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_id c5ad
authors Shaviv, Edna and Peleg, Uriel J.
year 1991
title An Integrated KB-CAAD System for the Design of Solar and Low Energy Buildings
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 465-484
summary A knowledge-based computer-aided architectural design system (KB-CAAD) for the design and evaluation of solar and low energy buildings is presented. The KB-CAAD system is based on the, integration of knowledge-based and procedural simulation methods with any available CAAD system for building representation. The knowledge base contains the heuristic rules for the design of passive solar buildings. Whenever possible, the knowledge base guides the designer through the decision making process. Yet, if the rules of thumb are not acceptable for the particular design problem, the KB-CAAD system guides the architect by using a procedural simulation model. We demonstrate by means of a case study, that not only does the KB-CAAD system lead to the design of better solar buildings, but that this process requires less time and labor than the process of building presentations by means of standard available CAAD systems.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id diss_hensen
id diss_hensen
authors Hensen, J.L.M.
year 1991
title On the Thermal Interaction of Building Structure and Heating and Ventilating System
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary In this dissertation, developments in the field of building performance evaluation tools are described. The subject of these tools is the thermal interaction of building structure and heating and ventilating system. The employed technique is computer simulation of the integrated, dynamic system comprising the occupants, the building and its heating and ventilating system. With respect to buildings and the heating and ventilating systems which service them, the practical objective is ensuring thermal comfort while using an optimum amount of fuel. While defining the optimum had to be left for other workers, the issue of thermal comfort is addressed here. The conventional theory of thermal comfort in conditions characteristic for dwellings and offices assumes steady-state conditions. Yet thermal conditions in buildings are seldom steady, due to the thermal interaction between building structure, climate, occupancy, and auxiliary systems. A literature rewiew is presented regarding work on thermal comfort specifically undertaken to examine what fluctuations in indoor climate may be acceptable. From the results, assessment criteria are defined. Although its potentials reach beyond the area of Computer Aided Building Design, a description is given of building and plant energy simulation within the context of the CABD field of technology. Following an account of the present state-of-the-art, the choice for starting from an existing energy simulation environment (ESPR) is justified. The main development areas of this software platform - within the present context - are identified as: fluid flow simulation, plant simulation, and their integration with the building side of the overall problem domain. In the field of fluid flow simulation, a fluid flow network simulation module is described. The module is based on the mass balance approach, and may be operated either in standalone mode or from within the integrated building and plant energy simulation system. The program is capable of predicting pressures and mass flows in a user-defined building / plant network comprising nodes (ie building zones, plant components, etc) and connections (ie air leakages, fans, pipes, ducts, etc), when subjected to flow control (eg thermostatic valves) and / or to transient boundary conditions (eg due to wind). The modelling and simulation techniques employed to predict the dynamic behaviour of the heating and ventilating system, are elaborated. The simultaneous approach of the plant and its associated control is described. The present work involved extensions to the ESPR energy simulation environment with respect to robustness of the program, and with respect to additional plant simulation features, supported plant component models and control features. The coupling of fluid flow, plant side energy and mass, and building side energy simulation into one integrated program is described. It is this "modular-simultaneous" technique for the simulation of combined heat and fluid flow in a building / plant context, which enables an integral approach of the thermal interaction of building structure and heating and ventilating system.

A multi stage verification and validation methodology is described, and its applicability to the present work is demonstrated by a number of examples addressing each successive step of the methodology. A number of imaginary and real world case studies are described to demonstrate application of the present work both in a modelling orientated context and in a building engineering context. Then the general conclusions of the present work are summarized. Next and finally, there are recommendations towards possible future work in the areas of: theory, user interface, software structure, application, and technology transfer.

