Search Results

Hits 1 to 20 of 96

_id 8fd4
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1984
title Integrated Computer Aided Design: Present and Future Data Structure
source CIB W78, Colloquium June, 1984. 6 p. : ill. includes bibliography.
summary The article presents some viewpoints on data structures which may mirror the building process and development of integrated computer aided design systems. The emphasis is upon the necessity to find a sufficiently valid general approach to system development in order to meet the fast evolution within the field and the demand for development strategies
keywords data structures, integration, CAD, systems, building process, architecture, standards, construction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 3386
authors Gavin, L., Keuppers, S., Mottram, C. and Penn, A.
year 2001
title Awareness Space in Distributed Social Networks
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 615-628
summary In the real work environment we are constantly aware of the presence and activity of others. We know when people are away from their desks, whether they are doing concentrated work, or whether they are available for interaction. We use this peripheral awareness of others to guide our interactions and social behaviour. However, when teams of workers are spatially separated we lose 'awareness' information and this severely inhibits interaction and information flow. The Theatre of Work (TOWER) aims to develop a virtual space to help create a sense of social awareness and presence to support distributed working. Presence, status and activity of other people are made visible in the theatre of work and allow one to build peripheral awareness of the current activity patterns of those who we do not share space with in reality. TOWER is developing a construction set to augment the workplace with synchronous as well as asynchronous awareness. Current, synchronous activity patterns and statuses are played out in a 3D virtual space through the use of symbolic acting. The environment itself however is automatically constructed on the basis of the organisation's information resources and is in effect an information space. Location of the symbolic actor in the environment can therefore represent the focus of that person's current activity. The environment itself evolves to reflect historic patterns of information use and exchange, and becomes an asynchronous representation of the past history of the organisation. A module that records specific episodes from the synchronous event cycle as a Docudrama forms an asynchronous information resource to give a history of team work and decision taking. The TOWER environment is displayed using a number of screen based and ambient display devices. Current status and activity events are supplied to the system using a range of sensors both in the real environment and in the information systems. The methodology has been established as a two-stage process. The 3D spatial environment will be automatically constructed or generated from some aspect of the pre-existing organisational structure or its information resources or usage patterns. The methodology must be extended to provide means for that structure to grow and evolve in the light of patterns of actual user behaviour in the TOWER space. We have developed a generative algorithm that uses a cell aggregation process to transcribe the information space into a 3d space. In stage 2 that space was analysed using space syntax methods (Hillier & Hanson, 1984; Hillier 1996) to allow the properties of permeability and intelligibility to be measured, and then these fed back into the generative algorithm. Finally, these same measures have been used to evaluate the spatialised behaviour that users of the TOWER space show, and will used to feed this back into the evolution of the space. The stage of transcription from information structure to 3d space through a generative algorithm is critical since it is this stage that allows neighbourhood relations to be created that are not present in the original information structure. It is these relations that could be expected to help increase social density.
keywords Algorithmic Form Generation, Distributed Workgroups, Space Syntax
series CAAD Futures
email l.gavin@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ac8b
authors Mitchell, W.
year 1984
title CAD Technology, Its Effects on Practice and the Response of Education - an Overview
source The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984.
summary Related with the evolution of hardware there also is an evolution of CAD techniques. The very first CAD/CAM packages were developed on mainframes. They moved into practice when 16-bit minicomputers became available. The packages mainly were production drafting applications. The 32-bit super minicomputers give wider possibilities, but at the same time some software problems arise, namely the complexity of CAD- databases and the development and maintenance cost of large programs. With VLSI the distribution of intelligence becomes possible, the enthousiasm for CAD increases, but still the gap between available hardware and high quality software, remains high.Concerning CAD teaching there are severe problems. First of all there are not enough really good designers which know CAD in such a way that they can teach it. Second there is a shortage of equipment and a financial problem. Thirdly there is the question what the students need to know about CAD. which is not clear at the moment. At the University of California, Los Angeles, the following 5 subjects are teached: Computer Support, Computer Literacy, Professional Practice Implications, Exploration of CAD as a Design Medium and Theoretical Foundations of CAD. To use computers as a medium it is necessary to understand architecture, its objects, its operators and its evaluation criteria. The last topic is considered at research level.
