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_id 2ff9
id 2ff9
authors Ataman, Osman
year 1993
title Knowledge-based Stair Design
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 163-171
summary The application of computer--based technique to support architectural design has often concentrated on matters of representation. Typically, this means computer-aided drafting, and less frequently, computer-aided modeling and visualization. The promise of new computer-based tools to support the process of design has thus far failed to produce any significant tool that has had a widespread impact on the architectural profession. Most developments remain in university based research labs where they are used as teaching instruments in CAD courses or less often in design studios. While there are many reasons for this lack of dissemination, including a reluctance on the part of the architectural profession itself, the primary obstacles deal with difficulties in explicating design knowledge, representing this knowledge in a manner that can be used for design, and providing an intuitive and effective user interface, allowing the designer to easily use the tool for its intended purpose.

This study describes a system that has been developed to address a number of these issues. Based on research findings from the field of Artificial Intelligence which expounds on the need for multiple techniques to represent any complex area of knowledge, we have selected a particular approach that focuses on multiple techniques for design representation. We review this approach in depth by considering its many facets necessary when implementing a knowledge-based system. We then partially test the viability of this approach through a small case study, implementing a knowledge-based system for designing stairs. While this effort only deals with a small part of the total design process, it does explore a number of significant issues facing the development of computer-based design assistants, and suggests several techniques for addressing these concerns.

series ACADIA
email oataman@uiuc.edu
last changed 2003/12/20 04:40

_id f485
authors Kolarevic, Branko Radomir
year 1993
title Geometric Relations as a Framework For Design Conceptualization
source Harvard University, Graduate School of Design
summary This study introduces geometric relations as a framework for design conceptualiza-tion-its key premise is that nothing is more fundamental in design than formation and discovery of relationships. The study attempts to establish a formal model for the development of a dynamic computer based graphic environment for design conceptualization that can recognize, record and maintain geometric design relations, merge "depictive" and "propositional", explicit and implicit in design, and provide a qualitatively different way to explore shape, dimension, and geometric organization. The study presents an approach to this task of formalization, and explores some of the fundamental issues pertinent to the subject, such as computability and applicability to the task of designing. Specifically, the study explores a relational description of shapes based on the concept of regulating or construction lines as an explicit formulation of a strategy to form generation and creative discovery, and proposes a lexicon of geometric relations to serve as a basis for composition. It hypothesizes that the construction lines can become much more useful and interesting when they are used not just as a rigid skeleton, but to regulate the behavior of a drawing and to maintain its essential structure as its parts are manipulated. As a consequence, designers could structure the behavior of the object being designed under future transformations; drawings could become seman-tically charged and could be manipulated in a semantically sophisticated fashion. The first chapter places the issue in the broader context by arguing that designers form implicit relational models of their designs. This contention is supported by introducing some of the relevant literature on mental imagery. Second chapter introduces design relations and in particular geometric relations, as a focal point of this study. A dynamic computer -based graphic context for design conceptualization is presented and evalu-ated in the next two chapters and conclusions are drawn. In the third chapter, the model's computability is demonstrated and evaluated through ReDRAW, a limited implementation of a relations based graphic system. In the fourth chapter, the model's applicability in design conceptualization is discussed and supported by examples.
series thesis:PhD
email branko@pobox.upenn.edu
more http://www.gsd.harvard.edu/academic/asp/ddes/thesis_titles.html
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id bdc5
authors Lehane, A., Wright, D. and Lambourne, E.
year 1993
title Parallel Modeling: Addressing the Issues of Creative Designing in CAD Environments II. Special Applications
source Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1993 v.1 pp. 249-254
summary We postulate that Industrial Designers, in general, solve a given problem by generating a series of proposed solutions to that problem, each proposal, in theory, helps the designer to converge on the ideal solution. Any number of solutions may be under continuous development at any one time and any previous solutions should always be available for appraisal and viewing. The single modeling environment provided in traditional Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems does not support this practice. Thus, CAD systems are primarily used to address the final phases of the design process, such as analysis, visualisation and detailing. This is surely not utilising the full potential of such a powerful design tool. In an attempt to develop a less restrictive working practice for CAD users, we consider a parallel modeling approach. This solution allows the simultaneous development, design and review of a number of computer based solutions.
keywords Paper Based Design Process; Parallel Modeling; Computer Based Design Process; Sets; Industrial Design; Set Theory; Directed Acyclic Graph; Seed
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id a150
authors Mahdavi, Ardeshir
year 1993
title Open Simulation Environments: A “Preference-Based” Approach
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 195-214
summary This paper introduces in conceptual, algorithmic and implementation terms, the notion of an "open" simulation environment as a "multidirectional" approach to computer-aided performance modelling. A "preference- based" formalization of design intentions/criteria is proposed to cope with the "ambiguity" problem through dynamic control of degrees of freedom of relevant design-related parameters during the interactive design process. A prototypical realization of an open simulation environment called "GESTALT' for simultaneous treatment (parametric manipulation) of various design and performance variables is demonstrated. Some preliminary results of computer-assisted generation of performance-responsive designs are presented.
keywords Open Simulation Environments, Multidirectional Building Performance Simulation, Form-Function Mapping, Preference-Based Convergence Strategies, Preference-Index
series CAAD Futures
email amahdavi@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2003/02/26 16:26

