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_id ddss9829
id ddss9829
authors De Hoog, J., Hendriks, N.A. and Rutten, P.G.S.
year 1998
title Evaluating Office Buildings with MOLCA(Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment)
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary MOLCA (Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment) is a project that aims to develop a tool that enables designers and builders to evaluate the environmental impact of their designs (of office buildings) from a environmental point of view. The model used is based on guidelinesgiven by ISO 14000, using the so-called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. The MOLCA project started in 1997 and will be finished in 2001 resulting in the aforementioned tool. MOLCA is a module within broader research conducted at the Eindhoven University of Technology aiming to reduce design risks to a minimum in the early design stages.Since the MOLCA project started two major case-studies have been carried out. One into the difference in environmental load caused by using concrete and steel roof systems respectively and the role of recycling. The second study focused on biases in LCA data and how to handle them. For the simulations a computer-model named SimaPro was used, using the world-wide accepted method developed by CML (Centre for the Environment, Leiden, the Netherlands). With this model different life-cycle scenarios were studied and evaluated. Based on those two case studies and a third one into an office area, a first model has been developed.Bottle-neck in this field of study is estimating average recycling and re-use percentages of the total flow of material waste in the building sector and collecting reliable process data. Another problem within LCA studies is estimating the reliability of the input data and modelling uncertainties. All these topics will be subject of further analysis.
keywords Life-Cycle Assessment, Office Buildings, Uncertainties in LCA
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 2653
authors Kohler, N., Barth, B. Heitz, S. and Hermann, M.
year 1997
title Life Cycle Models of Buildings - A New Approach
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 519-531
summary The idea of life cycle cost was developed a quarter of a century ago. A wide dissemination of the term was given through a report for the US Secretary of Defense "Life Cycle Cost in Equipment Procuration". This report was followed by a series of guide lines in the defense field and later on in other government activities. The basic definition of life cycle costs is: "The sum of all costs incurred during the lifetime of an item, i.e. the total of procurement and ownership costs". There are several life cycle costs models available in literature. In the building field attempts have been made to introduce the notion of life cycle costs mainly through building surveys and for public owned buildings. Recorded data of construction, refurbishment and maintenance costs of buildings show that over a 50 year period the total costs amount to approximate twice the investment costs (without financial costs).
keywords Life Cycle Costs, Life Cycle Impact Assessment, Product Models
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id 2070
authors Forgber, U., Kohler, N., Koch, N., Schmidt, F. and Haller. R.
year 1997
title Integration of Sustainable Approaches in the Building Design Process
source Firenze International Conference for Teachers of Architecture, 16.-18. October 1997, Firenze, Italy
summary Sustainable approaches in the choice of building components require attentive control of the building design and complex analyses of the behavior of chosen components and their ecological balance. One strategy to support sustainable approaches is the technique of integrated planing. Integrated planing comprises both, horizontal (interdisciplinary teams) and vertical (building life cycle oriented) integration. Its realization requires the ability to view a building under different aspects (e.g. views of domain experts) and at different stages over time (preliminary design, design, construction, operation, demolition). These different views can only be considered at once, if different approaches in various areas such as computer aided design (CAD), modeling (PDM), and cooperation (CORBA) are integrated into one working environment. Over the last decade, the Institut für Industrielle Bauproduktion (ifib), University of Karlsruhe, Germany and the Institut für Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE), University of Stuttgart (Germany), have investigated various tools and techniques, supporting the implementation of these approaches. Several research projects were subject to experiments in this context.
series other
last changed 2003/02/26 17:58

_id 8b35
authors Maher, M.L., Simoff, S.J. and Mitchell, J.