series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/12/15 13:43

_id 22d6
authors Ballheim, F. and Leppert, J.
year 1991
title Architecture with Machines, Principles and Examples of CAAD-Education at the Technische Universität München
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary "Design tools affect the results of the design process" - this is the starting point of our considerations about the efficient use of CAAD within architecture. To give you a short overview about what we want to say with this thesis lets have a short - an surely incomplete - trip through the fourth dimension back into the early time of civil engineering. As CAD in our faculty is integrated in the "Lehrstuhl für Hochbaustatik und Tragwerksplanung" (if we try to say it in English it would approximately be "institute of structural design"), we chose an example we are very familiar with because of its mathematical background - the cone sections: Circle, ellipse, parabola and hyperbola. If we start our trip two thousand years ago we only find the circle - or in very few cases the ellipse - in their use for the ground plan of greek or roman theaters - if you think of Greek amphitheaters or the Colosseum in Rome - or for the design of the cross section of a building - for example the Pantheon, roman aqueducts or bridges. With the rediscovery of the perspective during the Renaissance the handling of the ellipse was brought to perfection. May be the most famous example is the Capitol in Rome designed by Michelangelo Buonarotti with its elliptical ground plan that looks like a circle if the visitor comes up the famous stairway. During the following centuries - caused by the further development of the natural sciences and the use of new construction materials, i.e. cast-iron, steel or concrete - new design ideas could be realized. With the growing influence of mathematics on the design of buildings we got the division into two professions: Civil engineering and architecture. To the regret of the architects the most innovative constructions were designed by civil engineers, e.g. the early iron bridges in Britain or the famous bridges of Robert Maillard. Nowadays we are in the situation that we try to reintegrate the divided professions. We will return to that point later discussing possible solutions of this problem. But let us continue our 'historical survey demonstrating the state of the art we have today. As the logical consequence of the parabolic and hyperbolic arcs the hyperbolic parabolic shells were developed using traditional design techniques like models and orthogonal sections. Now we reach the point where the question comes up whether complex structures can be completely described by using traditional methods. A question that can be answered by "no" if we take the final step to the completely irregular geometry of cable- net-constructions or deconstructivistic designs. What we see - and what seems to support our thesis of the connection between design tools and the results of the design process - is, that on the one hand new tools enabled the designer to realize new ideas and on the other hand new ideas affected the development of new tools to realize them.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c65f
authors Littlefair, P.J.
year 1991
title Site Layout Planning for Daylight and Sunlight
source Building Research Establishment Report
summary This guide gives advice on site layout planning to achieve good sunlight and daylight within buildings and adjacent open spaces such as gardens. It includes methods that allow for the calculation of sunlight or daylight levels at 4 different latitudes within the UK and for different times of the year. An additional section discusses the subject of site layout and design for obtaining maximum solar energy. This guide supersedes the original Department of the Environment document Sunlight and Daylight. BRE 209 has sections for the following:- * Light from the Sky. * New development. * Existing Buildings. * Adjoining development land. * Sunlighting. * New development. * Existing Buildings. * Gardens & open spaces. * Passive solar design. * Other issues. * View. * Privacy. * Security. * Access. * Enclosure. * Microclimate. * Solar dazzle. * Appendix A. Indicators to calculate access to sunlight, skylight and solar radiation. * Appendix B. A waldram diagram to calculate vertical sky component. * Appendix C. Interior daylighting recommendations. * Appendix D. Plotting the no-sky line. * Appendix E. Rights to light. * Appendix F. Setting alternative target values for skylight access. * Appendix G. Calculation of sun on the ground. * Appendix H. Definitions.
series report
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 58cd
authors Schnoedt, Heinrich
year 1991
title Cultural Parametrics
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 223-234
summary The human desire for automation of repetitive processes offers opportunities for the employment of binary computing for these procedures. Architecture and the design of buildings is no exception. With an increase in industrial prefabrication of moderately variable building components, the focus of the practising architect shifts from the individual design process toward a selection process of parts or components with a defined parametric extent. While this concept of parameterized parts has been used by architects since the first repetitive part was available, the advent of modern CAAD systems, with a growing number of parametric components and parts already integrated, is likely to greatly amplify the impact of predefined parts on buildings. Both industry and research institutions continue to make a great effort to utilize building codes and organizational structures as the basis to develop sophisticated algorithms of rule based design. Their purpose of the parameterization of parts or concepts is twofold: to reduce the time frame of human labor on the design of pieces and concepts which are considered repetitive,. and, to install a control mechanism to eliminate mistakes which lay outside of the parametric framework. The implementation of these algorithms in architectural practice and in the educational environment suggests consequences on many levels. In the following, an attempt is made to cast some light on the history of parametrics in respect to computing and the problems associated with a predominantly numerically encoded parametric approach.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 0ab2
authors Amor, R., Hosking, J., Groves, L. and Donn, M.
year 1993
title Design Tool Integration: Model Flexibility for the Building Profession
source Proceedings of Building Systems Automation - Integration, University of Wisconsin-Madison
summary The development of ICAtect, as discussed in the Building Systems Automation and Integration Symposium of 1991, provides a way of integrating simulation tools through a common building model. However, ICAtect is only a small step towards the ultimate goal of total integration and automation of the building design process. In this paper we investigate the next steps on the path toward integration. We examine how models structured to capture the physical attributes of the building, as required by simulation tools, can be used to converse with knowledge-based systems. We consider the types of mappings that occur in the often different views of a building held by these two classes of design tools. This leads us to examine the need for multiple views of a common building model. We then extend our analysis from the views required by simulation and knowledge-based systems, to those required by different segments of the building profession (e.g. architects, engineers, developers, etc.) to converse with such an integrated system. This indicates a need to provide a flexible method of accessing data in the common building model to facilitate use by different building professionals with varying specialities and levels of expertise.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id f9bd