_id cf2011_p093
id cf2011_p093
authors Nguyen, Thi Lan Truc; Tan Beng Kiang
year 2011
title Understanding Shared Space for Informal Interaction among Geographically Distributed Teams
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 41-54.
summary In a design project, much creative work is done in teams, thus requires spaces for collaborative works such as conference rooms, project rooms and chill-out areas. These spaces are designed to provide an atmosphere conducive to discussion and communication ranging from formal meetings to informal communication. According to Kraut et al (E.Kraut et al., 1990), informal communication is an important factor for the success of collaboration and is defined as “conversations take place at the time, with the participants, and about the topics at hand. It often occurs spontaneously by chance and in face-to-face manner. As shown in many research, much of good and creative ideas originate from impromptu meeting rather than in a formal meeting (Grajewski, 1993, A.Isaacs et al., 1997). Therefore, the places for informal communication are taken into account in workplace design and scattered throughout the building in order to stimulate face-to-face interaction, especially serendipitous communication among different groups across disciplines such as engineering, technology, design and so forth. Nowadays, team members of a project are not confined to people working in one location but are spread widely with geographically distributed collaborations. Being separated by long physical distance, informal interaction by chance is impossible since people are not co-located. In order to maintain the benefit of informal interaction in collaborative works, research endeavor has developed a variety ways to shorten the physical distance and bring people together in one shared space. Technologies to support informal interaction at a distance include video-based technologies, virtual reality technologies, location-based technologies and ubiquitous technologies. These technologies facilitate people to stay aware of other’s availability in distributed environment and to socialize and interact in a multi-users virtual environment. Each type of applications supports informal interaction through the employed technology characteristics. One of the conditions for promoting frequent and impromptu face-to-face communication is being co-located in one space in which the spatial settings play as catalyst to increase the likelihood for frequent encounter. Therefore, this paper analyses the degree to which sense of shared space is supported by these technical approaches. This analysis helps to identify the trade-off features of each shared space technology and its current problems. A taxonomy of shared space is introduced based on three types of shared space technologies for supporting informal interaction. These types are named as shared physical environments, collaborative virtual environments and mixed reality environments and are ordered increasingly towards the reality of sense of shared space. Based on the problem learnt from other technical approaches and the nature of informal interaction, this paper proposes physical-virtual shared space for supporting intended and opportunistic informal interaction. The shared space will be created by augmenting a 3D collaborative virtual environment (CVE) with real world scene at the virtual world side; and blending the CVE scene to the physical settings at the real world side. Given this, the two spaces are merged into one global structure. With augmented view of the real world, geographically distributed co-workers who populate the 3D CVE are facilitated to encounter and interact with their real world counterparts in a meaningful and natural manner.
keywords shared space, collaborative virtual environment, informal interaction, intended interaction, opportunistic interaction
series CAAD Futures
email g0800518@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 2c7b
authors Stenvert, Ronald
year 1993
title The Vector-drawing as a Means to Unravel Architectural Communication in the Past
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Unlike in painting, in architecture one single person never controls the whole process between conception and realization of a building. Ideas of what the building will eventually look like, have to be conveyed from patron to the actual builders, by way of drawings. Generally the architect is the key-figure in this process of communication of visual ideas. Nowadays many architects design their new buildings by using computers and Computer-Aided (Architectural) Design programs like AutoCad and VersaCAD. Just like traditional drawings, all these computer drawings are in fact vector-drawings; a collection of geometrical primitives like lines, circle segments etc. identified by the coordinates of their end points. Vector-based computer programs can not only be used to design the future, but also as a means to unravel the architectural communication in the past. However, using the computer as an analyzing tool for a better comprehension of the past is not as simple as it seems. Historical data from the past are governed by unique features of date and place. The complexity of the past combined with the straightforwardness of the computer requires a pragmatic and basic approach in which the computer acts as a catalytic agent, enabling the scholar to arrive manually at his own - computer-assisted - conclusions. From this it turns out that only a limited number of projects of a morphological kind are suited to contribute to new knowledge, acquired by the close-reading of the information gained by way of meaningful abstraction. An important problem in this respect is how to obtain the right kind of architectural information. All four major elements of the building process - architect, design, drawing and realization - have their own different and gradually shifting interpretations in the past. This goes especially for the run-of-the-mill architecture which makes up the larger part of the historical urban environment. Starting with the architect, one has to realize that only a very limited part of mainstream architecture was designed by architects. In almost all other cases the role of the patron and the actual builder exceeds that of the architect, even to the extent that they designed buildings themselves. The position of design and drawing as means of communication also changed in the past. Until the middle of the nineteenth century drawings were not the chief means of communication between architects and builders, who got the gist of the design from a model, or, encountering problems, simply asked the architect or supervisor. From the nineteenth century onwards the use of drawings became more common, but almost never represented the building entirely "as built". In 1991 I published my Ph.D. thesis: Constructing the past: computerassisted architectural-historical research: the application of image-processing using the computer and Computer-Aided Design for the study of the urban environment, illustrated by the use of treatises in seventeenth-century architecture (Utrecht 1991). Here, a reconstruction of this historical communication process will be presented on the basis of a project studying the use of the Classical orders as prescribed in various architectural treatises, compared to the use of the orders in a specific group of still existing buildings in The Netherlands dating from the late sixteenth and entire seventeenth century. Comparisons were made by using vector-drawings. Both the illustrations in the the treatises and actual buildings were "translated" into computer-drawings and then analyzed.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:03