year 1997
title Formalising building requirements using an Activity/Space Model
source Automation in Construction 6 (2) (1997) pp. 77-95
summary The specification of the spatial requirements for a building is the basis for the architectural design of the building. The specification usually takes the form of an extensive text-based document, a briefing database for large projects, or informal discussion between the architect and the client for a small project. The specification of a building is still a hand-crafted presentation of information that is neither carried forward to the next stage of the life cycle of the building, nor formalised so that it can be effectively used for another project. This paper presents a model, specifically developed to capture the idiosyncrasies of specifying buildings, that has the potential to provide the basis for specifying buildings more generally and could provide the basis for facilitating the generation of new designs or the reuse of existing designs. The model makes explicit the representation of activities, spaces and their relationships. The continued development of the Activity/Space (A/S) Model not only provides a formal representation of requirements, but could provide a standard for product modelling of buildings.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id diss_ruhl
id diss_ruhl
authors Ruhl, Volker R.
year 1997
title Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing of Complex Shaped Concrete Formwork
source Doctor of Design Thesis, Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
summary The research presented in this thesis challenges the appropriateness of existing, conventional forming practices in the building construction industry--both in situ or in prefabrication--for building concrete "freeforms," as they are characterized by impracticality and limitations in achieved geometric/formal quality. The author's theory proposes the application of alternative, non-traditional construction methods derived from the integration of information technology, in the form of Computer-Aided Design (CAD), Engineering (CAE) and Manufacturing (CAM), into the concrete tooling and placing process. This concept relies on a descriptive shape model of a physically non-existent building element which serves as a central database containing all the geometric data necessary to completely and accurately inform design development activities as well as the construction process. For this purpose, the thesis orients itself on existing, functioning models in manufacturing engineering and explores the broad spectrum of computer-aided manufacturing techniques applied in this industry. A two-phase, combined method study is applied to support the theory. Part I introduces the phenomenon of "complexity" in the architectural field, defines the goal of the thesis research and gives examples of complex shape. It also presents the two analyzed technologies: concrete tooling and automation technology. For both, it establishes terminology, classifications, gives insight into the state-of-the-art, and describes limitations. For concrete tooling it develops a set of quality criteria. Part II develops a theory in the form of a series of proposed "non-traditional" forming processes and concepts that are derived through a synthesis of state-of-the-art automation with current concrete forming and placing techniques, and describes them in varying depth, in both text and graphics, on the basis of their geometric versatility and their appropriateness for the proposed task. Emphasis is given to the newly emerging and most promising Solid Freeform Fabrication processes, and within this area, to laser-curing technology. The feasibility of using computer-aided formwork design, and computer-aided formwork fabrication in today's standard building practices is evaluated for this particular technology on the basis of case-studies. Performance in the categories of process, material, product, lead time and economy is analyzed over the complete tooling cycle and is compared to the performance of existing, conventional forming systems for steel, wood, plywood veneer and glassfiber reinforced plastic; value s added to the construction process and/or to the formwork product through information technology are pointed out and become part of the evaluation. For this purpose, an analytical framework was developed for testing the performance of various Solid Freeform Fabrication processes as well as the "sensitivity," or the impact of various influencing processes and/or product parameters on lead time and economy. This tool allows us to make various suggestions for optimization as well as to formulate recommendations and guidelines for the implementation of this technology. The primary objective of this research is to offer architects and engineers unprecedented independence from planar, orthogonal building geometry, in the realization of design ideas and/or design requirements for concrete structures and/or their components. The interplay between process-oriented design and innovative implementation technology may ultimately lead to an architecture conceived on a different level of complexity, with an extended form-vocabulary and of high quality.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id c14d
authors Silva, Neander
year 1997
title Artificial Intelligence and 3D Modelling Exploration: An Integrated Digital Design Studio
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997

This paper describes a CAAD teaching strategy in which some Artificial Intelligence techniques are integrated with 3D modelling exploration. The main objective is to lead the students towards "repertoire" acquisition and creative exploration of design alternatives. This strategy is based on dialogue emulation, graphic precedent libraries, and 3D modelling as a medium of design study.

