Search Results

Hits 41 to 60 of 544

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 4d6f
authors Chodorowski, Franciszek
year 1998
title From Inversive Perspective to Virtual Space
source Cyber-Real Design [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 83-905377-2-9] Bialystock (Poland), 23-25 April 1998, pp. 43-52
summary Looking back at history, considering the proportions taken up by the particular developments of the future vision of an architectural work, one observes that the main method used was based on a form of drawing in the perpendicular projection in the form of "planes", cross sections and elevations. However, the research considering the threedimensional approach of the design solution, took into consideration a model made of wood, plaster or paper. The supplementary works in the form of an axonometric or a perspective drawing were not usually the domain of architects. Such way of presenting space was used by artists: painters and sculptors. The rapid development taking place in the use of computers in preparing architectural design documentation makes one reflect on many issues. Modern software, apart from making it possible to develop projections, cross sections and elevations, allows the presentation of a three dimensional vision of an architectural solution on the basis of axonometry, perspective and a study of virtual space. Despite the obvious progress facilitating the graphic editing process of design work, the initial design phase is an unchanged process, similar to past times ' It is based on transferring the creative invention onto paper by means of handmade sketches, similarly to making an inventory measurement note.
series plCAD
last changed 1999/04/08 15:16

_id a96f
id a96f
authors Clayton, M., Johnson, R., Song, Y and Al-Qawasmi, J.
year 1998
title Delivering Facility Documentation using Intranet Technology
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 240-253
summary Intranet technologies present new opportunities for delivering facility documentation for use in facility management. After the design stage, building documentation is reused to support construction and then facility operation. However, a common perception is that construction documents and as-built drawings are less than optimal for reuse to support operations. We have conducted a study of facility management processes and the information content of facility documentation in the context of information technologies that are emerging into the marketplace. The study provides guidance for facility managers who are implementing and fielding new information technology systems. A better understanding of information needs during operations may also help designers to better structure their own documents for reuse. An analysis of documents that are used throughout the life cycle of facilities has led us to a characterization of operations documents that are distinct from design drawings, record drawings or as-built drawings. From an analysis of facility management processes, we have identified different roles for facility documentation in those processes. Facility documentation may be used as a resource, as input, or as output. Furthermore, from interviews of facility management personnel, we identified facility information that was rated high in importance and low in satisfaction that might be targeted when implementing a facility information system. We prepared software demonstrations that show how the information may be extracted from drawings, entered into databases and then retrieved via Web and CAD interfaces. We suggest that operations documents consist of a variety of information types and require several kinds of information tools, including databases, CAD drawings and hypertext. Intranet technologies, databases and CAD software can be integrated to achieve facility management systems that address shortcomings in current facility management operations. In particular, intranet technologies provide improved accessibility to information for facility management customers and occasional users of the systems. Our study has produced recommendations based upon utility and ease-of-implementation for delivery of information from the design team to the owner, and among personnel during operation of the facility.

series ACADIA
email mark-clayton@tamu.edu
last changed 2003/12/06 07:44

_id dbf3
authors Curcio, Esteban and Perera, Gonzalo
year 2001
title DEL MODELADO 3D AL PROTOTIPO INDUSTRIAL (From 3-D Modeling to the Industrial Prototype)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 77-79
summary From 3D modeling to industrial prototype Industrial Design first year students (UNLP), led by designers Esteban Curcio and Gonzalo Perera, presented OGU coffee table in the avant-garde furniture category in Salao Design Movelsul (Brasil, 1998). Description: As an extracurricular activity, students had to deal with production variables related in particular to automated technologies and its effect on product design, completing each piece 3D digital modeling and following the whole process from manufacturing through diffusion and marketing. Technologies: Models for aluminum smelting: CAD / CAM / CNC; Glass: CNC cut with diamond milling cutter; 1020 steel: Computerized laser cut.
series SIGRADI
email crimson@ciudad.com.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id 40d7
authors Dalyrmple, Michael and Gerzso, Michael
year 1998
title Executable Drawings: The Computation of Digital Architecture
source Digital Design Studios: Do Computers Make a Difference? [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-07-1] Québec City (Canada) October 22-25, 1998, pp. 172-187
summary Architectural designs are principally represented by drawings. Usually, each drawing corresponds to one design or aspects of one design. On the other hand, one executable drawing corresponds to a set of designs. These drawings are the same as conventional drawings except that they have computer code or programs embedded in them. A specific design is the result of the computer executing the code in a drawing for a particular set of parameter values. If the parameters are changed, a new design or design variation is produced. With executable drawings, a CAD system is also a program editor. A designer not only designs by drawing but also programming. It fuses two activities: the first, drawing, is basic in architectural practice; and the second, progamming, or specifying the relation of outputs from inputs, is basic in computer system development. A consequence of executable drawings is that architectural form is represented by graphical entities (lines or shapes) as well as computer code or programs. This type of architecture we call digital architecture. Two simple examples are presented: first, the design of a building in terms of an executable drawing of the architects, Sangallo the Younger and Michelangelo, and second, a description of an object oriented implementation of a preliminary prototype of an executable drawing system written in 1997 which computes a simple office layout.
series ACADIA
email michael.dalyrmple@usa.net, 104164.341@compuserve.com
last changed 1998/12/16 07:42

