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_id 130d
authors Hoinkes, R. and Mitchell, R.
year 1994
title Playing with Time - Continuous Temporal Mapping Strategies for Interactive Environments
source 6th Canadian GIS Conference, (Ottawa Natura Resources Canada), pp. 318-329
summary The growing acceptance of GIS technology has had far- reaching effects on many fields of research. The recent developments in the area of dynamic and temporal GIS open new possibilities within the realm of historical research where temporal relationship analysis is as important as spatial relationship analysis. While topological structures have had wide use in spatial GIS and have been the subject of most temporal GIS endeavours, the different demands of many of these temporally- oriented analytic processes questions the choice of the topological direction. In the fall of 1992 the Montreal Research Group (MRG) of the Canadian Centre for Architecture mounted an exhibition dealing with the development of the built environment in 18th- century Montreal. To aid in presenting the interpretive messages of their data, the MRG worked with the Centre for Landscape Research (CLR) to incorporate the interactive capabilities of the CLR's PolyTRIM research software with the MRG's data base to produce a research tool as well as a public- access interactive display. The interactive capabilities stemming from a real- time object- oriented structure provided an excellent environment for both researchers and the public to investigate the nature of temporal changes in such aspects as landuse, ethnicity, and fortifications of the 18th century city. This paper describes the need for interactive real- time GIS in such temporal analysis projects and the underlying need for object- oriented vs. topologically structured data access strategies to support them.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id dc0f
authors Stefik, M.
year 1994
title Knowledge Systems
source Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco. p. 295
summary Digital systems cannot act reliably and intelligently in ignorance. They need to know how to act intelligently. Computer systems that use knowledge are called knowledge-based systems, or simply, knowledge systems. Knowledge systems first came to the public's attention in the 1980s as a successful application of artificial intelligence. Since then their use has spread widely throughout industry, finance and science. But what are the principles behind knowledge systems? What are they useful for? How are they built? What are their limitations? How can they connect with human activities for creating and using knowledge? Addressing these questions is the purpose of this book. The art of building knowledge systems is inherently multidisciplinary, incorporating computer science theory, programming practice and psychology. The content of this book incorporates these varied fields covering topics ranging from the design of search algorithms and representations to techniques for acquiring the task specific knowledge required for developing successful systems. It discusses common representations for time, space, uncertainty, and vagueness. It also explains the knowledge-level organizations for the three most widespread knowledge-intensive tasks: classification, configuration, and diagnosis. In a university setting, this book is intended for use at the advanced undergraduate levels and beginning graduate levels. For students outside of computer science, this book provides an introduction that prepares them for using and creating knowledge systems in their own areas of specialization. For computer science students, this book provides a deeper treatment of knowledge systems than is possible in a general introduction to artificial intelligence.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 6b44
id 6b44
authors Zimring, Craig and Ataman, Osman
year 1994
title Incorporating Guidelines Into a Case-Based Architectural Design Tool
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 87-101
summary This paper discusses an ongoing project called Archie, a collaboration between cognitive scientists and researchers in artificial intelligence and architecture, aimed at creating computer-based aids for conceptual design. Archie is a "case-based design aid" (CBDA): a tool that provides designers flexible access to evaluated examples of past experience that they can use in their own designs. Archie is a "clever" hypermedia database aimed at aiding conceptual design in architecture. It contains about 200 problems, responses, stories, and building descriptions derived from evaluations of six libraries and two courthouses. In this paper we provide a brief history and description of Archie and discuss some issues that have come into focus through developing and initially evaluating the system: how specific architectural case information can be organized; how users can be provided more general information about issues and building types; and how information can be indexed. In each of these we briefly discuss the current state of the system and propose some potential future directions.