The course syllabus is developed in two parts: a first stage in which the students interact with an intelligent interface that emulates a dialogue. This interface produces advice composed of either precedents or possible new solutions. Textual descriptions of precedents are coupled with graphical illustrations and textual descriptions of possible new solutions are coupled with sets of 3D components. The second and final stage of the course is based on 3D modelling, not simply as a means of presentation, but as a design study medium. The students are then encouraged to get the system’s output from the first stage of the course and explore it graphically. This is done through an environment in which modelling in 3D is straightforward allowing the focus to be placed on design exploration rather than simply on design presentation. The students go back to the first stage for further advice depending on the results achieved in the second stage. This cycle is repeated until the design solution receives a satisfactory assessment.

keywords Education, Design Process, Interfaces, Neural Networks, 3D Modelling
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 6a37
authors Fowler, Thomas and Muller, Brook
year 2002
title Physical and Digital Media Strategies For Exploring ‘Imagined’ Realities of Space, Skin and Light
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 13-23
summary This paper will discuss an unconventional methodology for using physical and digital media strategies ina tightly structured framework for the integration of Environmental Control Systems (ECS) principles intoa third year design studio. An interchangeable use of digital media and physical material enabledarchitectural explorations of rich tactile and luminous engagement.The principles that provide the foundation for integrative strategies between a design studio and buildingtechnology course spring from the Bauhaus tradition where a systematic approach to craftsmanship andvisual perception is emphasized. Focusing particularly on color, light, texture and materials, Josef Albersexplored the assemblage of found objects, transforming these materials into unexpected dynamiccompositions. Moholy-Nagy developed a technique called the photogram or camera-less photograph torecord the temporal movements of light. Wassily Kandinsky developed a method of analytical drawingthat breaks a still life composition into diagrammatic forces to express tension and geometry. Theseschematic diagrams provide a method for students to examine and analyze the implications of elementplacements in space (Bermudez, Neiman 1997). Gyorgy Kepes's Language of Vision provides a primerfor learning basic design principles. Kepes argued that the perception of a visual image needs aprocess of organization. According to Kepes, the experience of an image is "a creative act ofintegration". All of these principles provide the framework for the studio investigation.The quarter started with a series of intense short workshops that used an interchangeable use of digitaland physical media to focus on ECS topics such as day lighting, electric lighting, and skin vocabulary tolead students to consider these components as part of their form-making inspiration.In integrating ECS components with the design studio, an nine-step methodology was established toprovide students with a compelling and tangible framework for design:Examples of student work will be presented for the two times this course was offered (2001/02) to showhow exercises were linked to allow for a clear design progression.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id 4777
authors Jokela, M., Keinânen, A., Lahtela, H. and Lassila K.
year 1997
title Integrated building simulation tool RIUSKA
source Building Simulation, Prague, Czech Republic
summary A new integrated simulation system for the building services design and facilities management purposes is being developed by Insinööritoimisto Olof Granlund Oy. The system covers the thermal simulation needs of the whole building life cycle from the preliminary design to renovations. The main components of the simulation system are a simulation database, user interfaces, a result module, a building geometry modeller and a calculation engine. The building geometry modeller generates a 3-D surface model of the building. The calculation engine of the first version is DOE 2.1E. The simulation database is linked to other design databases and design programs so that redundant input data is avoided.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 1054
authors Sacks, R. and Warszawski, A.
