CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id fe1b
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 2001
title VR Sketchpad. Create Instant 3D Worlds by Sketching on a Transparent Window
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 161-172
summary This paper describes VR Sketchpad, a pen-based computing environment for inputting and locating 3D objects in a virtual world. Designer can use the transparency layers to quickly trace and extract any image underlay from other application software. The 3D scene generation has three levels of complexity: simple extrusion of any drawn lines of shapes (i.e., straight or curved wall and column extrusion), solid modelling from a given geometric object representation (spheres, cones and boxes), and complex configuration with objects from graphics library (furniture layout).
keywords Pen-Based Interface, Freehand Sketches, Diagramming, Transparent Window, Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML)
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id c3e0
authors Dorsey, J. and McMillan, L.
year 1998
title Computer Graphics and Architecture: State of the Art and Outlook for the Future
source Computer Graphics, Vol 32, No 1, Feb 1998. pp. 45-48
summary During the three decades since Ivan Sutherland introduced the Sketchpad system, there has been an outpouring of computer graphics systems for use in architecture. In response to this development, most of the major architectural firms around the world have embraced the idea that computer literacy is mandatory for success. We would argue, however, that most of these recent developments have failed to tap the potential of the computer as a design tool. Instead, computers have been relegated largely to the status of drafting instruments, so that the "D" in CAD stands for drafting rather than design. It is important that future architectural design systems consider design as a continuous process rather than an eventual outcome.The advent of computer graphics technology has had an impact on the architectural profession. Computer graphics has revolutionized the drafting process, enabling the rapid entry and modification of designs. In addition, modeling and rendering systems have proven to be invaluable aids in the visualization process, allowing designers to walk through their designs with photorealistic imagery. Computer graphics systems have also demonstrated utility for capturing engineering information, greatly simplifying the analysis and construction of proposed designs. However, it is important to consider that all of these tasks occur near the conclusion of a larger design process. In fact, most of the artistic and intellectual challenges of an architectural design have already been resolved by the time the designer sits down in front of a computer. In seeking insight into the design process, it is generally of little use to revisit the various computer archives and backups. Instead, it is best to explore the reams of sketches and crude balsa models that fill the trash cans of any architectural studio.In architecture, as in most other fields, the initial success of computerization has been in areas where it frees humans from tedious and mundane tasks. This includes the redrawing of floor plans after minor modifications, the generation of largely redundant, yet subtly different engineering drawings and the generation of perspective renderings.We believe that there is a largely untapped potential for computer graphics as a tool in the earlier phases of the design process. In this essay, we argue that computer graphics might play a larger role via applications that aid and amplify the creative process.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id a081
authors Greenberg S., Roseman M. and Webster, D.
year 1992
title Issues and Experiences Designing and Implementing Two Group Drawing Tools
source Readings in Groupware, 609-620
summary Groupware designers are now developing multi-user equivalents of popular paint and draw applications. Their job is not an easy one. First, human factors issues peculiar to group interaction appear that, if ignored, seriously limit the usability of the group tool. Second, implementation is fraught with considerable hurdles. This paper describes the issues and experiences we have met and handled in the design of two systems supporting remote real time group interaction: GroupSketch, a multi-user sketchpad; and GroupDraw, an object-based multi-user draw package. On the human factors side, we summarize empirically-derived design principles that we believe are critical to building useful and usable collaborative drawing tools. On the implementation side, we describe our experiences with replicated versus centralized architectures, schemes for participant registration, multiple cursors, network requirements, and the structure of the drawing primitives.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ecaade2015_172
id ecaade2015_172
authors Mark, Earl and Zita Ultmann
year 2015
title Environmental Footprint Design Tool - Exchanging GIS and CAD Data in Real Time
source Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds.), Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16-18 September 2015, pp. 217-223
wos WOS:000372317300023
summary The pairing of CAD and GIS data creates an opportunity to connect an architectural design process more immediately with its environmental constraints. Yet the GIS data may be too overwhelmingly complex to be fully used in CAD without computer-assisted methods of highlighting relevant information. This paper reports on the implementation of an integrated environment for three-dimensional design geometrical modeling and obtaining environmental impact feedback. The project focused on enhancements to the data exchange and on the development of a related set of tools. While the technologies of CAD and GIS may rely on separate representational models,in combination they can provide a more complete view of the built and natural environment. The challenge in integration is that of bridging analytical methods and database formats used in the two technologies. Our approach is rooted in part in constraint based design methods well established in CAD (e.g., Sketchpad, Generative Components, CATIA). Within such CAD systems geometrical transformations may be intentionally constrained to help enforce some previously made design decisions. Although this current implementation modestly relates to geometrical constraints, the use of probabilistic risk values is more central to its methodology.
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ijac201614401
id ijac201614401
authors Mark, Earl and Zita Ultmann
year 2016
title Environmental footprint design tool: Exchanging geographical information system and computer-aided design data in real time
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 14 - no. 4, 307-321
summary The pairing of computer-aided design and geographical information system data creates an opportunity to connect an architectural design process with a robust analysis of its environmental constraints. Yet, the geographical information system data may be too overwhelmingly complex to be fully used in computer-aided design without computer-assisted methods of filtering relevant information. This article reports on the implementation of an integrated environment for three-dimensional computer-aided design and environmental impact. The project focused on a two-way data exchange between geographical information system and computer-aided design in building design. While the two different technologies may rely on separate representational models, in combination they can provide a more complete view of the natural and built environment. The challenge in integration is that of bridging the differences in analytical methods and database formats. Our approach is rooted in part in constraint-based design methods, well established in computer-aided design (e.g. Sketchpad, Generative Components, and computer-aided three-dimensional interactive application). Within such computer-aided design systems, geometrical transformations may be intentionally constrained to help enforce a set of design determinants. Although this current implementation modestly relates to geometrical constraints, the use of probabilistic risk values is more central to its methodology.
keywords Boolean analysis, area overlay analysis, attribute classification, data transition using .csv, vectorization, risk analysis, site planning
series journal
last changed 2016/12/09 09:52

