CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id bacd
authors Abadí Abbo, Isaac
year 1999
source Full-scale Modeling and the Simulation of Light [Proceedings of the 7th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-167-5] Florence (Italy) 18-20 February 1999, pp. 75-82
summary Spatial Design Ability (SDA) has been defined by the author (1983) as the capacity to anticipate the effects (psychological impressions) that architectural spaces or its components produce in observers or users. This concept, which requires the evaluation of spaces by the people that uses it, was proposed as a guideline to a Masters Degree Course in Architectural Design at the Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes in Mexico. The theory and the exercises required for the experience needed a model that could simulate spaces in terms of all the variables involved. Full-scale modeling as has been tested in previous research, offered the most effective mean to experiment with space. A simple, primitive model was designed and built: an articulated ceiling that allows variation in height and shape, and a series of wooden panels for the walls and structure. Several exercises were carried out, mainly to experience cause -effect relationships between space and the psychological impressions they produce. Students researched into spatial taxonomy, intentional sequences of space and spatial character. Results showed that students achieved the expected anticipation of space and that full-scale modeling, even with a simple model, proved to be an effective tool for this purpose. The low cost of the model and the short time it took to be built, opens an important possibility for Institutions involved in architectural studies, both as a research and as a learning tool.
keywords Spatial Design Ability, Architectural Space, User Evaluation, Learning, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 09:27

_id sigradi2003_020
id sigradi2003_020
authors Abarca, R., Díaz, S. and Moreno, S.
year 2003
title Desarrollo de material informatico-educativo para la enseñanza de la geometría a estudiantes de diseño (Development of IT-based educational material for the teaching of geometry to students of design)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary This paper is born as an answer to the meaningful learning difficulties and academic performance in Spatial and Flat Geometry course on second year Design School at Universidad de las Americas University, Santiago de Chile. The problem is faced from the potentiality that digital environment gives us in representation, display options, shape and projection testing, analysis and non visual accounts to teach flat and spatial geometry within the receptors' codes and coherent with designer's own language.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 3ff5
authors Abbo, I.A., La Scalea, L., Otero, E. and Castaneda, L.
year 1992
title Full-Scale Simulations as Tool for Developing Spatial Design Ability
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part C, pp. 7-10
summary Spatial Design Ability has been defined as the capability to anticipate effects (psychological impressions on potential observers or users) produced by mental manipulation of elements of architectural or urban spaces. This ability, of great importance in choosing the appropriate option during the design process, is not specifically developed in schools of architecture and is partially obtained as a by-product of drawing, designing or architectural criticism. We use our Laboratory as a tool to present spaces to people so that they can evaluate them. By means of a series of exercises, students confront their anticipations with the psychological impressions produced in other people. For this occasion, we present an experience in which students had to propose a space for an exhibition hag in which architectural projects (student thesis) were to be shown. Following the Spatial Design Ability Development Model which we have been using for several years, students first get acquainted with the use of evaluation instruments for psychological impressions as well as with research methodology. In this case, due to the short period available, we reduced research to investigate the effects produced by the manipulation of only 2 independents variables: students manipulated first the form of the roof, walls and interiors elements, secondly, color and texture of those elements. They evaluated spatial quality, character and the other psychological impressions that manipulations produced in people. They used three dimensional scale models 1/10 and 1/1.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
last changed 2003/08/25 08:12

_id ascaad2004_paper11
id ascaad2004_paper11
authors Abdelfattah, Hesham Khairy and Ali A. Raouf
year 2004
title No More Fear or Doubt: Electronic Architecture in Architectural Education
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary Operating electronic and Internet worked tools for Architectural education is an important, and merely a prerequisite step toward creating powerful tele-collabortion and tele-research in our Architectural studios. The design studio, as physical place and pedagogical method, is the core of architectural education. The Carnegie Endowment report on architectural education, published in 1996, identified a comparably central role for studios in schools today. Advances in CAD and visualization, combined with technologies to communicate images, data, and “live” action, now enable virtual dimensions of studio experience. Students no longer need to gather at the same time and place to tackle the same design problem. Critics can comment over the network or by e-mail, and distinguished jurors can make virtual visits without being in the same room as the pin-up—if there is a pin-up (or a room). Virtual design studios (VDS) have the potential to support collaboration over competition, diversify student experiences, and redistribute the intellectual resources of architectural education across geographic and socioeconomic divisions. The challenge is to predict whether VDS will isolate students from a sense of place and materiality, or if it will provide future architects the tools to reconcile communication environments and physical space.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id cf2009_410
id cf2009_410
authors Abdelhameed, Wael
year 2009
title Reciprocal relationship of conceptualization and design problem definition: A proposed approach for an architectural design studio
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009, PUM, 2009, pp. 410-422
summary This research paper proposes an approach to be applied in the design studio. The proposed approach highlights the reciprocal relationship between concept articulation and design problem definition in a design method that exposes different design activities related to this relationship. The design method was applied in a design studio of an intermediate level. The study reports the analysis of student designs in terms of the deign method employed. Moreover, a survey was carried out in order to measure the responses of students and instructors regarding the design method and its approach. The main structure of the design method proposed can be described as follows: although the relationship of concept articulation and design-problem definition are reciprocal, the influence of one direction can be distinguished more than of the other direction on different design activities. The research using qualitative and quantitative methodologies analyzes the results and outputs of the theoretical investigations, the practical application in the design studio, and the questionnaire responses through different methodological tools.
