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_id e336
authors Achten, H., Roelen, W., Boekholt, J.-Th., Turksma, A. and Jessurun, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in the Design Studio: The Eindhoven Perspective
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 169-177
summary Since 1991 Virtual Reality has been used in student projects in the Building Information Technology group. It started as an experimental tool to assess the impact of VR technology in design, using the environment of the associated Calibre Institute. The technology was further developed in Calibre to become an important presentation tool for assessing design variants and final design solutions. However, it was only sporadically used in student projects. A major shift occurred in 1997 with a number of student projects in which various computer technologies including VR were used in the whole of the design process. In 1998, the new Design Systems group started a design studio with the explicit aim to integrate VR in the whole design process. The teaching effort was combined with the research program that investigates VR as a design support environment. This has lead to increasing number of innovative student projects. The paper describes the context and history of VR in Eindhoven and presents the current set-UP of the studio. It discusses the impact of the technology on the design process and outlines pedagogical issues in the studio work.
keywords Virtual Reality, Design Studio, Student Projects
series eCAADe
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id e719
authors Achten, Henri and Turksma, Arthur
year 1999
title Virtual Reality in Early Design: the Design Studio Experiences
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 327-335
summary The Design Systems group of the Eindhoven University of Technology started a new kind of design studio teaching. With the use of high-end equipment, students use Virtual Reality from the very start of the design process. Virtual Reality technology up to now was primarily used for giving presentations. We use the same technology in the design process itself by means of reducing the time span in which one gets results in Virtual Reality. The method is based on a very brief cycle of modelling in AutoCAD, assigning materials in 3DStudio Viz, and then making a walkthrough in Virtual Reality in a standard landscape. Due to this cycle, which takes about 15 seconds, the student gets immediate feedback on design decisions which facilitates evaluation of the design in three dimensions much faster than usual. Usually the learning curve of this kind of software is quite steep, but with the use of templates the number of required steps to achieve results is reduced significantly. In this way, the potential of Virtual Reality is not only explored in research projects, but also in education. This paper discusses the general set-up of the design studio and shows how, via short workshops, students acquire knowledge of the cycle in a short time. The paper focuses on the added value of using Virtual Reality technology in this manner: improved spatial reasoning, translation from two-dimensional to three-dimensional representations, and VR feedback on design decisions. It discusses the needs for new design representations in this design environment, and shows how fast feedback in Virtual Reality can improve the spatial design at an early stage of the design process.
series AVOCAAD
email H.H.Achten@tue.nl, A.A.E.Turksma@tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id alqawasmi
id alqawasmi
authors Al-Qawasmi, J., Clayton, M.J., Tassinary, L.G. and Johnson, R..
year 1999
title Observations on Collaborative Design and Multimedia Usage in Virtual Design Studio
source J. Woosely and T. Adair (eds.), Learning virtually: Proceedings of the 6th annual distance education conference, San Antonio, Texas, pp. 1-9
summary The virtual design studio (VDS) points to a new way of practicing and teaching architectural design. As a new phenomenon, little research has been done to evaluate design collaboration and multimedia usage in a distributed workplace like the virtual design studio. Our research provides empirical data on how students actually use multiple media during architectural collaborative design.
series other
email jamalq@kfupm.edu.sa
last changed 2003/12/06 08:55

_id e531
authors Berk, Michael
year 1999
title CYBERjack
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 4, p. 10
summary Using a limited "kit of parts" [two 8 ft. 2x4's and one sheet of 1/2" birch plywood] students in teams of two are to design and construct an "interface" which joins the physical world to the virtual world of the web. The location for this piece of furniture [the CYBERjack] will be a local library in Okolona, Mississippi, where existing web computers are to be housed. The students modeled the design using formZ, then plotted full-size templates to be used in cutting the actual parts out of wood in the shop. The device was supposed to join the Body to the Machine. The project lasted 2 weeks and was part of a 4th year studio which participated in the ACADIA Library Competition last year.
series ACADIA
email mberk@sarc.msstate.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id aef9
authors Brown, A., Knight, M. and Berridge, P. (Eds.)
year 1999
title Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [Conference Proceedings]
source eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7 / Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, 773 p.
summary The core theme of this book is the idea of looking forward to where research and development in Computer Aided Architectural Design might be heading. The contention is that we can do so most effectively by using the developments that have taken place over the past three or four decades in Computing and Architectural Computing as our reference point; the past informing the future. The genesis of this theme is the fact that a new millennium is about to arrive. If we are ruthlessly objective the year 2000 holds no more significance than any other year; perhaps we should, instead, be preparing for the year 2048 (2k). In fact, whatever the justification, it is now timely to review where we stand in terms of the development of Architectural Computing. This book aims to do that. It is salutary to look back at what writers and researchers have said in the past about where they thought that the developments in computing were taking us. One of the common themes picked up in the sections of this book is the developments that have been spawned by the global linkup that the worldwide web offers us. In the past decade the scale and application of this new medium of communication has grown at a remarkable rate. There are few technological developments that have become so ubiquitous, so quickly. As a consequence there are particular sections in this book on Communication and the Virtual Design Studio which reflect the prominence of this new area, but examples of its application are scattered throughout the book. In 'Computer-Aided Architectural Design' (1977), Bill Mitchell did suggest that computer network accessibility from expensive centralised locations to affordable common, decentralised computing facilities would become more commonplace. But most pundits have been taken by surprise by just how powerful the explosive cocktail of networks, email and hypertext has proven to be. Each of the ingredients is interesting in its own right but together they have presented us with genuinely new ways of working. Perhaps, with foresight we can see what the next new explosive cocktail might be.
