorporate fuzzy phenomena. This provides correct and easy solutions to some previously unsolved or partially solved problems, including motion blur, depth of field, penumbras, translucency, and fuzzy reflections. Motion blur and depth of field calculations can be integrated with the visible surface calculations, avoiding the problems found in previous methods.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e5a2
authors Debevec, P.
year 1998
title Rendering synthetic objects into real scenes: Bridging traditional and image-based graphics with global illumination and high dynamic range photography
source Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 98, M. Cohen, Ed., 189–198
summary We present a method that uses measured scene radiance and global illumination in order to add new objects to light-based models with correct lighting. The method uses a high dynamic range imagebased model of the scene, rather than synthetic light sources, to illuminate the newobjects. To compute the illumination, the scene is considered as three components: the distant scene, the local scene, and the synthetic objects. The distant scene is assumed to be photometrically unaffected by the objects, obviating the need for re- flectance model information. The local scene is endowed with estimated reflectance model information so that it can catch shadows and receive reflected light from the new objects. Renderings are created with a standard global illumination method by simulating the interaction of light amongst the three components. A differential rendering technique allows for good results to be obtained when only an estimate of the local scene reflectance properties is known. We apply the general method to the problem of rendering synthetic objects into real scenes. The light-based model is constructed from an approximate geometric model of the scene and by using a light probe to measure the incident illumination at the location of the synthetic objects. The global illumination solution is then composited into a photograph of the scene using the differential rendering technique. We conclude by discussing the relevance of the technique to recovering surface reflectance properties in uncontrolled lighting situations. Applications of the method include visual effects, interior design, and architectural visualization.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id e4a7
authors Espina B., Jane J.
year 2001
title La tecnologia digital en las edificaciones arquitectonicas de la modernidad [The Digital Tecnology In Modern Architectural Constructions]
source 2da Conferencia Venezolana sobre Aplicación de Computadores en Arquitectura, Maracaibo (Venezuela) december 2001, pp. 136-145
summary This paper gives an overview of the experience developed by Computer Graphics II course of department of Communication in School of Architecture and Design of University of Zulia which was initiated since 1999.The work describes the methodology used by two groups of objectives: general of the course and those generated by experiences in two levels: one as analysis instruments and the other one during process of design. Course is looking for trainning in CAD system uses by 3D representation of modern buildings, so at the end of the experience students were succeed : 1) analysis of projects of modern architecture, 2) quick visualization and efficient volumetric representation, 3) make a digital format library of differents buildings of the city and 4) comprehension and historic knowledge of city. CAD systems used for representation of 2d and 3D drawings offer to architects tools as color, textures, shadows, plus generation of different points of view as isometrics, perspectives and realistic representations. The digital format of the selected buildings gives to drafts an additional value.
keywords Modern Architecture; Three-Dimensional; Realistic Representation; CAD Systems; Digital Format
series other
last changed 2003/02/14 07:29

