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_id 20a8
authors Ruffle, Simon
year 1986
title How Can CAD Provide for the Changing Role of the Architect?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 197-199
summary At the RIBA Conference of 1981 entitled 'New Opportunities', and more recently at the 1984 ACA Annual Conference on 'Architects in Competition' there has been talk of marketing, new areas of practice, recapturing areas of practice lost to other professions, more accountability to client and public 'the decline of the mystique of the professional'. It is these issues, rather than technical advances in software and hardware, that will be the prime movers in getting computers into widespread practice in the future. In this chapter we will examine how changing attitudes in the profession might affect three practical issues in computing with which the author has been preoccupied in the past year. We will conclude by considering how, in future, early design stage computing may need to be linked to architectural theory, and, as this is a conference where we are encouraged to be outspoken, we will raise the issue of a computer-based theory of architecture.
series CAAD Futures
email sjr56@cam.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id c1ae
authors Gulliehsen, Eric and Chang, Ernest
year 1984
title An Expert System for Generative Architectural Design
source December, 1984. pp. 253-267. includes bibliography
summary The mathematician-architect Christopher Alexander has devised a scientific theory of architectural design. He believes that all existing architectural entities can be described as interacting patterns, all possible relationships of which are governed by generative rules. These form a pattern language capable of generating design forms appropriate to a given environmental context. The complexity of interaction among these rules leads to difficulties in their representation by conventional methods. This paper presents a computer-based expert system which implements Alexander's design methodology
keywords synthesis, expert systems, CAD, patterns, design, methods, architecture, theory
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id avocaad_2001_15
id avocaad_2001_15
authors Henri Achten, Jos van Leeuwen
year 2001
title Scheming and Plotting your Way into Architectural Complexity
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The problem of complexity underlies all design problems. With the advent of CAD however, our ability to truly represent complexity has increased considerably. Following the four waves of design methodology as distinguished by Cross (1984), we see changing architectural design attitudes with respect to complexity. Rather than viewing it as problematic issue, designers such as Koolhaas, van Berkel, Lynn, and Franke embrace complexity and make it a focus in their design work. The computer is an indispensable instrument in this approach. The paper discusses the current state of the art in architectural design positions on complexity and CAAD, and reflects in particular on the role of design representations in this discussion. It is advanced that a number of recent developments are based on an intensified use of design representations such as schema’s, diagrams, and interactive modelling techniques. Within the field of possibilities in this field, the authors discuss Feature-Based Modelling (FBM) as a formalism to represent knowledge of the design. It is demonstrated how the FBM approach can be used to describe graphic representations as used in design, and how other levels and kinds of design knowledge can be incorporated, in particular the less definite qualitative information in the early design phase. The discussion section concludes with an extrapolation of the current role of design representation in the design process, and advances a few positions on the advantage and disadvantage of this role in architectural design.
series AVOCAAD
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 4b27
authors Lansdown, John
year 1984
title Knowledge for Designers
source Architect`s journal. England: February, 1984. vol. 179: pp. 55-58
summary The first of two articles discussing expert systems. Both design and construction are carried out within the framework of empirical rules and regulations designed more for ease of implementation and checking than scientific validity. On completion of a building, little follow up research is done on the way it is used or on the way in which the assumption made in its design are borne out in practice. This present two problems: How to make information from disparate sources easily available to designers and constructors, and how to make them aware that they need this information. This paper describes how a special type of computer programming might assist in solving these problems
keywords design, construction, building, expert systems, knowledge base, systems, programming, life cycle
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 0a6e
authors Walters, Roger
year 1986
title CAAD: Shorter-term Gains; Longerterm Costs?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 185-196
summary Assessment of CAAD systems in use is complex: it needs careful qualifications and is often contradictory. It is suggested that little progress has been made in making sense of the impacts of computing on design and design organizations. Impacts are more diverse and complicated than has been assumed. Assessments tend to be either overtly optimistic or pessimistic, yet the need is to be realistic. Moreover, impacts have been the subject of speculation and marketing rather than systematic study. Carefully documented case studies of projects or longitudinal studies of organizational impacts remain the exception. This chapter draws upon recorded user experience reported elsewhere (Walters, 1983)' and presents an assessment of the performance in use of current production systems. It presents an end-user view and also identifies a number of outstanding design research topics It is suggested that different systems in different organizations in different settings will give rise to new impacts. A wide variety of outcomes is possible. It seems unlikely that any simple set of relationships can account for all the data that inquiry reveals. The task becomes one of identifying variables that lead to differential outcomes, as the same cause may lead to different effects (Attewell and Rule, 1984). This becomes a long-term task. Each optimistic impact may be countered by some other more pessimistic impact. Moreover, the changes brought about on design by computing are significant because both beneficial and non- beneficial impacts are present together. Impacts are held in a dynamic balance that is subject to constant evolution. This viewpoint accounts for otherwise conflicting conclusions. It is unlikely that the full range of impacts is yet known, and a wide range of impacts and outcomes already need to be taken into account. It seems that CAD alone cannot either guarantee improved design or that it inevitably leads to some diminished role for the designer. CAD can lead to either possible outcome, depending upon the particular combination of impacts present. Careful matching of systems to design organization and work environment is therefore needed. The design management role becomes crucial.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id af76
authors Wong, Waycal C.H. and Will, Barry F.
