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_id 8775
authors Cigolle, Mark and Coleman, Kim
year 1990
title Computer Integrated Design: Transformation as Process
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 333-346
summary To bring together poetry, magic and science, to explore beyond preconceptions, to invent spaces and forms which re-form and inform man's experience, these are the possibilities of architecture. Computer integrated design offers a means for extending the search, one which integrates both conceptual and perceptual issues in the making of architecture. The computer may assist in generating constructs which would not have been created by conventional methods. The application of computer techniques to design has to date been focused primarily on production aspects, an area which is already highly organizable and communicable. In conceptual and perceptual aspects of design, computer techniques remain underdeveloped. Since the impetus for- the development of computer applications has come from the immediate economics of practice rather than a theoretically based strategy, computer-aided design is currently biased toward the replication of conventional techniques rather than the exploration of new potentials. Over the last two years we have been involved in experimentation with methodologies which engage the computer in formative explorations of the design idea. Work produced from investigations by 4th and 5th year undergraduate students in computer integrated design studios that we have been teaching at the University of Southern California demonstrates the potential for the use of the computer as a principal tool in the exploration of syntax and perception, space and program. The challenge is to approach the making of architecture as an innovative act, one which does not rely on preconceived notions of design.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id caadria2008_66_session6b_544
id caadria2008_66_session6b_544
authors Lowe, Russell
year 2008
title Beyond the boundary object: sketches, computer games and blogs facilitating design development
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 544-551
summary Developing Frosts’ understanding of Leigh Star’s (Star 1989) concept of the boundary object this paper seeks to answer the question “would multiple boundary objects employed simultaneously facilitate design development?” The paper reflects on and critically reviews the design, implementation, and outcomes of a first year Architectural Design course that privileged architectural representation in the form of design sketches, blogs and contemporary computer gaming technology. The review process is supported by an in depth survey of students experiences both prior to and during the course. With a large number of students enrolled in the course (158) the findings from this survey can be seen to offer a statistical reliability which is in contrast to the more usual anecdotal approach.
keywords Boundary Object, Generalist, Specialist, Sketch, Computer Game, Blog
series CAADRIA
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id a12e
authors Decri, Anna
year 1989
title Some Exercises for a First Approach in Architectural Design & CAAD in Macintosh World
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.13.1-9.13.10
summary Approaching CAAD with Apple Macintosh, an example of some steps with an appropriate software for young students of architecture: (-) an heading for presentation (-) symmetry and bidimensional relationships (-) famous architectures (-) usual buildings (-) environmental impact (-) complementary exercises for their projects.
keywords Macintosh, Architectural Teaching, Exercises
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 10:20

_id 0565
authors Oxman, Robert and Oxman, Rivka
year 1990
title The Computability of Architectural Knowledge
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 171-185
summary In an important contribution to the theoretical foundation of design computing, Mitchell noted "an increasingly urgent need to establish a demonstrably sound, comprehensive, rigorously formalized theoretical foundation upon which to base practical software development efforts" (Mitchell, 1986). In this paper we propose such a theoretical framework. A basic assumption of this work is that the advancement of design computing is dependent upon the emergence of a rigorous formulation of knowledge in design. We present a model of knowledge in architectural design which suggests a promising conceptual basis for dealing with knowledge in computer-aided design systems. We require models which can represent the formal knowledge and manipulative operations of the designer in all of their complexity-that is formal models rather than just geometric models. Shape Grammars (Stiny,1980) represent an example of such models, and constitute a relatively high level of design knowledge as compared to, for example, use of symmetry operations to generate simple formal configurations. Building upon an understanding of the classes of design knowledge as the conceptual basis for formal modeling systems may contribute a new realization of the potential of the medium for design. This will require a comprehensive approach to the definition of architectural and design knowledge. We consider here the implications of a well-defined body of architectural and design knowledge for design education and the potential mutual interaction-in a knowledge-rich environment-of design learning and CAAD learning. The computational factors connected with the representation of design knowledge and its integration in design systems are among the key problems of CAAD. Mitchell's model of knowledge in design incorporates formal knowledge in a comprehensive, multi-level, hierarchical structure in which types of knowledge are correlated with computational concepts. In the main focus of this paper we present a structured, multi-level model of design knowledge which we discuss with respect to current architectural theoretical considerations. Finally, we analyze the computational and educational relevance of such models.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 44b3
authors Cajati, Claudio
year 1989
title Towards A KB System / Image-Databases - Integrated Interface: A Tool For Architectural Education
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.9.1-9.9.7
summary Focusing on the tasks of university architectural education, a special stress is first laid on the possibility of going beyond some limits of traditional CAAD. as coming out from the recent debate, and on the opportunities offered by knowledge based systems as metadesign supports in architectural domains. Particularly, with regard to image-databases, their importance for explaining and exemplifying the knowledge representation in KB Systems, and their integration via intelligent interface are discussed. At last, some possible uses of the whole as an educational tool in the daily university training are proposed.
keywords Architectural Education, KB System, Image-database, Interface
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 45e6
authors Agger, Kristian and Lentz, Uffe (Eds.)
year 1989
title CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [Conference Proceedings]
source eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4 / Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989
summary In the announcement of the sixth eCAADe Conference we stated that It is held at a time where CAAD is moving into practice very fast, with heavy influence on research and education. We stated that research is directed towards the early design phases, and that education is facing the problem of mass education.