_id ddss9829
id ddss9829
authors De Hoog, J., Hendriks, N.A. and Rutten, P.G.S.
year 1998
title Evaluating Office Buildings with MOLCA(Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment)
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary MOLCA (Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment) is a project that aims to develop a tool that enables designers and builders to evaluate the environmental impact of their designs (of office buildings) from a environmental point of view. The model used is based on guidelinesgiven by ISO 14000, using the so-called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. The MOLCA project started in 1997 and will be finished in 2001 resulting in the aforementioned tool. MOLCA is a module within broader research conducted at the Eindhoven University of Technology aiming to reduce design risks to a minimum in the early design stages.Since the MOLCA project started two major case-studies have been carried out. One into the difference in environmental load caused by using concrete and steel roof systems respectively and the role of recycling. The second study focused on biases in LCA data and how to handle them. For the simulations a computer-model named SimaPro was used, using the world-wide accepted method developed by CML (Centre for the Environment, Leiden, the Netherlands). With this model different life-cycle scenarios were studied and evaluated. Based on those two case studies and a third one into an office area, a first model has been developed.Bottle-neck in this field of study is estimating average recycling and re-use percentages of the total flow of material waste in the building sector and collecting reliable process data. Another problem within LCA studies is estimating the reliability of the input data and modelling uncertainties. All these topics will be subject of further analysis.
keywords Life-Cycle Assessment, Office Buildings, Uncertainties in LCA
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 3d1d
authors De Vries, B. and Jessurun, A.J.
year 1998
title An Experimental Design System for the Very Early Design Stage
source Timmermans (ed.) Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Maastricht
summary The concepts of the experimental design system that are discussed are feature modeling and geometrical constraints. The main technique for creating the user environment is Virtual Reality. Feature modeling forms the basis for managing the design data. To start with, data storage is implemented in a Relational Data Base Management System. Along with this a (traditional) interface is developed for managing the data. Data management consists of feature type creation and feature type instancing. Features are used to define building elements, their relationships and additional constraints. Apart from the design data, geometrical data are stored. Possible design solutions can be limited using geometrical constraints. Specifying connection types between building elements result in a set of solutions for the position of the bounding boxes of the building elements in space.
series other
email b.d.vries@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id e5a2
authors Debevec, P.
year 1998
title Rendering synthetic objects into real scenes: Bridging traditional and image-based graphics with global illumination and high dynamic range photography
source Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 98, M. Cohen, Ed., 189–198
summary We present a method that uses measured scene radiance and global illumination in order to add new objects to light-based models with correct lighting. The method uses a high dynamic range imagebased model of the scene, rather than synthetic light sources, to illuminate the newobjects. To compute the illumination, the scene is considered as three components: the distant scene, the local scene, and the synthetic objects. The distant scene is assumed to be photometrically unaffected by the objects, obviating the need for re- flectance model information. The local scene is endowed with estimated reflectance model information so that it can catch shadows and receive reflected light from the new objects. Renderings are created with a standard global illumination method by simulating the interaction of light amongst the three components. A differential rendering technique allows for good results to be obtained when only an estimate of the local scene reflectance properties is known. We apply the general method to the problem of rendering synthetic objects into real scenes. The light-based model is constructed from an approximate geometric model of the scene and by using a light probe to measure the incident illumination at the location of the synthetic objects. The global illumination solution is then composited into a photograph of the scene using the differential rendering technique. We conclude by discussing the relevance of the technique to recovering surface reflectance properties in uncontrolled lighting situations. Applications of the method include visual effects, interior design, and architectural visualization.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id de62
authors Eriksson, Joakim
year 1998
title Planning of Environments for People with Physical Disabilities Using Computer Aided Design
source Lund Institute of Technology, School of Architecture
summary In the area of environment adaptations for people with physical disabilities, it is of vital importance that the design is optimized considering the human-environment interactions. All involved persons in such a planning process must be given sufficient support in understanding the information, so that everyone can participate actively. There is an apparent risk that discussions will be kept between experts, due to difficulties in understanding the complex and technical adaptation issues. This thesis investigates the use of computer-based tools for planning/designing environments for physically disabled people. A software prototype, and a method to use such a tool in the planning process, was developed and evaluated, based on the findings from six case studies of real planning situations. The case studies indicated that although such a tool would support the design, as well as the dialog between the participants, a certain level of technical and economical efficiency must be obtained. To facilitate the professional planner's work, an important issue is to maintain a large library of 3D objects. With the latest prototype implementation, it was found that such a planning tool can be produced, even when using consumer-oriented computers. One previous critical factor, interactive manipulation of 3D objects, can now be achieved if utilizing modern graphic cards with 3D acceleration. A usability test was performed to evaluate the prototype's basic operations, involving two groups of future users: five occupational therapist students, and four persons with major physical impairments. It was found that although the usability was satisfactory for the basic tasks, several items needed to be improved or added in future versions. It is important with an integrated support for manikins, in order to evaluate, e.g., wheelchair accessibility, reach ability, positioning of handrails, etc. This thesis reviews and compiles published anthropometrical and biomechanical data into a uniform segment-by-segment structure, in order to aid the design and modifications of manikins. The compilation was implemented as a spreadsheet document. An MRI investigation of the neck-shoulder region was performed on 20 healthy Scandinavian, female volunteers, measuring various musculoskeletal properties. These measurements can be used for further refinements of manikin specifications and biomechanical models.
keywords Rehabilitation; Disability; Adaptation; Participatory Planning; Design Tool; 3D Graphics; Computer Aided Design; Virtual Reality; Manikin; Anthropometry; Biomechanics; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Cervical Spine Kinematics
series thesis:PhD
email joakim.eriksson@design.lth.se
more http://www.lub.lu.se/cgi-bin/show_diss.pl?db=global&fname=tec_250.html
last changed 2003/02/26 08:21