year 1997
title Issues in the Development and Implementation of a Building Project Model for an Automated Building System
source The Int. Journal of Construction IT 5(2), pp. 75-101
summary While other generalised building project models have been designed to support computer-based integration between various construction applications, we propose that the project model of an Automated System must be specifically designed for the purpose. The aim of an Automated, Computer Integrated Building Realization System is to automatically generate all of the information required for the design, planning and execution of a building project. The project model forms the foundation of the system, and must therefore include all of the relevant information about the facility and the resources required through the various realisation stages. This paper describes a project model designed and implemented specifically for this purpose and details some of the considerations in its development. The model has been tested for life-cycle applicability in a prototype interface of an Automated System. Its completeness at the final stage has also been validated through description of an existing 10 storey building.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id avocaad_2001_19
id avocaad_2001_19
authors Shen-Kai Tang, Yu-Tung Liu, Yu-Sheng Chung, Chi-Seng Chung
year 2001
title The visual harmony between new and old materials in the restoration of historical architecture: A study of computer simulation
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the research of historical architecture restoration, scholars respectively focus on the field of architectural context and architectural archeology (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000) or on architecture construction and the procedure of restoration (Shi, 1988, 1989; Chiu, 1990). How to choose materials and cope with their durability becomes an important issue in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998).In the related research of the usage and durability of materials, some scholars deem that, instead of continuing the traditional ways that last for hundreds of years (that is to replace new materials with old ones), it might be better to keep the original materials (Dasser, 1990). However, unavoidably, some of the originals are much worn. Thus we have to first establish the standard of eliminating components, and secondly to replace identical or similar materials with the old components (Lee, 1990). After accomplishing the restoration, we often unexpectedly find out that the renewed historical building is too new that the sense of history is eliminated (Dasser, 1990; Fu, 1997). Actually this is the important factor that determines the accomplishment of restoration. In the past, some scholars find out that the contrast and conflict between new and old materials are contributed to the different time of manufacture and different coating, such as antiseptic, pattern, etc., which result in the discrepancy of the sense of visual perception (Lee, 1990; Fu, 1997; Dasser, 1990).In recent years, a number of researches and practice of computer technology have been done in the field of architectural design. We are able to proceed design communication more exactly by the application of some systematic softwares, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and so on (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The application of computer technology to the research of the preservation of historical architecture is comparatively late. Continually some researchers explore the procedure of restoration by computer simulation technology (Potier, 2000), or establish digital database of the investigation of historical architecture (Sasada, 2000; Wang, 1998). How to choose materials by the technology of computer simulation influences the sense of visual perception. Liu (2000) has a more complete result on visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA) about the research of urban design projection. The main subjects of this research paper focuses on whether the technology of computer simulation can extenuate the conflict between new and old materials that imposed on visual perception.The objective of this paper is to propose a standard method of visual harmony effects for materials in historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example).There are five steps in this research: 1.Categorize the materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 2.Get new materials of historical architecture and establish the information in digital database. 3.According to the mixing amount of new and old materials, determinate their proportion of the building; mixing new and old materials in a certain way. 4.Assign the mixed materials to the computer model and proceed the simulation of lighting. 5.Make experts and the citizens to evaluate the accomplished computer model in order to propose the expected standard method.According to the experiment mentioned above, we first address a procedure of material simulation of the historical architecture restoration and then offer some suggestions of how to mix new and old materials.By this procedure of simulation, we offer a better view to control the restoration of historical architecture. And, the discrepancy and discordance by new and old materials can be released. Moreover, we thus avoid to reconstructing ¡§too new¡¨ historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 02e4
authors Groh, Paul H.
year 1997
title Computer Visualization as a Tool for the Conceptual Understanding of Architecture
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 243-248
summary A good piece of architecture contains many levels of interrelated complexity. Understanding these levels and their interrelationship is critical to the understanding of a building to both architects and non-architects alike. A building's form, function, structure, materials, and details all relate to and impact one another. By selectively dissecting and taking apart buildings through their representations, one can carefully examine and understand the interrelationship of these building components.

With the recent introduction of computer graphics, much attention has been given to the representation of architecture. Floor plans and elevations have remained relatively unchanged, while digital animation and photorealistic renderings have become exciting new means of representation. A problem with the majority of this work and especially photorealistic rendering is that it represents the building as a image and concentrates on how a building looks as opposed to how it works. Often times this "look" is artificial, expressing the incapacity of programs (or their users) to represent the complexities of materials, lighting, and perspective. By using digital representation in a descriptive, less realistic way, one can explore the rich complexities and interrelationships of architecture. Instead of representing architecture as a finished product, it is possible to represent the ideas and concepts of the project.