year 1996
title An Analysis of Using a Digital 3D Sundial as a Design and Decision Support Tool
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 131-141
summary The rapid speed of computer development brings new technologies, and these advances require innovative investigations to apply them optimally in the field of architecture. Burkett (1984) demonstrated that computer graphics can ‘provide an excellent opportunity for exploring solar issues in building redesign’. With one of the latest computer technologies, the "hyper-model” environment, this research investigates how to environment can become an aid in the design and decision support area. The research first reviews the communication between the architect and the client as described by Salisbury (1990). The review indicates that an interactive 3D hypermedia paradigm, with quick response, fast data manipulation and 3D visualization, offers a better communication media between the architect and the client. This research applies the "hyper-model” environment to design and develop a new methodology in collecting, analyzing, and presenting solar data. It also endeavors to show the possibilities of using the environment in design process.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:06

_id 409c
authors Akin, Omer, Flemming, Ulrich and Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1984
title Development of Computer Systems for Use in Architectural Education
source 1984. ii, 47 p. includes bibliography
summary Computers have not been used in education in a way that fosters intellectual development of alternate approaches to design. Sufficient theory exists to use computing devices to support other potentially fruitful approaches to design. A proposal is made for the development of a computer system for architectural education which is built upon a particular model for design, that of rational decision making. Within the framework provided by the model, a series of courseware development projects are proposed which together with hardware acquisitions constitute a comprehensive computer system for architectural education
keywords architecture, education, design, decision making
series CADline
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 44b1
authors Balas, Egon
year 1984
title On the Facial Structure of Scheduling Polyhedra
source 49 p., 6 p. of appendix : ill. Pittsburgh, PA: Design Research Center, Carnegie Mellon Univ., December, 1984. includes bibliography
summary A well-known job shop scheduling problem can be formulated as follows. Given a graph G with node set N and with directed and undirected arcs, find an orientation of the undirected arcs that minimizes the length of a longest path in G. The author treats the problem as a disjunctive program, without recourse to integer variables, and give a partial characterization of the scheduling polyhedron P(N), i.e., the convex hull of feasible schedules. In particular, he derives all the facets inducing inequalities for the scheduling polyhedron P(K) defined on some clique with node set K, and gives a sufficient condition for such inequalities to also induce facets of P(N). One of our results is that any inequality that induces a facet of P(H) for some HCK, also induces a facet of P(K). Another one is a recursive formula for deriving a facet inducing inequality with p positive coefficients from one with p-1 positive coefficients. The author also addresses the constraint identification problem, and gives a procedure for finding an inequality that cuts off a given solution to a subset of the constraints
keywords polyhedra, graphs, optimization, convex hull
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 6050
authors Bentley, Jon L.
year 1984
title Algorithm Design Techniques -- Programming Pearls
source communications of the ACM. September, 1984. vol. 27: pp. 865-871 : ill
summary The problem arose in one-dimensional pattern recognition: The input is a vector X of N real numbers; the output is the maximum sum found in any contiguous subvector of the input. The problem is when some of the numbers are negative. This column is built around that problem with an emphasis on the algorithms that solve it and the techniques used to design them
keywords techniques, programming, algorithms, pattern recognition
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c159
authors Bentley, Jon L.