_id aac0
authors Garcia, Renato
year 1998
title Structural Feel or Feelings for Structure? - Stirring Emotions through the Computer Interface in Behaviour Analysis of Building Structures
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 163-171
summary The use of computers in the analysis of architectural structures has at present become indispensable and fairly routine. Researchers & professionals in architecture and engineering have taken advantage of current computer technology to develop richer and more comprehensive interactive interfaces in systems designed to analyse structural behaviour. This paper discusses a research project which attempts to further enrich such computer interfaces by embodying emotion or mood (affective) components into them and assessing the effects of incorporating these into multimodal learning modules for students of architecture at the University of Hong Kong. Computer structural analysis is most often used to determine the final state of a structure after full loading, but can also be used very ably to depict the time-history behaviour of a structure. The time-dependent nature of this process of behaviour provides an excellent opportunity to incorporate emotion cues for added emphasis and reinforcement. Studying time-history behaviour of structures is a vital part of classroom learning in structures and this why such emotion cues can have significant impact in such an environment. This is in contrast to the confines of professional engineering practices where these cues may not be as useful or desirable because oftentimes intermediate time history data is bypassed as a blackbox and focus is placed primarily on bottomline analysis results. The paper will discuss the fundamental basis for the establishment of emotional cues in this project as well as it's implementation-which consists mainly of two parts. The first involves 'personifying' the structure by putting in place a structure monitoring system analogous to human vital signs. The second involves setting up a 'ladder' of emotion states (which vary from feelings of serenity to those of extreme anxiety) mapped to the various states of a structures stability or condition. The paper will further elaborate on how this is achieved through the use of percussion, musical motifs, and chord progression in resonance with relevant graphical animations. Initially in this project, emotion cues were used to reinforce two structural behaviour tutoring systems developed by this author (3D Catenary Stuctures module & Plastic Behaviour of Semi-rigid Steel Frames module). These modules were ideal for implementing these cues because both depicted nonlinear structural behaviour in a mainly time-history oriented presentation. A brief demonstration of the actual learning modules used in the project study will also be presented together with a discussion of the assessment of it's effectiveness in actual classroom teaching.
keywords Affective Interfaces, Human-Computer Interaction, Computer-Aided-Engineering
series CAADRIA
email rjgarcia@hku.hk
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 1998/12/02 13:38