series eCAADe
email wjm@mit.edu
more www.ecaade.org
last changed 2001/10/20 08:23

_id 0ecb
authors Waerum, Jens and Rüdiger Kristiansen, Bjarne
year 1989
title CAAD Education at the School of Architecture Copenhagen
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 4.5.1-4.5.9
summary The establishment of Datacentret (the Data Centre) in summer 1985 was preceded by 15 years slow- moving, arduous work from the early experiments in what was then the computing laboratory under the supervision of architect Per Jacobi, author of the Danish 3D drawing system MONSTER, until 1984, when a special committee was commissioned to draw up proposals for the introduction of teaching in computing at the Architects School. In spring 1985 the school administrators decided that a central computer workshop should be set up and in cooperation with the school's institutes placed jointly in charge of instructing teachers and students, carrying out research and development within the field of architecture and taking steps to work out a curriculum of supplementary training for practising architects. With the aid of a special grant, 12 PC's were successfully acquired in the 2 years that followed, as well as a screen projector and other peripherals.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:46

_id 0a6e
authors Walters, Roger
year 1986
title CAAD: Shorter-term Gains; Longerterm Costs?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 185-196
summary Assessment of CAAD systems in use is complex: it needs careful qualifications and is often contradictory. It is suggested that little progress has been made in making sense of the impacts of computing on design and design organizations. Impacts are more diverse and complicated than has been assumed. Assessments tend to be either overtly optimistic or pessimistic, yet the need is to be realistic. Moreover, impacts have been the subject of speculation and marketing rather than systematic study. Carefully documented case studies of projects or longitudinal studies of organizational impacts remain the exception. This chapter draws upon recorded user experience reported elsewhere (Walters, 1983)' and presents an assessment of the performance in use of current production systems. It presents an end-user view and also identifies a number of outstanding design research topics It is suggested that different systems in different organizations in different settings will give rise to new impacts. A wide variety of outcomes is possible. It seems unlikely that any simple set of relationships can account for all the data that inquiry reveals. The task becomes one of identifying variables that lead to differential outcomes, as the same cause may lead to different effects (Attewell and Rule, 1984). This becomes a long-term task. Each optimistic impact may be countered by some other more pessimistic impact. Moreover, the changes brought about on design by computing are significant because both beneficial and non- beneficial impacts are present together. Impacts are held in a dynamic balance that is subject to constant evolution. This viewpoint accounts for otherwise conflicting conclusions. It is unlikely that the full range of impacts is yet known, and a wide range of impacts and outcomes already need to be taken into account. It seems that CAD alone cannot either guarantee improved design or that it inevitably leads to some diminished role for the designer. CAD can lead to either possible outcome, depending upon the particular combination of impacts present. Careful matching of systems to design organization and work environment is therefore needed. The design management role becomes crucial.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 409c
authors Akin, Omer, Flemming, Ulrich and Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1984
title Development of Computer Systems for Use in Architectural Education
source 1984. ii, 47 p. includes bibliography
summary Computers have not been used in education in a way that fosters intellectual development of alternate approaches to design. Sufficient theory exists to use computing devices to support other potentially fruitful approaches to design. A proposal is made for the development of a computer system for architectural education which is built upon a particular model for design, that of rational decision making. Within the framework provided by the model, a series of courseware development projects are proposed which together with hardware acquisitions constitute a comprehensive computer system for architectural education
keywords architecture, education, design, decision making
series CADline
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id sigradi2015_9.347
id sigradi2015_9.347
authors Andrade, Eduardo; Orellana, Nicolas; Mesa, Javiera; Felmer, Patricio
year 2015
title Spatial Configuration and Sociaty. Comparison between the street market Tristan Matta and Tirso de Molina Market
source SIGRADI 2015 [Proceedings of the 19th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - vol. 2 - ISBN: 978-85-8039-133-6] Florianópolis, SC, Brasil 23-27 November 2015, pp. 481-485.
summary This research aims to clarify how certain visual and accessibility patterns, in buildings and urban environments, are related to social activities that take place in them. The study, based on the theory of space syntax (Hillier & Hanson 1984; Hillier, 1996), seeks to recognize patterns of behavior, both individual and aggregate. The case studies are Tirso de Molina Market and the free street market Tristan Matta, both in Santiago de Chile.