In that situation much benefit can be obtained from collaboration with practice. We decided to give the conference the title “CAAD: Education - Research and Practice” to state the importance of practice as a test bench.

The conference papers cover education and research in depth in many important areas and give a good overview, whereas the practical theme is more or less missing, indicating, that experience here is still modest.

At the lecture material market and the exhibition the situation is opposite and shows state of art in practical use.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:36

_id 450c
authors Akin, Ömer
year 1990
title Computational Design Instruction: Toward a Pedagogy
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 302-316
summary The computer offers enormous potential both in and out of the classroom that is realized only in limited ways through the applications available to us today. In the early days of the computer it was generally argued that it would replace the architect. When this idea became obsolete, the prevailing opinion of proponents and opponents alike shifted to the notion of the computer as merely adding to present design capabilities. This idea is so ingrained in our thinking that we still speak of "aiding" design with computers. It is clear to those who grasp the real potential of this still new technology - as in the case of many other major technological innovations - that it continues to change the way we design, rather than to merely augment or replace human designers. In the classroom the computer has the potential to radically change three fundamental ingredients: student, instruction, and instructor. It is obvious that changes of this kind spell out a commensurate change in design pedagogy. If the computer is going to be more than a passive instrument in the design studio, then design pedagogy will have to be changed, fundamentally. While the practice of computing in the studio continues to be a significant I aspect of architectural education, articulation of viable pedagogy for use in the design studio is truly rare. In this paper the question of pedagogy in the CAD studio will be considered first. Then one particular design studio taught during Fall 1988 at Carnegie Mellon University will be presented. Finally, we shall return to issues of change in the student, instruction, and instructor, as highlighted by this particular experience.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id sigradi2012_30
id sigradi2012_30
authors Angeluzzi, Gustavo; Hanns, Daniela Kutschat
year 2012
title Um levantamento de requisitos gerais para o desenvolvimento e posicionamento de DOOTERS – um aplicativo lúdico de listas de tarefas para iPhone [A survey of general requirements for developing and positioning DOOTERS - a to-do list application for iPhone]
source SIGraDi 2012 [Proceedings of the 16th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Brasil - Fortaleza 13-16 November 2012, pp. 191-195
summary DOOTERS is a to-do list application for iPhone which entertains and motivates the user to get things done. It was developed based on requirements obtained trough: 1. the study of several personal information organizing methods (Covey, 1989; Allen, 2005; Foster, 2006); 2. answers to a task lists user focused questionnaire; 3. observation of to-do list users while creating lists and organizing tasks; 4. comparison of digital and non-digital task list media (paper, computer and mobile device); 5. analysis of profiles, behaviors and to-do list applications for iPhone. In this paper, the authors present the process of obtaining requirements for developing and positioning DOOTERS.
keywords information and interface design, requirements, to-do list application, iPhone, DOOTERS
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id a74a
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 1989
title Four Easy Questions
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.18.1-9.18.4
summary Should we teach CAAD? - yes, but why? Answer to this question is clear too. Question three - "when?" - on the 5, 6 and 7 term. Why so rate? - it is a compromise because "Architecture is an art" and students of architecture should know how to make a project without computers. How to teach CAAD? - we should teach haw to use professional computer programs and not programming. We must work out a new manual for architects. It should be constructed in such a way as to correspond to consecutive steps of the architectural design process.
keywords CAAD, Manuals, Architectural Design Process
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4032
authors Barron, Christopher L.
year 1989
title 3-D Modelling
source architectural and Engineering Systems. April, 1989. [41] -56 unevenly numbered
summary From screen to structure, more and more AEs are finding design solutions in the third dimension. The author reviews current 3-D modeling systems, what are the expectations of the users and the developers goals
keywords architecture, practice, drafting, modeling, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 82b9
authors Beyers, Robert and Desa, Subhas
year 1989
title Design of Control Systems for Performance : A Constraint Mapping Approach
source 17 p. : ill Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, October, 1989. EDRC 24-10-89. includes bibliography.
summary Simple s-plane maps are used to graphically reveal interactions of performance requirements and constraints thus providing a control system designer insight into performance trade-offs. Two well-known but powerful ideas underlie this approach: (a) the characteristic equation of an nth-order system can be fully described by the specification of n variables and (b) any dynamic performance requirement or constraint can be expressed in terms of 2n variables of which n describe the open-loop and n describe the closed-loop characteristic equations. An example illustrates the application of the approach to controller design