_id ecaade2018_243
id ecaade2018_243
authors Gardner, Nicole
year 2018
title Architecture-Human-Machine (re)configurations - Examining computational design in practice
source Kepczynska-Walczak, A, Bialkowski, S (eds.), Computing for a better tomorrow - Proceedings of the 36th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland, 19-21 September 2018, pp. 139-148
summary This paper outlines a research project that explores the participation in, and perception of, advanced technologies in architectural professional practice through a sociotechnical lens and presents empirical research findings from an online survey distributed to employees in five large-scale architectural practices in Sydney, Australia. This argues that while the computational design paradigm might be well accepted, understood, and documented in academic research contexts, the extent and ways that computational design thinking and methods are put-into-practice has to date been less explored. In engineering and construction, technology adoption studies since the mid 1990s have measured information technology (IT) use (Howard et al. 1998; Samuelson and Björk 2013). In architecture, research has also focused on quantifying IT use (Cichocka 2017), as well as the examination of specific practices such as building information modelling (BIM) (Cardoso Llach 2017; Herr and Fischer 2017; Son et al. 2015). With the notable exceptions of Daniel Cardoso Llach (2015; 2017) and Yanni Loukissas (2012), few scholars have explored advanced technologies in architectural practice from a sociotechnical perspective. This paper argues that a sociotechnical lens can net valuable insights into advanced technology engagement to inform pedagogical approaches in architectural education as well as strategies for continuing professional development.
keywords Computational design; Sociotechnical system; Technology adoption
series eCAADe
email n.gardner@unsw.edu.au
last changed 2018/07/24 10:23

_id 99f2
authors Gero, J.S.
year 1998
title Concept formation in design
source Knowledge-Based Systems 10(7-8): 429-435
summary This paper presents a computationally tractable view on where simple design concepts come from by proposing a paradigm for the formation of design concepts based on the emergence of patterns in the representation of designs. It is suggested that these design patterns form the basis of concepts. These design patterns once learned are then added to the repertoire of known patterns so that they do not need to be learned again. This approach uses the notion called the loosely-wired brain. The paper elaborates this idea primarily through implemented examples drawn from the genetic engineering of evolutionary systems and the qualitative representation of shapes and their multiple representations.
keywords Concept Formation, Pattern Emergence, Representation
series other
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/06 07:00