_id 20c1
authors Alavalkama, Ilkka
year 1993
title Technical Aspects of the Urban Simulator in Tampere University of Technology
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 35-46
summary The colour video recording Urban Simulator in TUT was built very early compared with the development of video systems. A contract for planning the simulator electronics, mechanics and camera systems was made in january 1978 with two TUT students: Jani Granholm (computer science and engineering) and Ilkka Alavalkama (machine design and automation). Ease of control and maintenance were asked by side of ”human movement inside coloured small-scale architectural models”. From the beginning, all components of the system were carefully tested and chosen from various alternatives. Financial resources were quite limited, which lead to a long building process and to self-planned and produced mechanical and electronical elements. Some optical systems were constructed by using elements from various manufacturers.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email m.barros@ipt.pt
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id c372
authors Calvert, T., Bruderlin, A., Mah, S., Schiphorst, T. and Welman, C.
year 1993
title The Evolution of an Interface for Choreographers Evolving Design
source Proceedings of ACM INTERCHI'93 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 1993 pp. 115-122
summary This paper describes the evolution of the interface to Life Forms, a compositional tool for the creation of dance choreography, and highlights some of the important lessons we have learned during a six year design and implementation period. The lessons learned can be grouped into two categories: 1) Process, and 2) Architecture of the Interface. Our goal in developing a tool for choreography has been to provide computer-based creative design support for the conception and development of dance. The evolution was driven by feedback from the choreographers and users who were members of the development team, combined with our knowledge of current thinking on design and composition. Although the interface evolved in a relatively unconstrained way, the resulting system has many of the features that theoretical discussion in human interface design has projected as necessary. The Life Forms interface has evolved incrementally with one major discontinuity where adoption of a new compositional primitive required a completely new version. The choreography and composition of a dance is a complex synthesis task which has much in common with design. Thus, the lessons learned here are applicable to the development of interfaces to such applications as computer aided design.
keywords Composition; Design; User Interface; Dance; Complexity; Choreography; Human Animation
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id a336
authors Calvo, Charles M.
year 1993
title SOME EPISTEMOLOGICAL CONCERNS REGARDING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACHES TO ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN - A RENEWED AGENDA
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 155-162
summary It has been noted that designers - when confronted with computers - have, by and large, refused to accept the introduction of apparently new design methodologies, and it has been speculated that this is the result of a failure of those methodologies to address the cognitive processes which take place in the course of designing. This position is somewhat suspect in that such innovations as computer-aided drafting -which also fail to recognize these processes have been widely accepted. It is perhaps more likely that the lack of acceptance results from a perception on the part of designers that the new methodologies either do not reflect some or all of those concerns that designers consider fundamental to design, or that they actively interfere with the designer's ability to accomplish what he/she sees as the goals of design. Given that the application of artificial intelligence and related work to architecture is still in its infancy, all of this suggests the need for a reassessment of the role of computing in design in order to clarify and strengthen those roles deemed appropriate.