series ACADIA
last changed 1998/12/31 12:43

_id 641c
authors Howe, A. Scott
year 1997
title A Network-based Kit-of-parts Virtual Building System
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 691-706
summary This paper describes an experimental browser / modeler which will allow the user to collect and assemble virtual kit-of-parts components from "component libraries" located on the Internet (such as manufacturer's databases) and assemble them into a virtual representation of a building. The fully assembled virtual building will provide a basis for ordering and manufacturing actual components and preparing for construction. The browser will allow the designer to affect a limited degree of remote fabrication at real manufacturing facilities, and facilitate eventual interface with built in sensors and actuators. The browser will manipulate and display interactive three dimensional objects using Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML). Upon assembly, actual components will have sensors built into them for providing data about the real building, which could be viewed during a walkthrough of the virtual building by clicking on parts of the model. The virtual building will work as a remote facility management tool for monitoring or controlling various architectural devices attached to the real building (such as electrically driven louvers, HVAC systems, appliances, etc.).
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id 1767
authors Loveday, D.L., Virk, G.S., Cheung, J.Y.M. and Azzi, D.
year 1997
title Intelligence in buildings: the potential of advanced modelling
source Automation in Construction 6 (5-6) (1997) pp. 447-461
summary Intelligence in buildings usually implies facilities management via building automation systems (BAS). However, present-day commercial BAS adopt a rudimentary approach to data handling, control and fault detection, and there is much scope for improvement. This paper describes a model-based technique for raising the level of sophistication at which BAS currently operate. Using stochastic multivariable identification, models are derived which describe the behaviour of air temperature and relative humidity in a full-scale office zone equipped with a dedicated heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) plant. The models are of good quality, giving prediction accuracies of ± 0.25°C in 19.2°C and of ± 0.6% rh in 53% rh when forecasting up to 15 minutes ahead. For forecasts up to 3 days ahead, accuracies are ± 0.65°C and ± 1.25% rh, respectively. The utility of the models for facilities management is investigated. The "temperature model" was employed within a predictive on/off control strategy for the office zone, and was shown to substantially improve temperature regulation and to reduce energy consumption in comparison with conventional on/off control. Comparison of prediction accuracies for two different situations, that is, the office with and without furniture plus carpet, showed that some level of furnishing is essential during the commissioning phase if model-based control of relative humidity is contemplated. The prospects are assessed for wide-scale replication of the model-based technique, and it is shown that deterministic simulation has potential to be used as a means of initialising a model structure and hence of selecting the sensors for a BAS for any building at the design stage. It is concluded that advanced model-based methods offer significant promise for improving BAS performance, and that proving trials in full-scale everyday situations are now needed prior to commercial development and installation.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 23ea
authors Seebohm, Thomas and Wallace, William
year 1997
title Rule - Based Representation Of Design In Architectural Practice
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 251-264
summary It is suggested that expert systems storing the design knowledge of particular offices in terms of stylistic and construction practice provide a means to take considerably more advantage of information technology than currently. The form of the knowledge stored by such expert systems is a building representation in the form of rules stating how components are placed in three-dimensional space relative to each other. By describing how Frank Lloyd Wright designed his Usonian houses it is demonstrated that the proposed approach is very much in the spirit of distinguished architectural practice. To illustrate this idea, a system for assembling three-dimensional architectural details is presented with particular emphasis on the nature of the rules and the form of the building components created by the rules to assemble typical details. The nature of the rules, which are a three-dimensional adaptation of Stiny's shape grammars, is described. In particular, it is shown how the rules themselves are structured into different classes, what the nature of these classes is and how specific rules can be obtained from more general rules. The rules embody a firm's collective design experience in detailing. As a conclusion, an overview is given of architectural practice using rule-based representations.