year 1984
title A Case Study in Applied Algorithm Design
source IEEE Computer. February, 1984. vol. 17: pp. 75-88 : ill. tables. includes bibliography
summary In this article the author describes how an algorithm design was used in the development of a small routine in a software system
keywords algorithms, programming, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a6f1
authors Bridges, A.H.
year 1986
title Any Progress in Systematic Design?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 5-15
summary In order to discuss this question it is necessary to reflect awhile on design methods in general. The usual categorization discusses 'generations' of design methods, but Levy (1981) proposes an alternative approach. He identifies five paradigm shifts during the course of the twentieth century which have influenced design methods debate. The first paradigm shift was achieved by 1920, when concern with industrial arts could be seen to have replaced concern with craftsmanship. The second shift, occurring in the early 1930s, resulted in the conception of a design profession. The third happened in the 1950s, when the design methods debate emerged; the fourth took place around 1970 and saw the establishment of 'design research'. Now, in the 1980s, we are going through the fifth paradigm shift, associated with the adoption of a holistic approach to design theory and with the emergence of the concept of design ideology. A major point in Levy's paper was the observation that most of these paradigm shifts were associated with radical social reforms or political upheavals. For instance, we may associate concern about public participation with the 1970s shift and the possible use (or misuse) of knowledge, information and power with the 1980s shift. What has emerged, however, from the work of colleagues engaged since the 1970s in attempting to underpin the practice of design with a coherent body of design theory is increasing evidence of the fundamental nature of a person's engagement with the design activity. This includes evidence of the existence of two distinctive modes of thought, one of which can be described as cognitive modelling and the other which can be described as rational thinking. Cognitive modelling is imagining, seeing in the mind's eye. Rational thinking is linguistic thinking, engaging in a form of internal debate. Cognitive modelling is externalized through action, and through the construction of external representations, especially drawings. Rational thinking is externalized through verbal language and, more formally, through mathematical and scientific notations. Cognitive modelling is analogic, presentational, holistic, integrative and based upon pattern recognition and pattern manipulation. Rational thinking is digital, sequential, analytical, explicatory and based upon categorization and logical inference. There is some relationship between the evidence for two distinctive modes of thought and the evidence of specialization in cerebral hemispheres (Cross, 1984). Design methods have tended to focus upon the rational aspects of design and have, therefore, neglected the cognitive aspects. By recognizing that there are peculiar 'designerly' ways of thinking combining both types of thought process used to perceive, construct and comprehend design representations mentally and then transform them into an external manifestation current work in design theory is promising at last to have some relevance to design practice.
series CAAD Futures
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8860
authors Choi, B.K., Barash, M.M. and Anderson, D.C.
year 1984
title Automatic Recognition of Machined Surfaces from a 3D Solid Model
source computer Aided Design. March, 1984. vol. 16: pp. 81-86 : ill. includes bibliography
summary It has been proposed that a direct link between CAD and CAM be provided through a computer-automated process planning system. Described in this paper are algorithmic procedures to identify machined surfaces (i.e., machining requirements) for a workpiece directly from its 3D geometric description. A machined surface is a portion of workpiece that can be generated by a certain mode of metal removal operation. Machined surfaces are algorithmically recognized from a 3D boundary file, and then their 2 1/2D descriptions are obtained in a data structure (format) suitable for an automated process planning system. A simplified boundary file data structure is introduced in order to explain the machined surface recognition procedures
keywords A machined surface type is defined as a pattern of faces, and a syntactic pattern recognition method is used to find the machined surface from the boundary file
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8fd4
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1984
title Integrated Computer Aided Design: Present and Future Data Structure
source CIB W78, Colloquium June, 1984. 6 p. : ill. includes bibliography.
summary The article presents some viewpoints on data structures which may mirror the building process and development of integrated computer aided design systems. The emphasis is upon the necessity to find a sufficiently valid general approach to system development in order to meet the fast evolution within the field and the demand for development strategies
keywords data structures, integration, CAD, systems, building process, architecture, standards, construction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 20ff
id 20ff
authors Derix, Christian
year 2004
title Building a Synthetic Cognizer
source Design Computation Cognition conference 2004, MIT
summary Understanding ‘space’ as a structured and dynamic system can provide us with insight into the central concept in the architectural discourse that so far has proven to withstand theoretical framing (McLuhan 1964). The basis for this theoretical assumption is that space is not a void left by solid matter but instead an emergent quality of action and interaction between individuals and groups with a physical environment (Hillier 1996). In this way it can be described as a parallel distributed system, a self-organising entity. Extrapolating from Luhmann’s theory of social systems (Luhmann 1984), a spatial system is autonomous from its progenitors, people, but remains intangible to a human observer due to its abstract nature and therefore has to be analysed by computed entities, synthetic cognisers, with the capacity to perceive. This poster shows an attempt to use another complex system, a distributed connected algorithm based on Kohonen’s self-organising feature maps – SOM (Kohonen 1997), as a “perceptual aid” for creating geometric mappings of these spatial systems that will shed light on our understanding of space by not representing space through our usual mechanics but by constructing artificial spatial cognisers with abilities to make spatial representations of their own. This allows us to be shown novel representations that can help us to see new differences and similarities in spatial configurations.