Two approaches to the integration of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based systems into architectural design practice are currently dominant. One attempts to create systems which can on their own produce designs, the other provides intelligent support for those doing design. It was, in part, the recognition of limitations in the ability of traditional CAD systems and building modelers to reflect what designers actually do that led to explorations into the idea of intelligent assistants. Development of such assistants was aided by research into the act and process of design through protocol and other studies. Although some work is currently being done in the development of artificial intelligence and knowledge based applications in architecture, and work continues to be done on the study of design methodologies, the bulk of available information in each of these areas remains in the realm of design disciplines related to but outside of architecture and do not reflect the explicit role of architectural design in the embodiment and expression of culture.

The relationship of intelligence to culture has resulted in some skepticism regarding the ultimate capacity of neural nets and symbolically programmed computers in general. Significant work has been done questioning the rational tradition in computer development for its failure to address phenomena which are not easily subject to scientific analysis. Further skepticism regarding the role of artificial intelligence and knowledge-based or expert systems in architectural design has been emerging recently. Such criticism tends to focus on two issues: the nature of drawing as an activity which involves both the generation and interpretation of graphic artifacts, and the nature of the human designer as an active agent in the design process.

series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2006/03/14 20:20

_id af70
authors Coates, Paul and Yakeley, Megan
year 1993
title Function Follows Form: A Description of the Work and Educational Objectives of the MSc in Computing & Design at the University of East London School of Architecture
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary This paper demonstrates the approach to Architectural education that has been developed over the last 3 years on the MSc Computing & Design course at the University of East London. Although the course deals exclusively in computer based topics, the main concern is primarily with developing a design methodology and a way of teaching design method, more particularly an algorithmic description of form. Rule based design, emergent form and bottom up approaches to design have become fashionable to the point of ubiquity in the last 5 years, but we like to think that only at UEL have these concerns been linked to a consistent view of design.
series eCAADe
email m.yakeley@manchester.ac.uk
last changed 1998/08/24 09:07

_id cad5
authors Coyne, R.F., Flemming, U., Piela, P. and Woodbury, R.
year 1993
title Behavior Modeling in Design System Development
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 335-354
summary We describe the development approach for a software environment to support the early phases in building design called SEED. The combination of capabilities offered by SEED to designers is novel and includes the integrated handling of solution prototypes. We give the reasons for using an object-oriented software engineering approach in the development of the system, which starts with a comprehensive behavioral model of the system from the user's perspective based on actors and use cases. We illustrate results from the first development phase and sketch the next phases. At the time of the CAAD Futures '93 conference, we will be able to report our experience in developing a first system prototype and to demonstrate the prototype.
keywords Object-Oriented Software Engineering, Integrated Design Systems, Architectural Programming, Schematic Layout Design
series CAAD Futures
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/02/26 16:24