series ACADIA
email oataman@uiuc.edu
last changed 2004/03/25 16:45

_id ddss9404
id ddss9404
authors Arima, Takafumi and Sato, Seiji
year 1994
title Form Characteristics of Landscape Images: A Landscape Research by Computer Image Processing
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Landscape evaluation research examines how individuals perceive the landscape. Because the amount of the data to describe landscapes is huge, landscape research needs the technology of the computer. This paper describes a method to catch the amount of physical characteristics which were extracted from landscape images by using the technology of the computer image processing and verifies its effectiveness. To do this analysis, we took photographic slides of a landscape sample. Pictures were taken for three regions (the city centre area, the outskirts area, and the farm village area). The number of slides was 6 for each place hence 18 in total were used for theanalysis. Next, we stored these slides on a computer disk. Form characteristics of the landscape elements were extracted by using computer image processing. Borderlines were extracted usingthe algorithm of Robert and were converted into coordinates data by minute line processing and the vector processing. Other elements were extracted by label processing and were converted into the coordinates data by vector processing. These data thus are the vector data for two-dimensions of the image and not the data for a three-dimension space. The processing of these images enables the analysis of the form characteristics in the landscape images. We calculated the data such as appearing length, angle numbers of appearance of the vector data, and analyzed the characteristic of shape and the complexities of landscape applying fractal theory. We compared three districts and were able to find landscape characteristics of various places as a result.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9410
id ddss9410
authors Bodum, Lars
year 1994
title Hypermedia-aided GIS in Urban Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Town planning in Denmark is undergoing major changes from a planning approach focusing on regulation and individual frameworks for town districts, to a planning approach emphasizing the urban characteristics and drawing overall guidelines for planning. At the same time, attention has shifted to urban renewal and urban remodelling. This means that more qualitative data are needed.These new data types such as digital film, are to form part of a future GIS for the town. The digital film will change the impression of what data can profitably be used in a GIS. Even animations and 3D models, which were previously processed with considerable data power can beplayed as digital films. In the course of the next few years, the most ordinary applications will be able to play digital films and together with the progress made in other media, a development towards hypermedia will be a possibility. The paper will give some examples of how this integration may be carried out. In continuation of the preparation of a municipality atlas and in connection with an EC-subsidized urban renewal project, the municipality of Aalborg has chosen to work outa digital catalog which will in time replace the present local planning regulations.
series DDSS
email ibo@i4.auc.dk
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9414
id ddss9414
authors Bright, Elise N.
year 1994
title THe "Allots" Model: A PC-Based Approach to Demand Distribution for Siting and Planning
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper reports on the development and application of ALLOT: a user-friendly, flexible computer model which has been designed to help governmental jurisdictions and private landowners throughout the world to achieve more economically efficient and environmentally sound land use and development patterns in a short period of time. ALLOT has the potential to drastically change the way that land use planning is conducted, since it has the capability to allow theincorporation of a wide variety of previously ignored environmental characteristics and up-to-date land use patterns. ALLOT, which is written in the SAS programming language, contains twomajor parts. The first part employs a GIS database to conduct land suitability analyses for the area. It then produces maps showing the most suitable areas for various land use types. The second part appears to be unique in the field of computerized land use planning models. It combines the results of the suitability analysis with forecasted demand for various land use types to produce "optimum" future land use patterns. The model is capable of quickly analyzing a wide variety of forecasts, allowing easy comparison of different growth scenarios; and it can also be modified to reflect community goals and objectives, such as protection of wildlife habitat orattraction of industry. The flexibility, combined with the fact that it runs on any IBM-compatible PC (286 or higher), make it a powerful land use planning tool. The model has been successfully applied in two "real world" situations. First, three alternative future land use patterns were developed for a rural lakeside area. The area had rural characteristics and was lacking infrastructure, but a large influx of people was expected as the lake was filled. The success of this effort led to decision to test it´s use as a method for facility siting (using landfill siting as an example).