keywords Conceptual design, design method, architectural design studio
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2009/06/08 18:53

_id caadria2009_031
id caadria2009_031
authors Abdelhameed, Wael
year 2009
title Cognition Model in Conceptual Designing
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 771-780
summary Both design researchers and cognitive scientists have developed various process models to study human creative behaviour in design. The models developed are often based on observations of design processes and analysis of design protocols. This research paper reports the-stateof- the-art in the area of cognition models that present design activities in conceptual designing. The research paper investigates the approaches of these cognition models. A new approach of a cognition activity model in conceptual designing is proposed. The new approach used in the introduced model takes into the account factors and activities that are related to the external environment of design (design medium). The external environment has an important role in the cognition activities and the evaluation process in a way that can hardly be ignored or neglected. The presented model of cognition activities in conceptual designing highlights two main factors employed in all the iteration loops of the model, namely: media use and representation. Case studies of architecture students’ designs have been analyzed. The analysis of these case studies helped in forming the proposed model. Various results have been concluded and reported.
keywords Cognition model; conceptual designing; design process; design theory
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id 2004_090
id 2004_090
authors Abdelhameed, Wael
year 2004
title Visual Design Thinking in the Design Process as Impacted by Digital Media
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 90-94
summary Exploring design ideas, through two dimensional and three dimensional forms, is the basis of design exploration and visual design thinking during the design process. Imagining how drawings and models (be it manual or digital) will be presented in reality is the essence of visual design thinking. By the beginning of the 20th Century, architecture has become more three dimensional in design exploration and in representation. This transition to three dimensions makes the processes of visual design thinking more related to digital media. The nature of media, utilized by architects, affects design-exploration processes. The research investigates both the processes of visual design thinking and the interrelation between visual design thinking and digital media, in order to shed more light on how digital media should be introduced to students of architecture.
keywords Visual Design Thinking: Digital Media; Architectural Education; Design Process
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id ascaad2007_002
id ascaad2007_002
authors Abdellatif, R. and C. Calderon
year 2007
title SecondLife: A Computer-Mediated Tool for Distance-Learning in Architecture Education?
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 17-34
summary Despite the importance of distance learning for its ability to reach a wide audience, easiness to access materials, and its lower cost compared to traditional learning, architecture education has not been well served by distance education. This is because it has a higher level of learning objectives, it is taught by coaching methodologies, and involves nonverbal forms of communication. One of the most common learning methods used in the design studio is the Criticism/Critique, which is a graphic and oral type of communication between the tutor and the students. In this investigation, Second Life, a massive multi-user online virtual environment that offers three-dimensional spatial capabilities via Avatars impersonation, is used as a computer-mediated tool for text and graphic-based communication in a distance learning situation. The study describes a demonstration experiment where students had to communicate with their tutor, display and describe their projects at a distance, in a purposely designed criticism space in SecondLife. The main objective of this paper is to observe and document the effects and the use of SecondLife virtual environment as an online 3D graphical-based tool of computer-mediated communication in distance learning in architecture education. The study also answers some questions: How well did the students use the tools of the medium provide? Was there a sense of personal communication and realism gained through using Avatars in the virtual environment? Did SecondLife provide a successful means of communication for a graphic-based context? And what are the students’ opinions about the learning environment? Using multiple methods of data collection, mainly based on an electronic observation of the experiment, questioning the participants before and after the experiment, and the analysis of the chat transcripts, the study presents descriptive results of the experiment, and discusses its main features. Proposals for modifications are made for future replications.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id 4cd1
authors Abdelmawla, S., Elnimeiri, M. and Krawczyk, R.