series ACADIA
last changed 1998/12/31 12:36

_id 0ec6
authors Shih, Naai Jung
year 1997
title Image Morphing for Architectural Visual Studies
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 397-406
summary The purpose of this paper is to suggest and demonstrate how image interpolation, as a tool, can facilitate architectural illustration of design content and process. This study emphasizes a design-oriented image transition process that is distinguished by two types of morphing: process and source. A morp model is presented with components of input, function, output and constraints. Based on a model’s definition, a matrix is used to illustrate the relationship between the two source images by referring to origin, reference plan, configuration, time, etc. Morphing contents emphasizes changes of pixel, outline (2D or 3D), and order. Possible applications in architectural visual studies include morphology study, comparison building renovation before and after, dynamic adjustment, quantitative measurement, dynamic image simulation, and model and image combination.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/02/01 14:14

_id 8ec9
authors Asanowicz, Alexander
year 1997
title Incompatible Pencil - Chance for Changing in Design Process
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 93-101
summary The existing Caad systems limit designers creativity by constraining them to work with prototypes provided by the system's knowledge base. Most think of computers as drafting machines and consider CAAD models as merely proposals for future buildings. But this kind of thinking (computers as simple drafting machines) seems to be a way without future. New media demands new process and new process demands new media. We have to give some thougt to impact of CAAD on the design process and in which part of it CAAD can add new value. In this paper there will be considered two ways of using of computers. First - creation of architectural form in an architect's mind and projects visualisation with using renderings, animation and virtual reality. In the second part - computer techniques are investigated as a medium of creation. Unlike a conventional drawing the design object within computer has a life of its own. In computer space design and the final product are one. Computer creates environments for new kind of design activities. In fact, many dimensions of meaning in cyberspace have led to a cyberreal architecture that is sure to have dramatic consequences for the profession.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 841a
authors Bartnicka, Malgorzata
year 1997
title The Animal, Full Blood maybe, but Untamed
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 103-108
summary So far yet, even the most advanced technology has not been able to substitute a human, his thoughts, feelings, dreams, longings, visions. It can though, removing need for all kind of effort from our everyday life, surrounding a human with unprecedented comfort, create feeling of peace and security. Task of a computer is to provide assistance, helping in calculations, forming of refined solids, It contains a compendium of knowledge and memory - but not creative skills. So far it's only a machine, with help of which a possibility of creative expression is expanded. It only can solve problems for a human faster and more efficient way, does not have the ability to describe (formulate) problems. Even while providing a support, does it do that honestly? It means, does it support us in those of our doings where we truly need it? Computers have enormous possibilities of use that are not exploited sufficiently and all the time new generations of yet quicker machines with unbelievable power are being created. Every new type of computer appears to be obsolete and insufficient within a few months. Insufficient for what?
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id d60a
authors Casti, J.C.
year 1997
title Would be Worlds: How simulation is changing the frontiers of science
source John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.