keywords architectural design, neural networks, cognition, representation
series other
type poster
email christian.derix@aedas.com
more http://www.springer.com/computer/ai/book/978-1-4020-2392-7
last changed 2012/09/17 19:13

_id e7cf
authors Eastman, Charles M. and Preiss, K.
year 1984
title A Review of Solid Shape Modelling Based on Integrity
source Computer Aided Design March, 1984. vol. 16: pp. 66-80 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary The potential benefits of using a canonical model for representing the shapes of solid objects has led to the design and implementation of a number of geometric modelers with varying capabilities. This paper reviews the approaches taken in solid modeling by defining the well-formedness conditions which must be implemented in any modeling system. The methods for satisfying the well-formedness constraints in the various solid modeling methods are reviewed, using the concept of integrity constraints. The incorporation of integrity constraints, both explicitly and implicitly, into solid modelers are considered, with particular focus on boundary modelers. The use of integrity constraints for defining shape families and assembly families are also presented. The result is a unified view of solid shape modeling systems that enables their classification and extension into particular application areas
keywords solid modeling, constraints, B-rep
series CADline
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id 26de
authors Enderle, G., K. Kansy and Pfaff, G.
year 1984
title Computer Graphics Programming : GKS - the graphics standard
source 542 p. : ill. (some col.) Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1984. includes bibliography: p. 527-532 and index. -- (Symbolic Computation Series)
summary Covers computer graphics programming on the basis of the Graphical Kernel System. It gives an overview over the GKS concepts, the history of the GKS design and the various system interfaces. A detailed description of the application of GKS functions both in PASCAL and FORTRAN is a significant part
keywords standards, computer graphics, GKS, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 3386
authors Gavin, L., Keuppers, S., Mottram, C. and Penn, A.
year 2001
title Awareness Space in Distributed Social Networks
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 615-628
summary In the real work environment we are constantly aware of the presence and activity of others. We know when people are away from their desks, whether they are doing concentrated work, or whether they are available for interaction. We use this peripheral awareness of others to guide our interactions and social behaviour. However, when teams of workers are spatially separated we lose 'awareness' information and this severely inhibits interaction and information flow. The Theatre of Work (TOWER) aims to develop a virtual space to help create a sense of social awareness and presence to support distributed working. Presence, status and activity of other people are made visible in the theatre of work and allow one to build peripheral awareness of the current activity patterns of those who we do not share space with in reality. TOWER is developing a construction set to augment the workplace with synchronous as well as asynchronous awareness. Current, synchronous activity patterns and statuses are played out in a 3D virtual space through the use of symbolic acting. The environment itself however is automatically constructed on the basis of the organisation's information resources and is in effect an information space. Location of the symbolic actor in the environment can therefore represent the focus of that person's current activity. The environment itself evolves to reflect historic patterns of information use and exchange, and becomes an asynchronous representation of the past history of the organisation. A module that records specific episodes from the synchronous event cycle as a Docudrama forms an asynchronous information resource to give a history of team work and decision taking. The TOWER environment is displayed using a number of screen based and ambient display devices. Current status and activity events are supplied to the system using a range of sensors both in the real environment and in the information systems. The methodology has been established as a two-stage process. The 3D spatial environment will be automatically constructed or generated from some aspect of the pre-existing organisational structure or its information resources or usage patterns. The methodology must be extended to provide means for that structure to grow and evolve in the light of patterns of actual user behaviour in the TOWER space. We have developed a generative algorithm that uses a cell aggregation process to transcribe the information space into a 3d space. In stage 2 that space was analysed using space syntax methods (Hillier & Hanson, 1984; Hillier 1996) to allow the properties of permeability and intelligibility to be measured, and then these fed back into the generative algorithm. Finally, these same measures have been used to evaluate the spatialised behaviour that users of the TOWER space show, and will used to feed this back into the evolution of the space. The stage of transcription from information structure to 3d space through a generative algorithm is critical since it is this stage that allows neighbourhood relations to be created that are not present in the original information structure. It is these relations that could be expected to help increase social density.