keywords constraints, engineering, control, systems, design, performance
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6bfa
authors Bijl, Aart
year 1989
title Evaluation and Representation
source December, 1989. 11 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary In this paper the author will consider four key concepts: design, evaluation, models, and representation. In combination, definitions of these concepts impinge on each other and they are further conditioned by the author intention to represent design knowledge within computers. The issue of human-computer interaction then becomes critical to the usefulness of knowledge representations for designers
keywords CAD, representation, design, evaluation
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id e19d
authors Birmingham, William P. and Siewiorek, Daniel P.
year 1989
title Capturing Designer Expertise : The CGEN System
source 18 p. : ill Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, August, 1989. EDRC 18-08-89. includes bibliography.
summary Knowledge-based systems are becoming pervasive in the computer-aided design area. For these systems to achieve satisfactory levels of performance large amounts of knowledge are necessary. However, the acquisition of knowledge is a difficult and tedious task. Automated knowledge-acquisition tools (AKAT) provide capabilities for quickly building and maintaining knowledge-bases. This paper describes the CGEN AKAT, which allows hardware designers, unfamiliar with artificial intelligence programming techniques, to deposit their expertise into a synthesis tool's knowledge-base. A set of experiments which tested CGEN's capabilities are presented. The experiments show that with CGEN hardware designers can produce high quality knowledge-bases
keywords CAD, automation, knowledge acquisition, tools, AI, programming, knowledge base, systems, integrated circuits, hardware
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 6a30
authors Bonn, Markus
year 1989
title Modeling Architectural Forms through Replacement Operations
source New Ideas and Directions for the 1990’s [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Gainsville (Florida - USA) 27-29 October 1989, pp. 103-130
summary Replacement operations, where an element at any topological level may be replaced by another element at the same or different topological level, are defined. Their potential as design tools which may be incorporated in a CAD system is investigated and demonstrated through the experimental implementation of two such operations in MARCOS, a Modeling Architectural Compositions System. MARCOS has been written in C. It is highly interactive and runs on an Apple Macintosh IIx. The two operations which have been implemented are the face -> volume and volume -> volume replacements. They were chosen for their potential as generators of architectural forms. Examples of architectural compositions produced through the use of replacement operations are also illustrated.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0105
authors Bossan, Mario and Ronchi, Alfredo M.
year 1989
title Presentazione Esperienza Didattica del Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Sistemi Edilizi e Territoriali - Politecnico di Milano
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.8.1-9.8.19
summary Didactic and research experience developed at the "Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Sistemi Edilizi e Territoriali del Politecnico di Milano" in the environment of Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD). From the early part of the 1980's, using initially at an experimental level the resources available at the departmental centre of calculation various applications of CAD techniques in the building sector have been effected at DISET (Dipartimento di Ingegneria del Politecnico di Milano). During 1983, after a three year period of experimenting with these systems, it was decided to organise and activate a small computer aided design centre, within the department, the use of which was reserved for dissertation and research students.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ascaad2014_002
id ascaad2014_002
authors Burry, Mark
year 2014
title BIM and the Building Site: Assimilating digital fabrication within craft traditions
source Digital Crafting [7th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2014 / ISBN 978-603-90142-5-6], Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), 31 March - 3 April 2014, pp. 27-36
summary This paper outlines a particular component of very well known project: Antoni Gaudí’s Sagrada Família Basilica in Barcelona (1882– on-going but scheduled for completion in 2026). At the time of writing the realisation of the project has proceeded for 87 years since Gaudí's death (1852-1926). As a building site it has been a living laboratory for the nexus between traditional construction offsite manufacturing and digital fabrication since the computers were first introduced to the project:CAD in 1989 closely followed by CAAD two years later. More remarkably CAD/CAM commenced its significant influence in 1991 with the take-up of sem robotised stone cutting and carving. The subject of this paper is an elevated auditorium space that is one of the relatively few ‘sketchy’ areas that Gaudí bequeathed the successors for the design of his magnum opus.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2016/02/15 12:09