keywords pace Syntax, Visibilidad, Accesibilidad, Conectividad, Comportamiento
series SIGRADI
email edo.a@outlook.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id d5c8
authors Angelo, C.V., Bueno, A.P., Ludvig, C., Reis, A.F. and Trezub, D.
year 1999
title Image and Shape: Two Distinct Approaches
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 410-415
summary This paper is the result of two researches done at the district of Campeche, Florianópolis, by the Grupo PET/ARQ/UFSC/CAPES. Different aspects and conceptual approaches were used to study the spatial attributes of this district located in the Southern part of Santa Catarina Island. The readings and analysis of two researches were based on graphic pistures builded with the use of Corel 7.0 e AutoCadR14. The first research – "Urban Development in the Island of Santa Catarina: Public Space Study"- examined the urban structures of Campeche based on the Spatial Syntax Theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) that relates form and social appropriation of public spaces. The second research – "Topoceptive Characterisation of Campeche: The Image of a Locality in Expansion in the Island of Santa Catarina" -, based on the methodology developed by Kohlsdorf (1996) and also on the visual analysis proposed by Lynch (1960), identified characteristics of this locality with the specific goal of selecting attributes that contributed to the ideas of the place its population held. The paper consists of an initial exercise of linking these two methods in order to test the complementarity of their analytical tools. Exemplifying the analytical procedures undertaken in the two approaches, the readings done - global (of the locality as a whole) and partial (from parts of the settlement) - are presented and compared.
series SIGRADI
email caludvig@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 44b1
authors Balas, Egon
year 1984
title On the Facial Structure of Scheduling Polyhedra
source 49 p., 6 p. of appendix : ill. Pittsburgh, PA: Design Research Center, Carnegie Mellon Univ., December, 1984. includes bibliography
summary A well-known job shop scheduling problem can be formulated as follows. Given a graph G with node set N and with directed and undirected arcs, find an orientation of the undirected arcs that minimizes the length of a longest path in G. The author treats the problem as a disjunctive program, without recourse to integer variables, and give a partial characterization of the scheduling polyhedron P(N), i.e., the convex hull of feasible schedules. In particular, he derives all the facets inducing inequalities for the scheduling polyhedron P(K) defined on some clique with node set K, and gives a sufficient condition for such inequalities to also induce facets of P(N). One of our results is that any inequality that induces a facet of P(H) for some HCK, also induces a facet of P(K). Another one is a recursive formula for deriving a facet inducing inequality with p positive coefficients from one with p-1 positive coefficients. The author also addresses the constraint identification problem, and gives a procedure for finding an inequality that cuts off a given solution to a subset of the constraints
keywords polyhedra, graphs, optimization, convex hull
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 4685
authors Barsky, Brian A.
year 1984
title A Description and Evaluation of Various 3-D Models
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. January, 1984. vol. 4: pp. 38-52 : ill. Includes bibliography
summary The use of parametric curves and surfaces for object modeling in computer graphics is becoming increasingly popular. There is sometimes, however, a reluctance to use them because it seems that the added power they give is more than offset by the complexity of their formulations and their computations. The purpose of this article is to clarify their meanings and uses and show how much they have in common behind the diversity of their formulations. The author discusses the properties and benefits of using the parametric Hermite, Coons, Bezier, B-spline, and Beta-spline curve and surface formulations
keywords Hermite, Coons, curved surfaces, Bezier, curves, B- splines, computational geometry, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id c9c1
authors Basili, Victor R. and Perricone, Barry T.