_id 7560
authors Gomez, Nestor
year 1998
title Conceptual Structural Design Through Knowledge Hierarchies
source Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pittsburgh
summary Computer support for conceptual design still lags behind software available for analysis and detailed design. The Software Environment to Support the Early Phases in Building Design (SEED) project has the goal of providing design generation and exploration capabilities to aid in the conceptual design of buildings, from architectural programming and layout to enclosure design and structural configuration. The current work presents a component of the efforts of the SEED-Config Structure group in providing computer support for conceptual structural design. The Building Entity and Technology (BENT) approach models data about building elements in a general, hierarchical form, where design evolution is represented by the growing specificity of the design description. Two methods of system-supported design generation are provided: case-based reasoning and application of knowledge rules. The knowledge rules, termed technologies, and how they are specified and used are the primary focus of this thesis. In the BENT approach, conceptual structural engineering knowledge is modularized into technology nodes arranged in a directed 'AND/OR' graph, where OR nodes represent alternative design decisions and AND nodes represent problem decomposition. In addition, nodes in the graph may also be specified as having AND/OR incoming arcs thus reducing the duplication of nodes and enhancing the representational power of the approach. In order to facilitate the incorporation of new knowledge into the system, and verify and/or change the knowledge already in the system, the data model and the interface allow for dynamic creation, browsing, and editing of technology nodes. Design generation through the use of the knowledge hierarchy involves the conditional application of nodes according to the design context as represented by the building element(s) under consideration. Each application of a technology node expands the design of building elements by increasing the detail of the design description or by decomposing the elements into less abstract components. In addition, support for simultaneous design of multiple elements and for iteration control are also provided. An important feature of the BENT approach is that the generative knowledge (i.e., the technology hierarchy) is detached from the information repository (i.e., the database of entities which make up the building). This allows the technology hierarchies to be used in a modular fashion from building problem to building problem.
series thesis:PhD
email ngomez@eng.fiu.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id baca
authors Harfmann, A.C.
year 1998
title Editorial
source Automation in Construction 8 (1) (1998) pp. 1-2
summary For centuries, representations have preceded the actual construction of a building. From tracing the outline of a building in the dirt prior to excavation, to a very specific description produced with the help of a computer, the representations are always once removed from the hysical artifact being described.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id ddss9826
id ddss9826
authors Hendricx, A., Geebelen, B., Geeraerts, B. and Neuckermans, H.
year 1998
title A methodological approach to object modelling in the architectural designprocess
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The paper describes a first prototype constructed in search for a central object model. It presents all possible data, concepts and operations concerning the architectural design process in the early phases.A central model of the process of design is essential: going from one design phase into another, the model describes geometrical shapes, abstract concepts like space and activity, concrete physical building elements and the basic operations all these entities undertake. Emphasis is put on combining all these different viewpoints, thus enabling the designer to use a broad range of design strategies. The aim is to help him and not steer or even hamper his creative process. Information necessary toassist the user of the system concerning energy calculation, stability checks etc can be extracted. By means of appropriate interfaces not only those tests built on top of the system but also existing software packages can make use of the model’s object structure. The implemented object model is one of the cornerstones of the IDEA+ project, aiming to provide an Integrated Design Environment for Architecture.
keywords object model, building model, CAAD, IDEA+, MERODE
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id f448
authors Hermann, M., Kohler, N., Koenig, H. and Luetzkendorf, T.
year 1998
title CAAD System with Integrated Quantity Surveying, Energy Calculation, and LCA
source Proceedings: Green Building Challenge 98, Vancouver, Canada. Vol. 2, 68 - 75
summary In the framework of the German LEGOE project, an integrated tool is developed for computer aided architectural design (CAAD), quantity surveying (catalogue of building elements), life cycle cost calculation and estimation (construction and refurbishment), direct energy consumption (heating, hot-water, electri-city) and environmental impact assessment (mass flows and effect oriented evaluation). During the design process the architect works in his usual CAAD environment with building elements (e.g. one m2 of outer wall) which in turn are composed of detailed construction specifications, energy and mass flow coefficients and cost data. These elements are part of an independent catalogue of elements with all their relevant data. The different application programs use the same basic data and write the specific results into a project-specific database called a PDB which allows the comparison of these data to reference data from other projects. Evaluation and visualisation programs refer to the PDB only.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ca7b
authors Howes, Jaki
year 1999
title IT or not IT? An Examination of IT Use in an Experimental Multi-disciplinary Teamwork Situation
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 370-373
summary Leeds Metropolitan University is well placed to carry out research into multi-disciplinary team-working, as all the design and construction disciplines are housed in one faculty. Staff have set up an experimental project, TIME IT (Team-working in Multi-disciplinary Environments using IT) which examines ways of working in the design/construction process and how IT is used when there is no commercial pressure. Four groups of four students, one graduate diploma architect, and one final year student from each of Civil Engineering, Construction Management and Quantity Surveying have been working on feasibility studies for projects that are based on completed schemes or have been devised by collaborators in the Construction Industry. Students have been asked to produce a PowerPoint presentation, in up to five working days, of a design scheme, with costs, structural analysis and construction programme. The students are not assessed on the quality of the product, but on their own ability to monitor the process and use of IT. Despite this, aggressive competition evolved between the teams to produce the 'best' design. Five projects were run in the 1998/99 session. A dedicated IT suite has been provided; each group of students had exclusive use of a machine. They were not told how to approach the projects nor when to use the available technology, but were asked to keep the use of paper to a minimum and to keep all their work on the server, so that it could be monitored externally. Not so. They plotted the AO drawings of an existing building that had been provided on the server. They like paper - they can scribble on it, fold it, tear it and throw it at one another.
keywords IT, Multi-disciplinary, Teamwork
series eCAADe
email J.Howes@imu.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 203b
authors Jabi, Wassim M.
year 1998
title The Role of Artifacts in Collaborative Design
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 271-280
summary With the proliferation of digital technology, a new category of design artifacts, usually described with the term virtual, has emerged. Virtual artifacts have gained further prominence due to the advances made in collaboration software and networking technologies. These technologies have made it easier to communicate design intentions through the transfer and sharing of virtual rather than physical artifacts. This becomes particularly true in the case of long-distance or international collaborative efforts. This paper compares the two major categories of artifacts – the physical and the computer-based – and places them in relationship to an observed collaborative design process. In order to get at their specific roles in collaboration, two case studies were conducted in which designers in academic and professional settings were observed using a methodology which focused on participation in the everydayness of the designer as well as casual discussions, collection of artifacts, note-taking, and detailed descriptions of insightful events. The collected artifacts were then categorized according to the setting in which they were created and the setting in which they were intended to be used. These two attributes could have one of two values, private or public, which yield a matrix of four possible categories. It was observed that artifacts belonging in the same quadrant shared common qualities such as parsimony, completeness, and ambiguity. This paper finds that distinguishing between physical and virtual artifacts according to their material and imagined attributes is neither accurate nor useful. This research illustrates how virtual artifacts can obtain the qualities of their physical counterparts and vice versa. It also demonstrates how a new meta-artifact can emerge from the inclusion and unification of its material and imagined components. In conclusion, the paper calls for a seamless continuity in the representation and management of physical and virtual artifacts as a prerequisite to the success of: (1) computer-supported collaborative design processes, (2) academic instruction dealing with making and artifact building, and (3) executive policies in architectural practice addressing the management of architectural documents.
keywords Collaborative Design Process
series CAADRIA
email wj@writeme.com
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 1998/12/02 13:28