authors Amor, R.W.
year 1991
title ICAtect: Integrating Design Tools for Preliminary Architectural Design
source Wellington, New Zealand: Computer Science Department, Victoria University
summary ICAtect is a knowledge based system that provides an interface between expert systems, simulation packages and CAD systems used for preliminary architectural design. This thesis describes its structure and development.The principal work discussed in this thesis involves the formulation of a method for representing a building. This is developed through an examination of a number of design tools used in architectural design, and the ways in which each of these describe a building.Methods of enabling data to be transferred between design tools are explored. A Common Building Model (CBM), forming the core of the ICAtect system, is developed to represent the design tools knowledge of a building. This model covers the range of knowledge required by a large set of disparate design tools used by architects at the initial design stage.Standard methods of integrating information from the tools were examined, but required augmentation to encompass the unusual constraints found in some of the design tools. The integration of the design tools and the CBM is discussed in detail, with example methods developed for each type of design tool. These example methods provide a successful way of moving information between the different representations. Some problems with mapping data between very different representations were encountered in this process, and the solutions or ideas for remedies are detailed. A model for control and use of ICAtect is developed in the thesis, and the extensions to enable a graphical user interface are discussed.The methods developed in this thesis demonstrate the feasibility of an integrated system of this nature, while the discussion of future work indicates the scope and potential power of ICAtect.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ca50
authors Ayrle, Hartmut
year 1991
title XNET2 - Methodical Design of Local Area Networks in Buildings - An Application of the A4 Intelligent Design Tool
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 443-450
summary XNET2 is a prototype program, that helps network planners to design Ethernet-conform data-networks for sites and buildings. It is implemented as an example application of the ARMILLA4 Intelligent Design Tool under Knowledge Craft. It is based on a knowledge acquisition phase with experts from DECsite, the network-branch of DEC. The ARMILLA Design Tool is developed on the basis of Fritz Haller's ARMILLA ' a set of geometrical and operational rules for the integration of technical ductwork into a building's construction.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0aba
authors Carrara, Gianfranco, Kalay, Yehuda E. and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1991
title Intelligent Systems for Supporting Architectural Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 191-202
summary Design can be considered a process leading to the definition of a physical form that achieves a certain predefined set of objectives. The process comprises three distinct operations: (1) definition of the desired set of performance criteria (design goals); (2) production of alternative design solutions; (3) evaluation of the expected performances of alternative design solutions, and comparing them to predefined criteria. Difficulties arise in performing each one of the three operations, as well as in combining them into a purposeful, unified process. First, it is difficult to define the desired performance criteria prior to and independently of, the search for an acceptable solution that achieves them, since many aspects of the desired criteria can only be discovered through the search for an acceptable solution. Furthermore, the search for such a solution may well alter the definition of these criteria, as new criteria and incompatibilities between existing criteria are discovered. Second the generation of a design solution is a task demanding creativity, judgement, and experience, all three of which are difficult to define, teach, and otherwise capture in some explicit manner. Third, it is difficult to evaluate the expected performances of alternative design solutions and to compare them to the predefined criteria. Design parameters interact with each other in complex ways, which cause effects and side effects. Predicting the expected performances of even primary effects involves extrapolating non-physical characteristics from the proposed solution's physical organization, a process which relies on a host of assumptions (physical, sociological, psychological, etc.) and hence is seldom a reliable measure. A fourth problem arises from the need to coordinate the three operations in an iterative process that will converge on an acceptable design solution in reasonable time. Computational techniques that were developed in the past to assist designers in performing the above mentioned activities have shown limitations and proved inadequate to a large degree. In this paper we discuss the work in progress aimed at developing an intelligent support system for building and architectural design, which will be able to play a decisive role in the definition, evaluation and putting into effect of the design choices.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 467d
authors Eastman, Charles M.
year 1991
title A Data Model Analysis of Modularity and Extensibility in Building Databases
source February, 1991. Report No. 16: This paper uses data modeling techniques to define how database schemas for an intelligent integrated architectural CAD system can be made extensible. It reviews the product data modeling language EDM, then applies it to define a part of an architectural data model. Extensions are then investigated, regarding how users could integrate various design-specific packages into a uniquely configured system
summary Both extension by substituting one technology for another and by adding a new evaluation application, are considered. Data modeling allows specification of a CAD database and identification of the kind of modularization that will work and what problems may arise
keywords database, building, modeling, CAD, integration, systems, architecture, design
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id 39e0
id 39e0
authors Jablonski, Allen D.
year 1991
title Integrated Component-based Computer Design Modeling System: The Implications of Control Parameters on the Design Process
source New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ Graduate Thesis - Master's Program College of Architecture
summary The design process is dependent on a clear order of integrating and managing all of the control parameters that impact on a building's design. All component elements of a building must be defined by their: Physical and functional relations; Quantitative and calculable properties; Component and/or system functions. This requires a means of representation to depict a model of a building that can be viewed and interpreted by a variety of interested parties. These parties need different types of representation to address their individual control parameters, as each component instance has specific implications on all of the control parameters.