year 1984
title Software Errors and Complexity : An Empirical Investigation
source communications of the ACM. January, 1984. vol. 27: pp. 42-52 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The relationships between the frequency and distribution of errors during software development, the maintenance of the developed software, and a the influence of a variety of environmental factors on software development were analyzed. These factors include the complexity of the software, the developer's experience with the application, and the reuse of existing design and code. Such relationships can not only provide an insight into the characteristics of computer software development and the effects that the environment can have on the product, but also improve its reliability and quality. The study is based on data derived from a medium- scale software development project
keywords software, engineering, programming, reliability
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ecaadesigradi2019_449
id ecaadesigradi2019_449
authors Becerra Santacruz, Axel
year 2019
title The Architecture of ScarCity Game - The craft and the digital as an alternative design process
source Sousa, JP, Xavier, JP and Castro Henriques, G (eds.), Architecture in the Age of the 4th Industrial Revolution - Proceedings of the 37th eCAADe and 23rd SIGraDi Conference - Volume 3, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 September 2019, pp. 45-52
summary The Architecture of ScarCity Game is a board game used as a pedagogical tool that challenges architecture students by involving them in a series of experimental design sessions to understand the design process of scarcity and the actual relation between the craft and the digital. This means "pragmatic delivery processes and material constraints, where the exchange between the artisan of handmade, representing local skills and technology of the digitally conceived is explored" (Huang 2013). The game focuses on understanding the different variables of the crafted design process of traditional communities under conditions of scarcity (Michel and Bevan 1992). This requires first analyzing the spatial environmental model of interaction, available human and natural resources, and the dynamic relationship of these variables in a digital era. In the first stage (Pre-Agency), the game set the concept of the craft by limiting students design exploration from a minimum possible perspective developing locally available resources and techniques. The key elements of the design process of traditional knowledge communities have to be identified (Preez 1984). In other words, this stage is driven by limited resources + chance + contingency. In the second stage (Post-Agency) students taking the architects´ role within this communities, have to speculate and explore the interface between the craft (local knowledge and low technological tools), and the digital represented by computation data, new technologies available and construction. This means the introduction of strategy + opportunity + chance as part of the design process. In this sense, the game has a life beyond its mechanics. This other life challenges the participants to exploit the possibilities of breaking the actual boundaries of design. The result is a tool to challenge conventional methods of teaching and leaning controlling a prescribed design process. It confronts the rules that professionals in this field take for granted. The game simulates a 'fake' reality by exploring in different ways with surveyed information. As a result, participants do not have anything 'real' to lose. Instead, they have all the freedom to innovate and be creative.
keywords Global south, scarcity, low tech, digital-craft, design process and innovation by challenge.
series eCAADeSIGraDi
email axbesa03@gmail.com
last changed 2019/08/26 20:28

_id 6118
authors Bentley, Jon L.
year 1984
title Code Tuning -- Programming Pearls
source communications of the ACM. February, 1984. vol. 27: pp. 91-96
summary Efficiency is one of many problems in programming, and there are many ways to achieve it. This column is about a low-level approach . 'Code tuning' locates the expensive parts of an existing program and then modifies that code to improve its performance
keywords programming, search, algorithms, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c159
authors Bentley, Jon L.
year 1984
title A Case Study in Applied Algorithm Design
source IEEE Computer. February, 1984. vol. 17: pp. 75-88 : ill. tables. includes bibliography
summary In this article the author describes how an algorithm design was used in the development of a small routine in a software system
keywords algorithms, programming, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6050
authors Bentley, Jon L.
year 1984
title Algorithm Design Techniques -- Programming Pearls
source communications of the ACM. September, 1984. vol. 27: pp. 865-871 : ill
summary The problem arose in one-dimensional pattern recognition: The input is a vector X of N real numbers; the output is the maximum sum found in any contiguous subvector of the input. The problem is when some of the numbers are negative. This column is built around that problem with an emphasis on the algorithms that solve it and the techniques used to design them
keywords techniques, programming, algorithms, pattern recognition
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8087
authors Boehm, Barry W., Penedo, Maria H. and Stuckle, Don E. (et al)
year 1984
title A Software Development Environment for Improving Productivity
source IEEE Computer. June, 1984. pp. 30-44 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The software productivity system (SPS) was developed to support project activities. It involves a set of strategies, including the work environment; the evaluation and procurement of hardware equipment; the provision for immediate access to computing resources through local area networks; the building of an integrated set of tools to support the software development life cycle and all project personnel; and a user support function to transfer new technology. All of these strategies are being accomplished incrementally. The current architecture is VAX-based and uses the Unix operating system, a wideband local network, and a set of software tools. The article describes the steps that led to the creation of the software productivity project and its components and summarized the requirements analyses on which the SPS was based
keywords productivity, software, hardware, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 4e4e
authors Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel
year 1984
title Geometric Structures for Three- Dimensional Shape Representation
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. October, 1984. vol. 3: pp. 266-286 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Different geometric structures are investigated in the context of discrete surface representation. It is shown that minimal representations (i.e., polyhedra) can be provided by a surface-based method using nearest neighbors structures or by a volume-based method using the Delaunay triangulation. Both approaches are compared with respect to various criteria, such as space requirements, computation time, constraints on the distribution of the points, facilities for further calculations, and agreement with the actual shape of the object
keywords algorithms, polyhedra, curves, curved surfaces, solids, representation, geometric modeling, data structures
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id a6f1
authors Bridges, A.H.