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9416
id ddss9416
authors Campbell, Noel and O'Reilly, Thomas
year 1994
title GIS: Science or Tool - The Built Environment Perspective
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper attempts to locate GIS in the context of the built environment professions, rather than in the context of computer science, recognizing the integrated but limiting approach of viewingGIS from a strictly computer / spatial science perspective. The paper reviews the conflicts and tensions appearing in the GIS debate seeing them as reflecting the differences between the perceptions and interests of software developers and those of the professions. The "spatial science versus professional tool" dilemma is therefore critically assessed. Science is identified as the dominant paradigm within which GIS development has taken place. This encompasses the emphasis on GIS as spatial science; the interest in particular forms of spatial analysis; a narrow approach to the idea of information; the debate about the appropriate emphasis on the location for GIS in undergraduate education. The interests and activities of the professions cannot be encompassed within the pre-existing science paradigm. The paper identifies the interest the professions have had in broad geographical issues (as distinct from narrow spatial issues). It recognizes the different conventions and procedures used in recording and using geographical information, not all of them objective or scientific. It views the computer, not as a "scientific engine", but as a modern medium for representing and analyzing information. This includes storage and analysis, both internally (algorithmic manipulation) and outside (qualitative manipulation, beyond formal -"computer"- logic). This approach suggests a framework for research of a nature more sympathetic to the needs of the built environment professions in particular and an agenda which would include an examination of: (i) the conventions and procedures used in the professions to collect, store and process information and how these translate to computer technology; (ii) the types of software used and the way procedures may be accommodated by combining and integrating packages; (iii) the dynamism of GIS development (terms such as "dedicated", "mainframe", "PC-based", "distributed", "pseudo-", etc. are identified as indicativeof the need for professions-based approaches to GIS development); (iv) a critique of "information" (modelling of information flows within the professions, may yield valuable insights into the (modelling of information flows within the professions , may yield valuable insights into the similarity of requirements for a variety of "workplace scenarios").
series DDSS
email n.campbell@uk.ac.greenwich
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9425
id ddss9425
authors Deguchi, Atsushi and Hagishima, Satoshi
year 1994
title Integration System for Urban Design from Planning Management to Visalization
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Advanced tools based on CAD or GIS systems and simulation methods have recently been introduced to support the many aspects of urban planning (design, analysis, evaluation, presentation). This research aims at constructing a system by integrating these support tools and linking GIS and simulation tools. The major purpose of this system are to manage the geographical data base of the target urban area, utilize the digital information of the area for planning and analysis,evaluate the impact of alternative proposals on the physical environment such as sunlight and daylight, visualize the results of analysis, and support the management of urban redevelopment /development projects. This paper shows some applications to illustrate usefulness of the system. These examples are concerned with a contemporary problem in urban planning of Tokyo: redevelopment of low-rise high-density residential districts and high-rise development in the central business districts. Urban redevelopment for the high-density urban areas in Japan requiresa evaluation of alternative plans by visualizing their environmental impact. This system enables the quantitative analysis of the environmental impact by using 3-dimensional geographical data andsimulation methods. In general, the merit and effect of planning support systems are recognized in terms of the "efficiency" of the planning process. The primary function of GIS is thought to bethe unification and management of various pieces of information. In addition, this research indicates the effectiveness of the integrated system in terms of utilizing the geographical information and visualizing the image of the future environment.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss2004_ra-33
id ddss2004_ra-33
authors Diappi, L., P. Bolchim, and M. Buscema
year 2004
title Improved Understanding of Urban Sprawl Using Neural Networks
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 14020-2408-8, p. 33-49
summary It is widely accepted that the spatial pattern of settlements is a crucial factor affecting quality of life and environmental sustainability, but few recent studies have attempted to examine the phenomenon of sprawl by modelling the process rather than adopting a descriptive approach. The issue was partly addressed by models of land use and transportation which were mainly developed in the UK and US in the 1970s and 1980s, but the major advances were made in the area of modelling transportation, while very little was achieved in the area of spatial and temporal land use. Models of land use and transportation are well-established tools, based on explicit, exogenouslyformulated rules within a theoretical framework. The new approaches of artificial intelligence, and in particular, systems involving parallel processing, (Neural Networks, Cellular Automata and Multi-Agent Systems) defined by the expression “Neurocomputing”, allow problems to be approached in the reverse, bottom-up, direction by discovering rules, relationships and scenarios from a database. In this article we examine the hypothesis that territorial micro-transformations occur according to a local logic, i.e. according to use, accessibility, the presence of services and conditions of centrality, periphericity or isolation of each territorial “cell” relative to its surroundings. The prediction capabilities of different architectures of supervised Neural networks are implemented to the south Metropolitan area of Milan at two different temporal thresholds and discussed. Starting from data on land use in 1980 and 1994 and by subdividing the area into square cells on an orthogonal grid, the model produces a spatial and functional map of urbanisation in 2008. An implementation of the SOM (Self Organizing Map) processing to the Data Base allows the typologies of transformation to be identified, i.e. the classes of area which are transformed in the same way and which give rise to territorial morphologies; this is an interesting by-product of the approach.