year 2000
title Structural Gizmos
source Eternity, Infinity and Virtuality in Architecture [Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / 1-880250-09-8] Washington D.C. 19-22 October 2000, pp. 115-121
summary Architects are visual learners. The Internet has enabled interactive learning tools that can be used to assist in visual thinking of structural concepts, especially at the introductory levels. Here, we propose a visual approach for understanding structures through a series of interactive learning modules, or ’gizmos’. These gizmos, are the tools that the student may use to examine one structural concept at a time. Being interactive, they offer many more possibilities beyond what one static problem can show. The approach aims to enhance students’ visual intuition, and hence understanding of structural concepts and the parameters affecting design. This paper will present selected structural gizmos, how they work, and how they can enhance structural education for architects.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ecaade2015_324
id ecaade2015_324
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif and Massoud, Passaint
year 2015
title Integrating Responsive and Kinetic Systems in the Design Studio: A Pedagogical Framework
source Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds.), Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16-18 September 2015, pp. 71-80
wos WOS:000372316000010
summary Responsive architecture is one of the growing areas of computational design that is not getting adequate attention in CAAD curricula. A pedagogical approach to designing responsive systems requires more than the typical knowledge, tools or skill sets in architectural design studios. This paper presents a framework for integrating responsive and kinetic systems in the architectural design studio. The framework builds on findings of two design studios conducted at The American University in Cairo, Egypt. In both studios, students were asked to design elements of responsive architecture that work towards the development of their projects. The paper demonstrates the process and outcomes of both studios. It then demonstrates how concepts of integrated project delivery are incorporated to propose a framework that engages students in designing, fabricating and operating responsive systems in different phases of the design process. A discussion follows regarding dynamics of design studio in light of the proposed framework.
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id cf2015_279
id cf2015_279
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif M. and Massoud, Passaint M.
year 2015
title Making Sense of those Batteries and Wires: Parametric Design between Emergence and Autonomy
source The next city - New technologies and the future of the built environment [16th International Conference CAAD Futures 2015. Sao Paulo, July 8-10, 2015. Electronic Proceedings/ ISBN 978-85-85783-53-2] Sao Paulo, Brazil, July 8-10, 2015, pp. 279-296.
summary This paper reports on the process and outcomes of a digital design studio that integrates parametric design and generative systems in architectural and urban design projects. It explores the interrelationship between the emergence of innovative formal representations using parametric design systems on the one hand, and design autonomy; more specifically the conscious process of generating and developing an architectural concept, on the other. Groups of undergraduate students working on an architectural project are asked to identify a specific conceptual parti that addresses an aspect of architectural quality, define strategies that satisfy those aspects, and computational methodologies to implement those strategies, such as rule-based systems, self-organization systems, and genetic algorithms. The paper describes the educational approach and studio outcomes, discusses implications for CAAD education and curricula, and addresses issues to be considered for parametric and generative software development.
keywords Parametric modeling, generative design, emergence, autonomy, design exploration, CAAD curriculum.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2015/06/29 05:55

_id sigradi2013_215
id sigradi2013_215
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif M.
year 2013
title Reconfiguring Architectural Space using Generative Design and Digital Fabrication: A Project Based Course
source SIGraDi 2013 [Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Chile - Valparaíso 20 - 22 November 2013, pp. 391 - 395
summary This paper discusses a course that addresses the integration between generative design and digital fabrication in the context of reconfiguring architectural space. The objective of the course, offered for 3rd year architecture students at the Department of Architecture, Ain Shams University, Egypt, was to design and fabricate interior design elements to be installed within the department lobby. Students worked in digital and physical environments to develop 8 group projects that featured concepts of shape grammars, L-systems, fractals and cellular automata. The potential of the realized projects is discussed in terms of 3D development of systems, contextual generative design, and pedagogical objectives.