year 1986
title Any Progress in Systematic Design?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 5-15
summary In order to discuss this question it is necessary to reflect awhile on design methods in general. The usual categorization discusses 'generations' of design methods, but Levy (1981) proposes an alternative approach. He identifies five paradigm shifts during the course of the twentieth century which have influenced design methods debate. The first paradigm shift was achieved by 1920, when concern with industrial arts could be seen to have replaced concern with craftsmanship. The second shift, occurring in the early 1930s, resulted in the conception of a design profession. The third happened in the 1950s, when the design methods debate emerged; the fourth took place around 1970 and saw the establishment of 'design research'. Now, in the 1980s, we are going through the fifth paradigm shift, associated with the adoption of a holistic approach to design theory and with the emergence of the concept of design ideology. A major point in Levy's paper was the observation that most of these paradigm shifts were associated with radical social reforms or political upheavals. For instance, we may associate concern about public participation with the 1970s shift and the possible use (or misuse) of knowledge, information and power with the 1980s shift. What has emerged, however, from the work of colleagues engaged since the 1970s in attempting to underpin the practice of design with a coherent body of design theory is increasing evidence of the fundamental nature of a person's engagement with the design activity. This includes evidence of the existence of two distinctive modes of thought, one of which can be described as cognitive modelling and the other which can be described as rational thinking. Cognitive modelling is imagining, seeing in the mind's eye. Rational thinking is linguistic thinking, engaging in a form of internal debate. Cognitive modelling is externalized through action, and through the construction of external representations, especially drawings. Rational thinking is externalized through verbal language and, more formally, through mathematical and scientific notations. Cognitive modelling is analogic, presentational, holistic, integrative and based upon pattern recognition and pattern manipulation. Rational thinking is digital, sequential, analytical, explicatory and based upon categorization and logical inference. There is some relationship between the evidence for two distinctive modes of thought and the evidence of specialization in cerebral hemispheres (Cross, 1984). Design methods have tended to focus upon the rational aspects of design and have, therefore, neglected the cognitive aspects. By recognizing that there are peculiar 'designerly' ways of thinking combining both types of thought process used to perceive, construct and comprehend design representations mentally and then transform them into an external manifestation current work in design theory is promising at last to have some relevance to design practice.
series CAAD Futures
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 088a
authors Brotman, Shapiro Lynne and Badler, Norman I.
year 1984
title Generating Soft Shadows With a Depth Buffer Algorithm
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. October, 1984. pp. 5-12 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The authors take a pragmatic approach to shadowing and describe an algorithm that combines an existing shadowing method with a popular visible surface rendering technique, called a 'depth buffer,' to generate soft shadows resulting from light sources of finite extent. Their method extend Crow's shadow volume algorithm to produce multiple shadows overlapped to yield the characteristic soft edges of a shadow penumbra
keywords rendering, algorithms, shadowing, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ec87
authors Buchanan, Bruce G. and Shortliffe, Edward H. (editors)
year 1984
title Rule- Based Expert Systems : The MYCIN Experiments of the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project
source xix, 748 p. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1984. includes bibliography: p. 717-738 and subject index
summary A detailed look at MYCIN, an expert system for diagnosing bacterial infections and prescribing treatment for them. Issues covered include detailed examinations of knowledge acquisition, reasoning, explanation, tutoring, performance evaluation, and human interface
keywords AI, expert systems, knowledge acquisition, representation, reasoning, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

For more results click below:

this is page 0show page 1show page 2show page 3show page 4