keywords Neural Networks, Self-Organizing Maps, Land-Use Dynamics, Supervised Networks
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ddss9427
id ddss9427
authors Engelen, Guy and White, Roger
year 1994
title A Strategic Planning and Policy Decision Support Tool for Urban Regions
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary In this paper we present a Decision Support System developed to assist urban designers, planners and policy makers to explore and evaluate possible urban layouts and their growth patterns. Thecore of the system consists of a modelling shell allowing the user to specify cellular automata based models of urban and regional systems. These models capture the effect of local spatial processes in which the use, or desired use of each parcel or cell of land is determined partly by institutional and environmental factors, and partly by the activities present in its neighbourhood. Since each cell affects every other cell within its neighbourhood, a complex dynamic emerges. Unlike conventional cellular automata, the models are defined with a large neighbourhood --over a hundred cells-- a relatively large number of states --more than a dozen in some applications-- representing socio-economic and natural land-uses. The approach permits the straightforward integration of detailed physical, environmental, and institutional constraints, as well as including the effects of the transportation and communication infrastructure. These models thus permit a very detailed representation of evolving spatial systems. The current version of the system represents urban areas as consisting of up to 10.000 interacting zones, each roughly the size of an individual city block. These models are easy to build and apply, yet empirical tests show that they produce realistic simulations of urban land use dynamics. Consequently, they are well suited to form the heart of the DSS, which provides the user with a number of tools for exploration,analysis and evaluation of alternative futures of the system as they result from policy interventions that are imposed by means of what-if experiments and scenario analysis. For example, the DSS isable to identify areas in which pressure for change in land use restrictions may become critical under particular development strategies. In the DSS, the modelling shell is coupled to a simple,custom-built GIS. In the stand-alone application of the DSS, this stores the detailed geographical qualities of the area being modelled, and allows basic overlay manipulations. It also displays theresults of the model while the simulation proceeds. Alternatively, the GIS can serve as aninterface to more elaborate, commercial GIS systems.
series DDSS
email rwhite@kean.ucs.mun.ca
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 778e
authors Gann, D.