_id e92c
authors Dave, Bharat
year 1993
title A Computer-Assisted Diagramming System
source Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich
summary This research investigates characteristics and generation of graphic diagrams used in support of analysis, presentation and synthesis of information in various domains. The research is aimed at the development of a software system which can be used to specify, generate and manipulate diagrams similar to the way they are represented and operated upon in traditional media.Diagrams are graphic representations of symbolic propositions that allow tentative reasoning and inferencing, and enable a person to focus on selected aspects of a situation that are deemed of interest. The economy and directness of expression found in diagrams seem to be the prime reasons why they are so ubiquitous in many domains. Despite these advantages, studies into supporting diagrammatic representations using computers are rather sparse. This research is an attempt at developing a comprehensive framework of thought in this direction.In the context of design disciplines like architecture, this research forms a part of the continuum of studies in computer aided design techniques and tools. While a large number of tools and techniques in CAD have emerged so far, usage of such tools, due to their underlying representations, expects and demands commitment of too many details too early in the design process. This research is aimed at characterizing and developing a computer based diagramming system to support tentative reasoning using diagrams, and thus hopes to extend the scope of CAD environments in design. The thesis first articulates motivations for this topic in detail. Next, a discussion on the role played by diagrams as conceptual tools in various domains is presented. It is followed by a detailed look at characteristics and components of diagrams viewed as a graphic communication system. Next, a comprehensive set of requirements for an ideal software environment for diagramming tasks is developed. A prototype system called CDT was implemented and is used to demonstrate ideas developed in this research. The study concludes with some observations on contributions of this research effort and possible future extensions.
series thesis:PhD
email b.dave@architecture.unimelb.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/10 03:43

_id 4203
authors Fraser, Michael
year 1993
title Boundary Representation in Practice
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 173-185
summary There is an essential contradiction between the making of buildings or built environments in a threedimensional modeler and the graphic control of this process. Three-dimensional modeling is a constructive activity, in which solids are assembled as they would be in an actual structure; it benefits the designer. Presentation and documentation, on the other hand, are prescriptive activities that direct some of the construction and all the visualization and criticism of the proposal; they benefit the user and builder.

A building while being designed can be visualized and criticized from its solid model, and the model can take a variety of forms depending on its part): computer-based, drawn in orthographic or perspective projection, constructed of cardboard or wood, or described narratively by means of text, programmatic data, performance model or animation. However, practicing architecture is the process of recording and communicating the decision making process and the contractual obligations that result. In actual practice, in contrast to the designer directed ideal, more participants are brought in sooner at the beginning of a project and with more publicity, which in turn means keeping more, not fewer, records. As the profession evolves, records of the string of design decisions will become more automated, more carefully structured and more retrievable. More buildings will be "tracked" and exposed to review in this way because public environmental sensitivity will improve. The communication between a single designer and his own thoughts will become less and less important.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/02/25 09:39