_id 5680
authors Sutherland, E.
year 1963
title Sketchpad, A Man-Machine Graphical Communication System
source Proceedings 1963 Spring Joint Computer Conference AFIPS, 1963: Vol. 23
summary The Sketchpad system makes it possible for a man and a computer to converse rapidly through the medium of line drawings. Heretofore, most interaction between man and computers has been slowed down by the need to reduce all communication to written statements that can be typed; in the past, we have been writing letters to rather than conferring with our computers, For many types of communication, such as describing the shape of a mechanical part or the connections of an electrical circuit, typed statements can prove cumbersome. The Sketehpad system, by eliminating typed statements (except for legends) in favor of line drawings, opens up a new area of man-machine communication.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id d1ed
authors Sutherland, Ivan Edward
year 1963
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, Mass.
keywords Sketchpad (Computer Program); Computer Graphics
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
last changed 2005/09/12 15:06

_id acadia06_328
id acadia06_328
authors Tredinnick, R., Anderson, L., Ries, B., Interrante, V.
year 2006
title A Tablet Based Immersive Architectural Design Tool
source Synthetic Landscapes [Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture] pp. 328-340
summary In this paper we describe a SketchUp VR system in which we create a hybrid two-dimensional / three-dimensional immersive architectural design system. This system combines a tablet PC, an optically tracked room, a display wall, a Space Traveler motion controller, and stereographic eyewear to allow immersive conceptual design and walkthrough using a version of SketchUp that has been enhanced with Ruby plug-ins. The tablet PC provides a sketchpad type of user interface for SketchUp, while the tracked space and display wall enable the designer simultaneously to design at full (or any other) scale in an immersive (VR) environment.
series ACADIA
last changed 2006/09/22 06:22

_id 1a3d
authors Willey, David
year 1999
title Sketchpad to 2000: From Computer Systems to Digital Environments
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 526-532
summary It can be argued that over the last thirty five years computer aided architectural design (CAAD) has made little impact in terms of aiding design. The paper provides a broadbrush review of the last 35 years of CAAD research and suggests that the SKETCHPAD notion that has dominated CAAD since 1963 is now a flawed concept. Then the discipline was replete with Modernist concepts of optimal solutions, objective design criteria and universal design standards. Now CAD needs to proceed on the basis of the Post Modern ways of thinking and designing opened up by digital techniques - the Internet, multimedia, virtual reality, electronic games, distance learning. Computers facilitate information flow and storage. In the late seventies and eighties the CAAD research community's response to the difficulties it had identified with the construction of integrated digital building models was to attempt to improve the intelligence of the computer systems to better match the understanding of designers. Now it is clear that the future could easily lie with CAAD systems that have almost no intelligence and make no attempt to aid the designer. Communication is much more central to designing than computing.
keywords History, Intelligence, Interface, Sketchpad, Web
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id caadria2006_001
id caadria2006_001
year 2006
title FROM SKETCHPAD TO CITY OF BITS: A Story of Shifting Intentions
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 1-5
summary By my count this year marks the fiftieth birthday of the field of computer-aided design. It is, therefore, an appropriate moment to look back on how the field has developed in its first half century and then to consider what we might expect in the coming decades the decades that will see the continued development of what I have called the City of Bits. The story is, as we shall see, one of shifting intentions; at each stage in the evolution of computer-aided design, the technology has found niches in practice determined both by its capabilities at that particular historical moment and by prevailing economic and cultural imperatives.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

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