year 1994
title Archaeological Site Reconstruction With AutoDesk's 3D Studio
source CSA Newsletter Vol 7:3 Nov 1994
summary 3D Studio is an IBM-compatible computer modeling program that enables users to create three-dimensional renderings of a variety of objects. In its ability to import a wide variety of maps and other images, 3D Studio allows for the realistic rendering of models created within AutoCAD or other 3D CAD packages. Over the past year, the Homol'ovi research program has been utilizing this software to create near photo-realistic renderings of conjectural site models. My own interests in three-dimensional computer modeling developed out of work at the site of Homol'ovi IV, a 150-room pueblo site located near Winslow, Arizona. The site was situated upon a steep 30-meter bluff with a bedrock cap. Approximately 24 rooms were located on top of the bedrock cap, with another 125 rooms situated on the slope of the butte. During the 1989 field season five structures were excavated, while a separate crew worked clearing and mapping the tops of walls. Mapping was accomplished with a Topcon EDM/theodolite station, and a standard map was created from this process. (See Fig. 3.) While the map was sufficient to show the general layout of the site, I remained unsatisfied; a 2D plan view simply did not convey the vertical dimension of the pueblo. At this point the Homol'ovi Research Program purchased a copy of AutoCAD in order to begin exploring three-dimensional mapping and modeling.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9429
id ddss9429
authors Geerling, Heinrich
year 1994
title A Proposal for a Framework for Business Re-engineering in Design and Realization of Artificial Environments
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary According to the Top-Down design process', this paper gives a generic and qualitative description of a Concurrent Engineering Environment, that should support the problem solving procedure in town planning and architecture in a modern quality oriented society. A system that is based on the principal of democracy might guarantee the preservation of quality in the projection and realization of artificial environments. This environment can be seen as a part of the today often discussed "digital democracy", which practically is based on a infrastructure of computers, interfaces, software systems, a network, databases and a data presentation, that is able to comprise the expectations of professionals involved in the architecture and town planning process. The paper will discuss what the role of the designer and coordinator of this computer environment looks like,in order to design, plan, build and coordinate activities for the realization of this Concurrent Environment and how several software engineers work concurrently to develop tools that guarantee a modular integration. The backbone of this environment is the definition and use of standards for data exchange. Basically those standards are derived from two domains: artifacts will be described in a product model data, while natural resources are described in spatial data. Town planning has to integrate both models. It will be discussed briefly how far the data modelling language EXPRESS of part 11 of the ISO 10303 (Express Language Reference Manual) might be useful to model GIS related problems. An example will describe how a scenario of activities, from registration of real world data to recognition of requirements of society, the definition of development plans through design(competition), lawfulness checking and construction until demolition should look like.
series DDSS
email gee@cim.pe.u-tokyo.ac.jp
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 2098
authors Goldman, Glenn and Hoon, Michael
year 1994
title Digital Design In Architecture: First Light, Then Motion, and Now Sound
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 27-38
summary If we restricted our idea of architecture to only the traditional and static description of visual space and form, we might not be considering significant characteristics of the places we are designing. If, however, we accepted even a limited definition, as stated by Le Corbusier, that "architecture is the masterly, correct, and magnificent play of masses brought together in light", we would at least be forced to consider the dimension of time as the ever-changing daylight modifies the way our creations are perceived. However, neither the built nor the natural environments are silent. Sound affects the way we feel about certain events and places, and in turn, places we create can modify or influence the way we hear sounds. As computers become more audio capable, we can expect changes in the ways that architects plan, design, and present their projects. Issues of both objective and nonobjective sound can become significant factors throughout the building delivery process. As the visual sophistication and acoustic expectations of society rise because of the ubiquitous power of electronic multimedia - as well as "cross-media" applications (film, video, television, and scientific visualization) it is inevitable that the architectural design and presentation processes reflect these changes.
series ACADIA
email goldman@njit.edu
last changed 2003/04/17 13:53

_id ddss9434
id ddss9434
authors Grant, M.
year 1994
title Urban Gis - The Application of the Information Technologies to Urban Management
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Many cities in the UK and indeed throughout the developed world are characterised by the all too familiar symptoms of urban blight caused by insensitive intervention in the environment. The common denominator within this class of problem is the lack of a coordinated, integrated approach to the planning, design and maintenance of our cities. The cycle of development and redevelopment calls for input from a diverse range of disciplines relating to architecture, civilengineering, transport engineering, and the management of city utilities. This lack of a common up datable information base renders access to a global view of the city difficult, if not impossible.This problem has provided the motivation to move towards an integrated philosophy regarding information collection, collation and dissemination. The impetus is provided primarily through theincreasing complexity of urban management but also through central governments policy to progress towards decentralisation of services. Fiscal pressure to increase efficiency, lower manpower resources and arrive at speedier judgements all point to an increasing reliance on the information technologies. Current work at ABACUS within Strathclyde University addresses research whose objective is to identify, and then prototype, a relevant urban information system. It is proposed that by attributing a geometrical framework with those physical quantities thatare relevant to the formal and functional evaluation of the urban environment, the means of evaluating the qualities and quantities of the buildings aswell as the social and economic prospects may be realised.