keywords Contextual generative design; Rule-based systems; Self-organizing systems; Digital fabrication
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id ijac201412407
id ijac201412407
authors Abdelmohsen, Sherif M.
year 2014
title An Inquiry into Designing in Context using Generative Systems
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 12 - no. 4, 477-494
summary The use of generative systems has been widely investigated in the architectural design process through different procedures and levels of autonomy to generate form.The digression from abstract pre- existing notions of vocabulary and rules – even when resulting in emergent forms – to address complex real- world contexts is yet a challenging undertaking.This paper explores incorporating context in the process of designing using generative systems from ideation to fabrication, and explores the relationship between the emergent nature of generative design and the situated act of designing while using generative design tools.A course offered for 3rd year architecture students at the Department of Architecture, Ain Shams University, Egypt, was designed for this purpose. 110 students employed systems including shape grammars, L- systems, fractals and cellular automata, to design and fabricate 8 group projects.A discussion around emergence and situatedness is presented, with special attention to the designing process from ideation to fabrication.
series journal
last changed 2015/02/20 13:40

_id ascaad2016_049
id ascaad2016_049
authors Abdelsabour, Inas; Heba Farouk
year 2016
title Impact of Using Structural Models on Form Finding - Incorporating Practical Structural Knowledge into Design Studio
source Parametricism Vs. Materialism: Evolution of Digital Technologies for Development [8th ASCAAD Conference Proceedings ISBN 978-0-9955691-0-2] London (United Kingdom) 7-8 November 2016, pp. 483-492
summary Physical Models as an architectural design tool, had major effect on architecture learning process. In structural form finding, it helped in improving visual design thinking to track form creation processes during form finding design stage. The aim is to study the impact of using physical models for second year architecture students in design studios learning. By analyzing and comparing students’ performance and progress; to clarify the effect of using physical models as a tool for designing progression, followed by analytical study on the students' structural models, in order to investigate the influence of models on their design educational progress. Research achieved that there were three basic phases the students pass through during form finding process when used manual physical models that improve the students' design capability.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2017/05/25 11:33

_id e75d
authors Achten, H., Dijkstra, J., Oxman, R. and Bax, Th.
year 1995
title Knowledge-Based Systems Programming for Knowledge Intensive Teaching
source Multimedia and Architectural Disciplines [Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe / ISBN 0-9523687-1-4] Palermo (Italy) 16-18 November 1995, pp. 139-148
summary Typological design implies extensive knowledge of building types in order to design a building belonging to a building type. It facilitates the design process, which can be considered us a sequence of decisions. The paper gives an outline of a new approach in a course teaching typological knowledge through the medium of Knowledge-Based Systems programming. It demonstrates how Knowledge-Based Systems offer an appropriate structure for analysing the knowledge required to implement typological design. The class consists of third-year undergraduate students with no extensive previous programming experience. The implementation language is AutoLISP which operates in the AutoCAD environment. The building type used in the course is the office building. in order to become acquainted with both building type and programming in AutoLISP, information and instructions have been gathered and prestructured, including a worked out analysis and AutoLISP code. Office plans are generated through use of the Knowledge-Based System. They are encoded in the form of frames. At the end of the course the students will have learned the basics of Knowledge-Based Systems, have been introduced to programming these systems, have analysed and reflected upon the design process, and gained insight into a specific building type.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 2005_287
id 2005_287
authors Achten, Henri and Reymen, Isabelle
year 2005
title Structured Reflection as a Means to Deepen Understanding of CAAD
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 287-294
summary In this paper we outline a strategy of structured reflection to improve reflection by students in a course on the implication of CAAD, design theory, and design methodology. Earlier editions of the course showed that students often did not evolve their learning beyond a checklist level. Reflection is an important mechanism to improve learning from design situations. After a consideration of the main approaches to design reflection, we take up Schön’s notion of reflection and provide support for structured reflection in CAAD education, based on earlier experiences with structured question lists in a civil engineering course. Findings after the first year’s run show a deeper level of reflection on a more elaborate level.