_id 6b83
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 1989
title Towards a New Generation of Computer Assistants for Architectural Design: An Existing Scenario
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp.
summary The context in which designers operate is becoming more and more complex, owing to the large number of codes, new materials, technologies and professional figures; new instruments are needed, therefore, to support and verify design activity. The results obtained in the first years of 'computer era' were barely sufficient. The hardware and software available today is capable of producing a new generation of CAD systems which can aid the designer in the process of conceiving and defining building objects. At the CAD Laboratory in the Department of Building and Environmental Control Techniques at the 'La Sapienza' University of Rome, research is being carried out with the aim of defining a new kind of Knowledge-based assistant for architectural design. To this purpose a partnership has been established whit a private firm called CARTESIANA, whose partners are software houses, designing and building associations.
keywords Knowledge-Based Architectural Design
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 10:06

_id b4c4
authors Carrara, G., Fioravanti, A. and Novembri, G.
year 2000
title A framework for an Architectural Collaborative Design
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 57-60
summary The building industry involves a larger number of disciplines, operators and professionals than other industrial processes. Its peculiarity is that the products (building objects) have a number of parts (building elements) that does not differ much from the number of classes into which building objects can be conceptually subdivided. Another important characteristic is that the building industry produces unique products (de Vries and van Zutphen, 1992). This is not an isolated situation but indeed one that is spreading also in other industrial fields. For example, production niches have proved successful in the automotive and computer industries (Carrara, Fioravanti, & Novembri, 1989). Building design is a complex multi-disciplinary process, which demands a high degree of co-ordination and co-operation among separate teams, each having its own specific knowledge and its own set of specific design tools. Establishing an environment for design tool integration is a prerequisite for network-based distributed work. It was attempted to solve the problem of efficient, user-friendly, and fast information exchange among operators by treating it simply as an exchange of data. But the failure of IGES, CGM, PHIGS confirms that data have different meanings and importance in different contexts. The STandard for Exchange of Product data, ISO 10303 Part 106 BCCM, relating to AEC field (Wix, 1997), seems to be too complex to be applied to professional studios. Moreover its structure is too deep and the conceptual classifications based on it do not allow multi-inheritance (Ekholm, 1996). From now on we shall adopt the BCCM semantic that defines the actor as "a functional participant in building construction"; and we shall define designer as "every member of the class formed by designers" (architects, engineers, town-planners, construction managers, etc.).
keywords Architectural Design Process, Collaborative Design, Knowledge Engineering, Dynamic Object Oriented Programming
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 235d
authors Catalano, Fernando
year 1990
title The Computerized Design Firm
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 317-332
summary This paper is not just about the future of computerized design practice. It is about what to do today in contemplation of tomorrow-the issues of computercentered practice and the courses of action open to us can be discerned by the careful observer. The realities of computerized design practice are different from the issues on which design education still fixes its attention. To educators, the present paper recommends further clinical research on computerized design firms and suggests that case studies on the matter be developed and utilized as teaching material. Research conducted by the author of this paper indicates that a new form of design firm is emerging-the computerized design firm-totally supported and augmented by the new information technology. The present paper proceeds by introducing an abridged case study of an actual totally electronic, computerized design practice. Then, the paper concentrates on modelling the computerized design firm as an intelligent system, indicating non-trivial changes in its structure and strategy brought about by the introduction of the new information technology into its operations - among other considerations, different strategies and diverse conceptions of management and workgroup roles are highlighted. In particular, this paper points out that these structural and strategic changes reflect back on the technology of information with pressures to redirect present emphasis on the individual designer, working alone in an isolated workstation, to a more realistic conception of the designer as a member of an electronic workgroup. Finally, the paper underlines that this non-trivial conception demands that new hardware and software be developed to meet the needs of the electronic workgroup - which raises issues of human-machine interface. Further, it raises the key issues of how to represent and expose knowledge to users in intelligent information - sharing systems, designed to include not only good user interfaces for supporting problem-solving activities of individuals, but also good organizational interfaces for supporting the problem-solving activities of groups. The paper closes by charting promising directions for further research and with a few remarks about the computerized design firm's (near) future.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

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