Representations are prepared for periodic design review either manually through hand-drawn graphics and handcrafted models; or with the aid of computer aided design programs. Computer programs can profoundly increase the speed and accuracy of the process', as well as provide a level of integration, graphic representation and simulation, untenable through a manual process.

By maintaining a single control model in an Integrated Component-based Computer Design Modeling System (ICCDMS), interested parties could access the design model at any point during the process. Each party could either: 1. Analyze individual components, or constraints of the model, for interferences against parameters within that party's control; or 2. Explore design alternatives to modify the model, and verify the integration of the components or functions, within the design model, as allowable in relation to other control parameters.

keywords Architectural Design; Data Processing
series thesis:MSc
type extended abstract
last changed 2006/09/25 07:04

_id 2eb4
authors Johnson, Robert E.
year 1991
title ESP - An Expert System for Property Revitalization
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 425-442
summary This paper reports on the development of a knowledge based system that can help to assess the reuse potential of idle industrial property. It does not take the place of the architect or engineer, but allows for strategic design factors to be considered in very early and important property redesign and revitalization decisions. The idea is predicated on the judgment that there is a relatively systematic approach to evaluating the reuse potential of vacant property. A frame based approach together with a series of "if-then" rules are used to represent the knowledge domain and procedures required to perform a feasibility analysis. Rules for assessing the impact of the regional economy, industrial market trends, building configuration, building design strategies and the impact of building codes are included in this manner. A prototype of this system system has been implemented on both an Apple Macintosh computer using AAIS Prolog and an IBM AT compatible using Arity/Prolog.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id cb47
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1991
title Computational Modalities of Evaluation and Prediction in Design
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 271-284
summary Evaluation can be defined as measuring the fit between achieved (or expected) performances and stated criteria. It is complicated by the multi-criteria and multi-level modalities of design, where an overall balance of performances is preferred to maximizing the performance of a few characteristics, and where evaluation must be performed at different design phases, each characterized by a different informational profile. Each design modality requires a different approach to evaluation: the Multi-Criteria modality requires evaluation of a proposed solution at a particular design phase from multiple points of view, while the Multi-Level modality requires the evaluation of a particular performance characteristic at several different design phases. This paper discusses the multi-modal nature of evaluation and prediction in design, exemplified by some of the approaches that have been proposed to support them computationally. It then argues for the need to develop an integrated, multi-modal design evaluation paradigm.
series CAAD Futures
email kalay@socrates.Berkeley.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 2d77
authors Korte, Michael
year 1991
title CASOB - Simultaneous Surveying and Drawing
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary Accurate planning and economical building within an existing structure require a complex building analysis based upon detailed scale plans. Work has shown unsatisfactory of measuring tools: (1.) Recording of measurements with meterrule and measuring tape often results in mistakes and wasted time. Since the data is not digitalized the measurements cannot be used by a CAD system. (2.) Commercially available CAD software is made only for new planning but not for planning with an existing structure. Up till now architects who predominantly work with existing structures were not able to take advantage of products in the software- and hardware market which would satisfy their needs. The problems already begin with the search for appropriate tools for the surveying of existing structures and the simplest possible transfer of the data to a CAD System. There is an increased demand for quality surveying of existing structures. In Germany, far more than 60 % of all construction planning is related to existing structures. Due to the special situation in the five new states this percentage will grow significantly. Other countries will find themselves in a similar situation. A large number of precise and analytical surveys of existing structures will be needed in a relative short time. Time pressure and stress factors at construction sites call for quality planning and economical construction which can only be accomplished with reliable and exact surveying of structures. Frustrating experiences in the field have led me to develop systems for the surveying of existing structures. With CASOB (Computer Aided Surveying of Buildings) we have a tool today that simultaneously surveys and creates a CAD compatible drawing.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/23 07:54