series DDSS
email abacus@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id caadria2018_365
id caadria2018_365
authors Ham, Jeremy J.
year 2018
title Exploring the Intersection of Music and Architecture Through Spatial Improvisation
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 121-130
summary Creative practice design research brings forth rich opportunities for the exploration of inter-domain connections between music and architecture. Through inter-disciplinary creative practice explorative project work founded on a methodology of improvisation on the digital drum kit, two stages of design research project work are outlined. In the first stage, a language of polyrhythmic drumming is parametrically spatialized as a reflective lens on an extant creative practice. From here, a new form of 'Spatial Improvisation' is explored, where conceptual spatial forms are generated from improvisations on the digital drum kit. This new musico-spatial design practice involves mediating a spatio-temporal-dynamical 'Y-Condition (Martin, 1994)' wherein temporal and dynamic design decisions translate from the musical domain into the spatial domain through 'spatial thinking-in-action'.
keywords Music and Architecture; Design Research ; Spatial Improvisation; Design Process; Parametric Digital Design
series CAADRIA
email jeremy@surfcoastarchitecture.com.au
last changed 2018/05/17 07:07

_id caadria2018_134
id caadria2018_134
authors Kawabe, Akihiro and Watanabe, Shun
year 2018
title An Analysis of Mixed Land Use Toward Designing the Compact City
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 2, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 493-502
summary Applying the method of "Land-Use Mix" (Amindabari et al. (2013)) and Focusing on changes in highly mixed land use areas within an extensive survey area and detailed analytical unit, the analysis in this study revealed some trends of distribution of mixed land use areas and their declining patterns in the eastern part of Saitama Prefecture, Japan. For example, among the changing land use patterns of Highly-Mixed-Points-as-of-1994, the pattern that a decreasing mixture index was associated with increasing residential land and decreasing commercial land occurred most often, and the points that changed with that pattern accounted for about 32% of all the Highly Mixed Points, and about 51% of the decrease in mixture index points.
keywords Metropolitan Form Analysis; Land-Use Mix; GIS; Mixed land use; Compact City
series CAADRIA
email s1720498@s.tsukuba.ac.jp
last changed 2018/05/17 07:08

_id ddss9456
id ddss9456
authors Kubiak, Bernard and Korowicki, Antoni
year 1994
title Identification And Analysis of the Recreational Behaviour Forms and the Needed Recreational Space Using the Integrated Spatial and Object-Oriented Gis: Concepts and Statements
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary This paper is concerned with how to measure and investigate changes in the recreational behaviour and the required recreational space in Polish seaside recreational areas in last few years. Spatial information is an integral part of the identification and analysis of recreational behaviour and required recreational space. We postulate, therefore, that spatial information should be fully incorporated in integrated object-oriented GIS and Decision Support Technology. We argue in this paper that the existing theoretical approaches with their descriptive and technical basis do not offer directions for its application and evaluation. They do not seek to explain the processes undergone by spatial information, nor define appropriate data models. New approaches to GIS use object-oriented structures and expert systems concepts, and they will become increasingly helpful in understanding GIS. It is not unreasonable to expect that the most important issue is to use a data model or object-oriented models which closely represent the user's concept of the geographic object for representing spatial phenomena. We have discovered that most Polish users in this field are unable to collect the data they require directly. Thus they have to use methods and techniques, which cannot be found in GIS such as SWOT analysis. According to our experiences, the identification and analysis of the recreational behaviour and the required recreational space should be defined as a system approach where: (i) recreational space requires an object, (ii) state of recreational space is defined by the set of values of recreational space features, and (iii) the utility of the recreational space is defined by a set of features. The identification and analysis of the recreational behaviour in the presented approach are based on the features/utilities matrix of the recreational space and the computer map. The development of such a system needs many organizational changes. It is shown that in many applications organizational rather than the technical aspects of GIS determine their future and open the way to new spatial analytical techniques.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9462
id ddss9462
authors Liggett, Robert S. and Jepson, William H.