_id 4ea3
authors Johnson, S.
year 1998
title What's in a representation, why do we care, and what does it mean? Examining evidence from psychology
source Automation in Construction 8 (1) (1998) pp. 15-24
summary This paper examines psychological evidence on the nature and role of representations in cognition. Both internal (mental) and external (physical or digital) representations are considered. It is discovered that both types of representation are deeply linked to thought processes. They are linked to learning, the ability to use existing knowledge, and problem solving strategies. The links between representations, thought processes, and behavior are so deep that even eye movements are partly governed by representations. Choice of representations can affect limited cognitive resources like attention and short-term memory by forcing a person to try to utilize poorly organized information or perform 'translations' from one representation to another. The implications of this evidence are discussed. Based on these findings, a set of guidelines are presented, for digital representations which minimize drain of cognitive resources. These guidelines describe what sorts of characteristics and behaviors a representation should exhibit, and what sorts of information it should contain in order to accommodate and facilitate design. Current attempts to implement such representations are discussed.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 0a31
authors Johnson, Scott
year 1998
title Toward Making the Language of CAAD Match the Language of Architecture: A Protean Elements Approach
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 93-100
summary Both in education and in practice, architecture is experiencing a division between designers and "CAD specialists." One reason for the division may be the inherent division between design concepts and CAD concepts. In a very real sense, computer use and design utilize different languages. Becoming an expert in the "craft" of CAD means having to learn to recognize and manipulate a different set of conceptual elements than is used in design. The set of concepts we use affects our thought and behavior incredibly deeply, and translation from one set of concepts to another has significant cognitive cost. This paper discusses the mismatch between architectural and CAD concepts, and proposes protean elements as a solution to the problem. Protean elements are CAD system elements which correspond to architectural elements and have attributes appropriate for the elements they represent. They can be gradually refined in a top-down manner, without demands for certain pieces of missing data, or requirements for "correctness." The goal is to help CAD systems come closer to speaking the same language as architects. A test implementation of a system based on protean elements is currently underway, and aspects of this implementation are discussed.
series eCAADe
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/02johnson/index.htm
last changed 1998/09/25 16:10

For more results click below:

show page 0show page 1this is page 2show page 3show page 4show page 5show page 6show page 7... show page 27