summary Five Golden Rules is caviar for the inquiring reader. Anyone who enjoyed solving math problems in high school will be able to follow the author's explanations, even if high school was a long time ago. There is joy here in watching the unfolding of these intricate and beautiful techniques. Casti's gift is to be able to let the nonmathematical reader share in his understanding of the beauty of a good theory.-Christian Science Monitor "[Five Golden Rules] ranges into exotic fields such as game theory (which played a role in the Cuban Missile Crisis) and topology (which explains how to turn a doughnut into a coffee cup, or vice versa). If you'd like to have fun while giving your brain a first-class workout, then check this book out."-San Francisco Examiner "Unlike many popularizations, [this book] is more than a tour d'horizon: it has the power to change the way you think. Merely knowing about the existence of some of these golden rules may spark new, interesting-maybe even revolutionary-ideas in your mind. And what more could you ask from a book?"-New Scientist "This book has meat! It is solid fare, food for thought . . . makes math less forbidding, and much more interesting."-Ben Bova, The Hartford Courant "This book turns math into beauty."-Colorado Daily "John Casti is one of the great science writers of the 1990s."-San Francisco Examiner In the ever-changing world of science, new instruments often lead to momentous discoveries that dramatically transform our understanding. Today, with the aid of a bold new instrument, scientists are embarking on a scientific revolution as profound as that inspired by Galileo's telescope. Out of the bits and bytes of computer memory, researchers are fashioning silicon surrogates of the real world-elaborate "artificial worlds"-that allow them to perform experiments that are too impractical, too costly, or, in some cases, too dangerous to do "in the flesh." From simulated tests of new drugs to models of the birth of planetary systems and galaxies to computerized petri dishes growing digital life forms, these laboratories of the future are the essential tools of a controversial new scientific method. This new method is founded not on direct observation and experiment but on the mapping of the universe from real space into cyberspace. There is a whole new science happening here-the science of simulation. The most exciting territory being mapped by artificial worlds is the exotic new frontier of "complex, adaptive systems." These systems involve living "agents" that continuously change their behavior in ways that make prediction and measurement by the old rules of science impossible-from environmental ecosystems to the system of a marketplace economy. Their exploration represents the horizon for discovery in the twenty-first century, and simulated worlds are charting the course. In Would-Be Worlds, acclaimed author John Casti takes readers on a fascinating excursion through a number of remarkable silicon microworlds and shows us how they are being used to formulate important new theories and to solve a host of practical problems. We visit Tierra, a "computerized terrarium" in which artificial life forms known as biomorphs grow and mutate, revealing new insights into natural selection and evolution. We play a game of Balance of Power, a simulation of the complex forces shaping geopolitics. And we take a drive through TRANSIMS, a model of the city of Albuquerque, New Mexico, to discover the root causes of events like traffic jams and accidents. Along the way, Casti probes the answers to a host of profound questions these "would-be worlds" raise about the new science of simulation. If we can create worlds inside our computers at will, how real can we say they are? Will they unlock the most intractable secrets of our universe? Or will they reveal instead only the laws of an alternate reality? How "real" do these models need to be? And how real can they be? The answers to these questions are likely to change the face of scientific research forever.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4229
authors Pfeilsticker, A.
year 1997
title Further developments on light simulation.
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [3rd EAEA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Endoscopy or computer simulation? A light simulation was conducted by students on a building at night-time in Stuttgart using an endoscope as well as a computer. Findings are presented and true-to-life distribution of light in models is evaluated.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id c59c
authors Kokosalakis, Jen
year 1997
title C AD VANTAGE for Communities, Professionals and Students
source AVOCAAD First International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-01-09] Brussels (Belgium) 10-12 April 1997, pp. 235-254
summary I propose to consider how added value for professionals, and the consumers of their buildings and students of these processes might be attained. Through the vehicle of new technologies including the humble 'CAD' system a fuller collaboration in design decision- making is aided through representation of 3 dimensional design ideas and their comprehension from different 'vantage' points. Thus computing may enhance opportunity for more informed dialogue involving verbal and visual responses between the intentions of the architect and client and promise to open up more of the architectural design process to participation by the building consumers, bringing advantage' to all actors in the design process. More liberated sketching at the system is becoming evident as programmers, and users' skills adapt to the search for more enabling, creative and easier tools, procedures and interfaces freeing responsiveness to consumer wishes. Reflection from clients and practitioners brings hope that a more informed dialogue is enabled through computer supported designing. The beginnings of CAAD support to community groups acts as a facilitator. Contacting and working with community groups follows effective 'Community Development' precedents established in the Liverpool of the sixties; to contact, activate, enable and provide necessary skill supports for community-driven striving for resolution of housing problems. Results of this, ploughed back into CAD teaching for Environmental Planners, brings increased awareness and visualisation of environmental, architectural and human issues and promises to begin a new cycle of more informed participation for citizens, architects, planners and consultants.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

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