_id ddss9207
id ddss9207
authors Gauchel, J., Hovestadt, L., van Wyk, S. and Bhat, R.R.
year 1993
title Modular building models
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary The development and implementation of a modular building model appropriate for computer aided design is described. The limitations of a unified building model with regard to concurrence and complexity in design is discussed. Current research suggests that to model real-world complexity, one must trade centralized control for autonomy. In this paper we develop a modular approach to building modelling that is based on object-oriented autonomy and makes it possible to define these models in a distributed concurrent manner. Such a modular and autonomous implementation brings inherent uncertainty and conflict which cannot be determined a priori.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ca14
authors Gavin, Lesley
year 1993
title Generative Modelling and Electronic Lego
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary This paper shows work exemplifying the further extent of computer capabilities in the field of design. The work stems from a belief that for computers to be used effectively within the architectural profession their utility must stretch far beyond the process of description of geometric data, but be incorporated in the fundamental roots of design: that of conceptual design. Computers can be used to access the knowledge we have and then formulate this knowledge into a working language of design. Computers can be used to generate space and form in accordance with any relationship the designer may choose to set. This allows them to be used from the very conception of design. It is only by working from the very beginning, the very basis of the design of a building that we can fully develop the integration of computers in the construction industry. The work undertaken sets out primarily to explore one of the ways computers could be used in the field of architectural design. In recognition that an important byproduct of any design search is the enhanced understanding of the problem itself, the work was directed towards a particular project. This allowed each stage of thought to be to be considered as it arose and subsequently incorporated into the design model. The work does not attempt to automise the design process but simply tries to explore some of the opportunities offered by computers and see if they can be easily incorporated into the design process offering design solutions that may not otherwise have been considered. The exploration resulted in a simple design process model that incorporates the more accessible and useful aspects of computer technology.
keywords Generative Modelling, Rule Based Form, Random Factors, Shape Grammars
series eCAADe
email l.gavin@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id e00f
authors Harfmann, A.C., Majkowski, B. and Chen, S.S.
year 1993
title A Component-Based Approach to Building Product Representation and Design Development
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 437-452
summary This paper presents the development of the component-based approach for building product representation and suggests its appropriateness for incorporation at any stage in the design process. The efforts focus on resolving the conflicts that arise when the common denominator of component level representation in utilized throughout the process of designing a building.
keywords Component-Based Modeling, Component Modeling; Product Models; Building Models, Object-Oriented Modelling, Relational Databases
series CAAD Futures
email HARFMAAC@UCMAIL.UC.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id ddss9218
id ddss9218
authors Hensen, J.L.M.
year 1993
title Design support via simulation of building and plant thermal interaction
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Design decision support related to building energy consumption and/or indoor climate should be based on an integral approach to the environment, the building, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, and the occupants. The tools to achieve this are now available in the form of computer simulation systems which treat the building and plant as an integrated dynamic system. Although its potentials reach beyond the area of Computer Aided Building Design, the paper describes building and plant energy simulation within the context of CABD, design decision support and design evaluation. Currently, computer simulation is only used indirectly as a design decision support mechanism; that is, its power is not delivered very efficiently to the design profession. This paper suggests some future research directions. These are aimed at providing a mechanism to overcome this problem by developing an intelligent front end' which bridges the gap between sophisticated computer simulation tools and the design profession.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id c05c
authors Hovestadt, Ludger
year 1993
title A4 Digital Building: Extensive Computer Support for Building Design, Construction, and Management
source CAAD Futures ‘93 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-89922-7] (Pittsburgh / USA), 1993, pp. 405-421
summary The integrated design, construction, and management of buildings are described as being of unlimited complexity. The data structures required to support these tasks cannot be predefined and have- to be worked out during the design process. An instrument that integrates weakly and strongly structured data is necessary. A4 proposes - as a minimal structuring mechanism - the position of information in a dataspace. It offers diverse additional and optional structuring mechanisms. Examples from different domains show the particular strengths of the A4 integration model.
keywords Architecture, Intelligent Building, CAD, Multi-Media, Hypermedia, Active Objects, Virtual Reality, Multi-User, Expert System, Case-Based Reasoning, Communication, Data-Mining
series CAAD Futures
email hovestadt@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 2864
authors Isakovic, Tatiana and Fischinger, Matej
year 1993
title Making Reinforced Concrete Cross-sections Design Easy and Understandable
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary Modern computing facilities provide an alternative graphical approach to the design of cross-sections. A description of this process might be "strength evaluation", since, for any chosen cross-section, concrete strength, and reinforcement size, location, and yield strength, the flexural resistance (capacity) is defined by the bending moment-axial force interaction diagram. The factored forces are then plotted into the diagram and, by comparing the capacity and demand on the computer screen, the designer can decide about the suitability of the chosen cross-section. If necessary, the cross-sectional properties can be changed easily. There are several advantages of this design approach. The design procedure is fast, clear and economical. For example, all loading combinations for all the columns of the frame in Fig. 1 can be checked simultaneously. The procedure is the same for various shapes of cross-sections and it enables simple reinforcement optimization as well as the typization of cross-sections. For example, only two types of cross-sections can satisfy the design requirements for all the columns in the mentioned frame.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/02/26 20:39

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