keywords Algorithmic Form Generation, Distributed Workgroups, Space Syntax
series CAAD Futures
email l.gavin@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 61be
authors Goldberg, A.J.
year 1984
title Smalltalk-80: The Interactive Programming Environment
source Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
summary This book describes the process by which Smalltalk was introduced to people outside Xerox PARC, where it was developed. This book first describes the incredibly exciting history of how Smalltalk was built from scratch. It then goes on to show the way in which Smalltalk was made public. At first, this was an engineering process. Large companies were contacted and offered to participate by porting the Smalltalk VM to their machines, and then running an image provided on tape. Each of these teams then wrote a paper on their experience, and these original papers are included in this book. Xerox PARC also wrote its own paper. These papers are an invaluable source of information for any Smalltalker. They range from overall design issues down to statistics on the work of the VM and image contents.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 36
authors González, Carlos Guillermo
year 1998
title Una TecnologÌa Digital Para el Diseño: El Tde-Ac (A Digital Technology for Design: The Tde-Ac)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 274-279
summary TDE is a graphic language capable of notation of pure design operations, which offers an alternative to Monge and Perspective drawing. This language which was perfected and developed by Claudio Guerri in the late 80's, is originated in the Theory of Spatial Delimitation of CÈsar Janello (1974-1984). From 1995 onwards, and within the framework of the UBACyT AR025 Project (1995-1997), a software in order to apply the TDE through computer technology started to be developed. This work is carried out within the framework of the research program SPATIAL SEMIOTICS-DESIGN THEORY of the FADU-UBA directed by Claudio Guerri, and is continued in the UBACyT AR01 4 Project (1998-2000) "TDE-AC. Graphic language. TDE computer assisted". The computer tool TDE-AC, adds to this graphic language the power of the processing speed and a certain autonomy of interpretation and execution of design operations, which enables to visualize results with a remarkable speed in relation with manual or intellectual work in front of the drawing table. Trough the amplified projection on the screens of the program the stage of development and effectivity of TDE-AC will be demonstrated.
series SIGRADI
email gnzlz@satlink.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ddss2008-02
id ddss2008-02
authors Gonçalves Barros, Ana Paula Borba; Valério Augusto Soares de Medeiros, Paulo Cesar Marques da Silva and Frederico de Holanda
year 2008
title Road hierarchy and speed limits in Brasília/Brazil
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper aims at exploring the theory of the Social Logic of Space or Space Syntax as a strategy to define parameters of road hierarchy and, if this use is found possible, to establish maximum speeds allowed in the transportation system of Brasília, the capital city of Brazil. Space Syntax – a theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) – incorporates the space topological relationships, considering the city shape and its influence in the distribution of movements within the space. The theory’s axiality method – used in this study – analyses the accessibility to the street network relationships, by means of the system’s integration, one of its explicative variables in terms of copresence, or potential co-existence between the through-passing movements of people and vehicles (Hillier, 1996). One of the most used concepts of Space Syntax in the integration, which represents the potential flow generation in the road axes and is the focus of this paper. It is believed there is a strong correlation between urban space-form configuration and the way flows and movements are distributed in the city, considering nodes articulations and the topological location of segments and streets in the grid (Holanda, 2002; Medeiros, 2006). For urban transportation studies, traffic-related problems are often investigated and simulated by assignment models – well-established in traffic studies. Space Syntax, on the other hand, is a tool with few applications in transport (Barros, 2006; Barros et al, 2007), an area where configurational models are considered to present inconsistencies when used in transportation (cf. Cybis et al, 1996). Although this is true in some cases, it should not be generalized. Therefore, in order to simulate and evaluate Space Syntax for the traffic approach, the city of Brasília was used as a case study. The reason for the choice was the fact the capital of Brazil is a masterpiece of modern urban design and presents a unique urban layout based on an axial grid system considering several express and arterial long roads, each one with 3 to 6 lanes,
keywords Space syntax, road hierarchy
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

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