year 1994
title Implementing an Integrated Environment for Urban Simulation CAD, Visualization and GIS
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Using technology which has been adapted from military flight simulation hardware and software, researchers at UCLA's Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Planning are currently developing an integrated computing environment for Urban Simulation which includes a high-level visual simulation package, an industry standard CAD system, and a traditional two dimensional geographic information system and data bases. The focal point of the integrated system is a visual simulation engine which has been developed using Silicon Graphics' IRIS Performer application development environment. With this system, aerial photographs can be combined with street level video to efficiently create a realistic (down to plants, street signs and the graffiti on the walls) model of an urban neighbourhood which can then be used for interactive fly and walk-through demonstrations. Links have been established between this visual simulation system and AutoCAD to allow models (at varying levels of detail) to be generated using the CAD system and translated into the form required for the visualization system. Links between the GIS system (in this case ARC/INFO and ARCVIEW) and the visual simulation system provide the capability for dynamic query and display of information from the GIS data base in a real-time 3-dimensional format. Links between the CAD and GIS systems allow common base maps to be used for the GIS and modelling systems as well as automatic generation of 3-d form. While an earlier paper by the authors discussed proposed strategies for such an Urban Simulation System, this paper focuses on the results of actual implementation of these strategies, as well as the use of the system for modelling, exploration and display of alternative physical environments.
series DDSS
email robin@gsaup.ucla.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 58a0
authors Persson, J.A.
year 1994
title Resource Based Approach to Generalization in the Context of GIS
source Linkoping, Suécia: Department of Computer and Information Science, Linkoping University
summary A reactive planning system for decision support in the context of GIS will be a complex system. The information flow is often great but of varying quality. Resources should be used as knowledge structures to organize the data involved in such systems and generalizations to reduce the data volume and create overviews. This paper discusses what is meant by resources in the context of GIS and planning and how generalizations can be used in a wider perspective than only for cartographic simplification. The project, which is in an early state, has the goal to design the data structures for a decision support system for crisis and emergency management.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss2004_d-49
id ddss2004_d-49
authors Polidori, M. and R. Krafta
year 2004
title Environment – Urban Interface within Urban Growth
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 49-62
summary This work presents the synthesis of a model of urban growth dedicated to accomplish simulations of urban spatial dynamics, based on integrated urban and environmental factors and promoting simultaneity among external and internal growth. The city and surrounding environment are captured and modeled in computational ambient, by application of the centrality / potential model (Krafta, 1994 and 1999), with support of graph theory, cellular automata, GIS and geocomputation. The model assumes the city as a field of opportunities for obtaining income, mediated by the space, which is composed of urban and environmental attributes, that work as attractors or as resistances for the urban growth. The space configuration and the distribution of those attributes generate tensions that differentiate qualitatively and quantitatively the space, through the centrality measure (built with the support of graphs techniques), coming to provoke growth in places with larger potential of development (built with the help of techniques of CA – cellular automata). Growths above environmental thresholds are considered problems, generated and overcome in the same process of production of the urban space. Iterations of that process offer a dynamic behaviour to the model, allowing to observe the growth process along the time. The model presents several possibilities: a) urban - natural environment integration; b) internal and external growth integration; c) variety in the scale; d) GIS integration and geocomputation; e) user interface; f) calibration; g) theoretical possibilities; and h) practical possibilities.
keywords Environment, Urban Growth, Urban Morphology, Simulation
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

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