_id 6064
authors Kramel, Herbert and Chen, Chen-Cheng
year 1991
title BAU: A Knowledge-Based System for the Investigation of a Basic Architectural Unit
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 329-346
summary The control of incremental complexities within an evolutionary design process has been a serious concern in both architectural education and practice. One method of examining this problem is to first define a "basic architectural unit" and a design environment which is composed of multiple units. Different levels of detail will be added to the unit as the design process continues. Secondly, a related computer program called BAU is introduced, which demonstrates that a computer is a meaningful tool for helping the architect to investigate the consequence of a design problem. Thirdly, both the domain expert's and the knowledge engineer's experiences during the development of BAU are described. Finally, the future direction of this research will be discussed.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id e7fb
authors Leclercq, Pierre
year 1991
title Students in Efficient Energy Management
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary The LEMA presents Strategy II, the new version of his CAL software in thermal design of building. Based on his latest experiences using the first prototypes, the present programme provides an complete human interface and interesting tools for decision taking. A first educational experience with this software is described. Strategy II has been studied in 1990 by two twin teams: one is the LEMA (Laboratoire d'Etudes Méthodologiques Architecturales) and the other one is the CTE (Centre des Technologies de l'Education), parts of the University of Liège, in Belgium.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/23 07:44

_id 8658
authors Matas, Bellot
year 1991
title BECOC : A Knowledge Bank and its Use in Construction and CAD Systems
source The Computer Integrated Future, CIB W78 Seminar. September, 1991. Unnumbered : ill. include some bibliographical references
summary The Development of the BECOC prototype (Structured Knowledge Bank for Construction Elements) was undertaken in order to test the integration of Data and Knowledge using the SITEC model (Construction Technology Information System). After the graphical definition of a building exterior, the assignment of the construction solutions is dynamically controlled using the Knowledge Bank for real time decision making. To represent the knowledge that acts on the data the knowledge bank consists of an Object Oriented Data Base and a Rule System, developed using the NEXPERT/OBJECT package. In this manner it is possible to establish relationships among properties, concepts, restrictions in values, structural relations and the control of standards compliance, which in this case has been limited to thermal, acoustic and weight requirements. The system helps the user to make decisions and it analyzes the context in order to make the deductions needed to maintain internal data consistency. The positive results of this work indicate the way for further developments, and demonstrate that expert systems and traditional technologies coupled together can be effective and give the desired answers in monitoring design in the everyday problems in construction technology
keywords construction, expert systems, knowledge base, design, building, envelope, applications, integration, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ead3
authors Meinecke, Christoph and Scherer, Raimar J.
year 1991
title Architecture of a Knowledge- Based -System for the Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Columns
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 451-464
summary This paper presents the hypothesis part of an expert-system for detailing reinforced concrete structures. The structural members on which the work is focused are columns. To generate a hypothesis - that means to configurate the reinforcement for a given structural member with an almost fixed geometry - needs different kinds of information, i.e. knowledge and a strategy to apply this knowledge. Therefore a hybrid system is chosen which combines object oriented organization to represent the fixed knowledge and a rule base to model the strategy and the dynamic knowledge.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

_id 2914
authors Mortola, Elena and Giangrande, Alessandro
year 1991
title An Evaluation Module for "An Interface for Designing" (AID)- A Procedure based on Trichotomic Segmentation
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures: Education, Research, Applications [CAAD Futures ‘91 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 3-528-08821-4] Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, pp. 139-154
summary The paper illustrates a model used to construct the evaluation module for "An Interface for Designing" (AID), a system to aid architectural design. The model can be used at the end of every cycle of analysis-synthesis-evaluation in the intermediate phases of design development. With the aid of this model it is possible to evaluate the quality of a project in overall terms to establish whether the project is acceptable, whether it should be elaborated ex-novo or whether it is necessary to begin a new cycle to improve it. In this last case it is also possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the possible actions and strategies for improvement. T he model is based on a procedure of trichotomic segmentation, developed within the MCDA (Multi- Criteria Decision Aid), which uses the outranking relation to compare the project with some evaluation profiles taken as projects for reference. In the paper an example of the application of the model in the teaching field will also be described.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/07 10:03

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