keywords Structured Reflection, CAAD, Education
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id e719
authors Achten, Henri and Turksma, Arthur
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in Early Design: the Design Studio Experiences
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 327-335
summary The Design Systems group of the Eindhoven University of Technology started a new kind of design studio teaching. With the use of high-end equipment, students use Virtual Reality from the very start of the design process. Virtual Reality technology up to now was primarily used for giving presentations. We use the same technology in the design process itself by means of reducing the time span in which one gets results in Virtual Reality. The method is based on a very brief cycle of modelling in AutoCAD, assigning materials in 3DStudio Viz, and then making a walkthrough in Virtual Reality in a standard landscape. Due to this cycle, which takes about 15 seconds, the student gets immediate feedback on design decisions which facilitates evaluation of the design in three dimensions much faster than usual. Usually the learning curve of this kind of software is quite steep, but with the use of templates the number of required steps to achieve results is reduced significantly. In this way, the potential of Virtual Reality is not only explored in research projects, but also in education. This paper discusses the general set-up of the design studio and shows how, via short workshops, students acquire knowledge of the cycle in a short time. The paper focuses on the added value of using Virtual Reality technology in this manner: improved spatial reasoning, translation from two-dimensional to three-dimensional representations, and VR feedback on design decisions. It discusses the needs for new design representations in this design environment, and shows how fast feedback in Virtual Reality can improve the spatial design at an early stage of the design process.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ijac20031103
id ijac20031103
authors Achten, Henri H.
year 2003
title New Design Methods for Computer Aided Architectural Design Methodology Teaching
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 1 - no. 1
summary Architects and architectural students are exploring new ways of design using Computer Aided Architectural Design software. This exploration is seldom backed up from a design methodological viewpoint. In this paper, a design methodological framework for reflection on innovate design processes by architects that has been used in an educational setting is introduced.The framework leads to highly specific, weak design methods, that clarify the use of the computer in the design process.The framework allows students to grasp new developments, use them in their own design work, and to better reflect on their own position relative to CAAD and architectural design.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id 2004_142
id 2004_142
authors Achten, Henri, Jessurun, Joran and de Vries, Bauke
year 2004
title The Desk-Cave - A Low-Cost Versatile Virtual Reality Design and Research Setup Between Desktop and CAVE
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 142-147
summary Virtual Reality has become an almost ubiquitous technology in many applications, but it has seen limited success in design support. Reasons for this seem to lie in lack of easily available tools, high threshold for non-programmers, and high cost of equipment. In this paper we describe a Virtual Reality environment that is developed at Design Systems called the Desk-Cave. The Desk-Cave is a low-cost VR setup that combines principles of a CAVE system with a work desk. Architecture students with no specific training in VR technology use the Desk-Cave in design projects both in the early stage and the final presentation stage. The system allows quick transfer to the Desk-Cave and architectural evaluation of design proposals.
keywords Virtual Reality, Architectural Design, Design Process, Cel Shading
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id 7e52
authors Achten, Henri
year 2001
title Normative Positions in Architectural Design - Deriving and Applying Design Methods
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 263-268
summary This paper presents a recently finished course of eight weeks where CAAD skills, design methodology, and architectural theory are combined to discuss possible perspectives on the use of the computer in design, and its influence on architecture. In the course, three contemporary architects were studied; Peter Eisenman, Ben van Berkel, and Greg Lynn. Each was discussed on aspects of ontology (which are the elements of discourse), design method (design process and organization of the process), and the use of the computer (techniques and approaches). These were linked with design theory, architectural theory, and CAD-theory. The reflection on the work of the architects resulted in a number of design methods for each architect. The design methods were adapted to the available technologies in the university as well as to the scope of the exercise, since the period of eight weeks for an exercise cannot compete with design processes in practice that take many participants and much time. The students then applied the design methods to a design task: student housing and an exhibition pavilion on the campus area of the university. The task was so devised, that students could focus on either architectural or urban design level with one of the design methods. Also, the choice of architects and accompanying design methods was made in such a way that students with low, medium, and advanced computer skills could take part in the course and exercise. In a workshop held at the Czech Technical University (CVUT) in Prague, the same procedure was used in a one-week period for a different design task, but in an otherwise almost identical setting with respect to the CAAD software used. The methods and material were easily transferred to the other setting. The students were able to cope with the task and produced surprising results in the short time span available. The paper will provide an overview of the course, discuss the pedagogical implications of the work, and discuss how this particular work can be generalized to incorporate other architects and approaches.
keywords CAAD: Design Methods, Pedagogy
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

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