_id e191
authors Fuchs, Henry, Goldfeather, Jack and Hultquist, Jeff P.
year 1985
title Fast Spheres, Shadows, Textures, Transparencies, and Image Enhancements in Pixel-Planes
source SIGGRAPH '85 Conference Proceedings. July, 1985. 1985. vol. 19 ; no. 3: pp. 111-120 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Pixel-planes is a logic-enhanced memory system for raster graphics and imaging. Although each pixel-memory is enhanced with a one-bit ALU, the system's real power comes from a tree of one-bit address that can evaluate linear expressions Ax + By + C for every pixel (x,y) simultaneously, as fast as the ALUs and the memory circuits can accept the results. The development of a variety of algorithms that exploit this fast linear expression evaluation capability has started. The paper reports some of those results. Illustrated in this paper is a sample image from a small working prototype of the Pixel- planes hardware and a variety of images from simulations of a full-scale system. Timing estimates indicate that 30,000 smooth shaded triangles can be generated per second, or 21, 000 smooth-shaded and shadowed triangles can be generated per second, or over 25,000 shaded spheres can be generated per second. Image-enhancement by adaptive histogram equalization can be performed within 4 seconds on a 512 x 512 image
keywords shadowing, image processing, algorithms, polygons, clipping, computer graphics, technology, hardware
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 2006_058
id 2006_058
authors Fukuda, Tomohiro; Kazuhiro Sakata; Wookhyun Yeo and Atsuko Kaga
year 2006
title Development and Evaluation of a Close-range View Representation Method of Natural Elements in a Real-time Simulation for Environmental Design - Shadow, Grass, and Water Surface
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 58-65
summary In this research, a close-range view expression method used in real-time simulation based on virtual reality technology is developed for environmental design evaluation. After describing the purpose and accuracy of representation, the problem of natural element representation in a close-range view, which has not been developed yet, is clarified. Next, the close-range view expression method of shadows, grass, and water surface is developed. Furthermore, the developed method is applied to a number of actual environmental design projects, and frame rate measurement and user evaluation are performed.
keywords Environmental Design; Real-time Simulation; Virtual Reality; Consensus-building; Representation of natural elements
series eCAADe
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id sigradi2009_697
id sigradi2009_697
authors Geva, Anat; Anuradha Mukherji
year 2009
title Frank Lloyd Wright’s Treatment of Light in Unity Temple: Digital Model and Simulations
source SIGraDi 2009 - Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 16-18, 2009
summary The paper demonstrates the utility of digital models and simulations in the study of light in sacred architecture. Specifically, it applied this method and analyses on Frank Lloyd Wright’s treatment of light in Unity Temple, Oak Park, Illinois (1905). The findings of the light simulations augmented the observation and qualitative analyses of Wright’s lighting design and show that his treatment of light fulfilled the accentuated, architectural, and celebration lighting recommendations of IES, while the task lighting of reading was partially fulfilled. Still, Wright’s original design provided the dramatic effect of light and shadows and enhanced the spiritual experience in the Temple.
keywords Light simulations; Frank Lloyd Wright; Unity Temple
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id cf2015_462
id cf2015_462
authors Gürsoy, Benay; Jowers, Iestyn and Özkar, Mine
year 2015
title Formal descriptions of material manipulations: An exploration with cuts and shadows
source The next city - New technologies and the future of the built environment [16th International Conference CAAD Futures 2015. Sao Paulo, July 8-10, 2015. Electronic Proceedings/ ISBN 978-85-85783-53-2] Sao Paulo, Brazil, July 8-10, 2015, pp. 462.
summary Shape computation in design is never purely limited to visual aspects and ideally includes material aspects as well. The physicality of designing introduces a wide range of variables for designers to tackle within the design process. We present a simple design exercise realised in four stages where we physically manipulate perforated cardboard sheets as a case to make material variables explicit in the computation. The emphasis is on representing sensory aspects rather than easily quantifiable properties more suitable for simulations. Our explorations demonstrate the use of visual rules to represent actions, variables and form as well as how to control the variables to create new results, both desired and surprising, in materially informed ways.
keywords material computing, shape rules, making.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2015/06/29 05:55

_id d2e0
id d2e0
authors Horne M, Hill R, Underwood C
year 1997
title Visualisation of Photovoltaic Clad Buildings
source International Conference on Information Visualisation -IV 97, London, 27-29 August 1997, ISBN 0 8186 8076 8
summary This paper describes a study carried out to investigate the capabilities of computer aided design software for the visualisation of building elevations and detail, with focus on the representation of photovoltaic cells in facade architecture. The development of photovoltaic (PV) technology, converting energy from sunlight into electricity, has resulted in the emergence of PV as a building material. This has generated much debate on the aesthetic implications of PV integrated buildings. PV introduces a particularly complex set of requirements not present in traditional cladding materials. As well as the physical characteristics of the material, there is a need to consider factors such as orientation to the sun, and shadows cast by neighbouring buildings. Architects, engineers, developers, clients and the general public all need to be able to visualise proposed designs, either of new or refurbished buildings. This study investigates both the process and end results of computer visualisation in the context of photovoltaic clad buildings.
keywords Visualisation, PV, CAD evaluation
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2006/06/08 20:54

_id 2647
authors Koutamanis, Alexander
year 1994
title Sun and Time in the Built Environment
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 248
summary At a time when requirements on the quality of the built environment are increasingly becoming explicit and specific, computer technology promises the ability to analyse and evaluate buildings during the design process. The computer can extract the necessary information from conventional geometric representations, generate comprehensive descriptions of the aspects to be analysed and use these to arrive at precise and accurate results that can be represented visually. Visual representations facilitate comprehension of the analyses and of their results because of their agreement with our predominantly visual perception of the built environment. The consequent close correspondences between geometric design representations and the visual representation of analyses and evaluations allow direct correlation of the results with the design as a whole. Such correlation is instrumental for imposing explicit and justifiable constraints on the further development of a design. One good example of visual analyses is daylighting. In many drafting and modelling programs a viewing point can be set on the basis the sun’s height and azimuth. The projection returned reveals the surfaces that are directly lit by the sun. In other programs the sun’s height and azimuth can be used to position a light source with parallel rays. This source gives rise to shading and shadows that correspond to the ones produced by the sun. In addition, several programs can calculate the position of the sun and hence the viewing point or the light source on the basis of the date, the time and the geographic coordinates of the place. The availability of computer-aided daylighting analysis has obvious advantages for practice. Efficiency and reliability of the analysis increase, while flexibility is superior to analog simulations. Unfortunately automation of daylighting analysis may also impede understanding of underlying principles, that is, of the issues at the focus of architectural education. Explaining how the analysis is performed and why becomes thus a necessity for computer-aided design education. Exercises that aim at more than just learning and using a computer program can enrich the student’s understanding of the analysis and its results. The efficiency and flexibility of the computer facilitate the study of aspects such as the comparison of local apparent time, local mean time, standard time and daylight saving time and their significance for daylighting, solar heating and cooling patterns and possibilities. Sundials with their explicit correspondence to solar movement can be instrumental in this respect. The efficiency and flexibility of the computer also support the investigation of the techniques by which the daylighting analysis is performed and explain the relationships between projective theory, sciagraphy and computer graphics. A better understanding of the principles and techniques for daylighting analysis has a generally positive influence on the students’ learning of the daylighting analysis software and more significantly on their correlation of daylighting constraints with their designs. This leads in turn to increased flexibility and adaptability of the designs with respect to daylighting and to a conscious and meaningful exploration of variations and alternative solutions.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id sigradi2016_360
id sigradi2016_360
authors Leonard, Francisca Rodríguez
year 2016
title Evaluación de las condiciones de orientación temporal en programas de modelación lumínica [Evaluation of temporal orientation conditions in lighting simulation software]
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.446-452
summary The study analyzes three basic visual aspects of light (Spatial distribution of brightness, shadows and color of light) in their ability to communicate temporal information by modeling two specific scenarios using different lighting simulation software (DIALux and Relux). The results confirm the potentiality of natural light to assess temporal disorientation in indoor environments. At the same time, the study proposes new opportunities for improving natural light representation in the simulation field.
series SIGraDi
last changed 2017/06/21 12:18

_id 1162
authors Malkawi, Ali and Jabi, Wassim
year 1996
title Integrating Shadow Casting Methodology and Thermal Simulation
source Proceedings of the Solar ‘96 Conference. Asheville, North Carolina: American Solar Energy Society, 1996, pp. 271-276
summary This paper describes an experiment that integrates shadow casting methodology and thermal simulation algorithms developed by the authors. The 3D shadow procedures use a polyhedral representation of solids within a Cartesian space that allows for accurate casting of shadows. The algorithm is also capable of calculating surface areas of polygonal shadows of any arbitrary shape and size. The thermal simulation algorithms – using the Transfer Function Method (TFM) – incorporate the shaded area calculations to better predict solar heat gain from glazing based on transmitted, absorbed, and conducted cooling loads. The paper describes the use of a 3D computer model to illustrate the impact of the pattern and area of shading on the visual and thermal properties of building apertures. The paper discusses the objectives of this experiment, the algorithms used, and their integration. Conclusions and findings are drawn.
keywords Shadow Casting Algorithms Energey Thermal Simulation
series other
last changed 2002/03/05 18:51

_id 1e1a
authors Moeck, Martin
year 2001
title On top-down architectural lighting design. Constraint-based generation of light sources
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 331-348
summary One key problem of architectural lighting design is to specify goals that relate to aesthetics. Since visibility is an important criterion for many visual tasks and objects, heuristics from industrial lighting and visual inspection can be used to describe the appearance of objects relevant to architectural lighting design, and to derive corresponding light sources. This has the potential to bring computation time in the range of near-interactive rates. A combination of two constraining inputs, which are the specification of desired material appearance and the selection of highlights and shadows can be successfully used in determining light sources.
keywords Top-Down Design, Constraint Satisfaction Optimisation, Lighting Design, Visual Performance Criteria
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

For more results click below:

this is page 0show page 1HOMELOGIN (you are user _anon_550338 from group guest) CUMINCAD Papers Powered by SciX Open Publishing Services 1.002