series eCAADe
email andygbp@liv.ac.uk, mknight@liv.ac.uk, p.berridge@liverpool.ac.uk
more http://www.ecaade.org
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 3ac3
authors Devetakovic, Mirjana and Radojevic, Milan
year 1999
title The Electronic Communication as a Part of CAAD Educational Process
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 265-273
summary Considering demands of contemporary architectural practice to shift spatial and cultural barriers and became more global and more creative, this paper analyses the role of electronic communication within the process of CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) education. After explaining Virtual Design Studio phenomena, represented by several worldwide university projects, this paper focuses on the reflection of those projects in rethinking the CAAD education approach at the Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade. The case illustrating the problem is The Virtual Group activity within the Course "The basics of Computer Application in Architecture". Some examples of student work are given as well as several conclusions based on two-year experience.
series AVOCAAD
email mirjana@arh.arh.bg.ac.yu
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 5477
authors Donath, D., Kruijff, E., Regenbrecht, H., Hirschberg, U., Johnson, B., Kolarevic, B. and Wojtowicz, J.
year 1999
title Virtual Design Studio 1998 - A Place2Wait
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 453-458
summary This article reports on the recent, geographically and temporally distributed, intercollegiate Virtual Design Studio based on the 1998 implementation Phase(x) environment. Students participating in this workshop had to create a place to wait in the form of a folly. This design task was cut in five logical parts, called phases. Every phase had to be finished within a specific timeframe (one day), after which the results would be stored in a common data repository, an online MSQL database environment which holds besides the presentations, consisting of text, 3D models and rendered images, basic project information like the descriptions of the phases and design process visualization tools. This approach to collaborative work is better known as memetic engineering and has successfully been used in several educational programs and past Virtual Design Studios. During the workshop, students made use of a variety of tools, including modeling tools (specifically Sculptor), video-conferencing software and rendering programs. The project distinguishes itself from previous Virtual Design Studios in leaving the design task more open, thereby focusing on the design process itself. From this perspective, this paper represents both a continuation of existing reports about previous Virtual Design Studios and a specific extension by the offered focus. Specific attention will be given at how the different collaborating parties dealt with the data flow and modification, the crux within a successful effort to cooperate on a common design task.
keywords Collaborative design, Design Process, New Media Usage, Global Networks
series eCAADe
email donath@archit.uni-weimar.de
last changed 1999/10/10 12:52

_id 837b
authors Elger, Dietrich and Russell, Peter
year 2000
title Using the World Wide Web as a Communication and Presentation Forum for Students of Architecture
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 61-64
summary Since 1997, the Institute for Industrial Building Production (ifib) has been carrying out upper level design studios under the framework of the Netzentwurf or Net-Studio. The Netzentwurf is categorized as a virtual design studio in that the environment for presentation, criticism and communication is web based. This allows lessons learned from research into Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) to be adapted to the special conditions indigenous to the architectural design studio. Indeed, an aim of the Netzentwurf is the creation and evolution of a design studio planing platform. In the Winter semester 1999-2000, ifib again carried out two Netzentwurf studios. involving approximately 30 students from the Faculty of Architecture, University of Karlsruhe. The projects differed from previous net studios in that both studios encompassed an inter-university character in addition to the established framework of the Netzentwurf. The first project, the re-use of Fort Kleber in Wolfisheim by Strasbourg, was carried out as part of the Virtual Upperrhine University of Architecture (VuuA) involving over 140 students from various disciplines in six institutions from five universities in France, Switzerland and Germany. The second project, entitled "Future, Inc.", involved the design of an office building for a scenario 20 years hence. This project was carried out in parallel with the Technical University Cottbus using the same methodology and program for two separate building sites.
keywords Virtual Design Studios, Architectural Graphics, Presentation Techniques
series eCAADe
email dietrich.elger@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 2fc7
authors Forber, U. and Russell, P.
year 1999
title Interdisciplinary Collaboration in the Virtual Design Studio Design Studio
source Proceedings of the 17th Annual EAAE Annual Conference, Plymouth UK
summary Drastic changes in technology and economics currently impact common working structures. Moreover, a fundamental move of western societies from industrial and service oriented societies to information oriented societies can be observed. Like others, the AEC industry is also exposed to the challenge of these fundamental changes, not only regarding an ever growing stock of information on building components and materials, but also because of new methods of collaboration to be applied by all participants. As a result, integrating domain specific knowledge into the design process and conversely, conveying design intentions to domain experts, is meaningful in a constantly growing scale. Utilising advanced technology, a twofold approach in research and education, undertaken at the Institut für Industrielle Bauproduktion (ifib), University of Karlsruhe, is the basis of efforts to create and develop integrating methods of collaboration into the design and planning process. In addition, the integration of AEC practitioners (investors, users, designers, engineers) in the education process provides both drastic changes in the fields of design and construction education of students and a promising approach for life long learning. The focus of this paper is to present the current state of work and to report on experiences gathered during several Virtual Design Studios (VDS) in which multi-disciplinary participants from various Universities and backgrounds were involved. Platforms for the activities are World Wide Web based applications as well as animations, VR, CAD and video conferencing.
series other
email russell@bazillus.architektur.rwth-aachen.de
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 83b5
authors Heylighen, Ann and Neuckermans, Herman
year 2000
title Time, equipment and encouragement - Travel requisites for the World-Wide Wanderstudent
source G. Van der Perre and P. Vandevelde (eds.), The Wanderstudent 2000: The Wanderstudent of 1425 revived in virtual reality in 2000? Towards a European Virtual University, Proceedings of the International Colloquium organised by EuroPACE at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, on October 20-21, 2000 Leuven University Press, Leuven (Belgium), 2000 (ISBN 90 5867 156 9), pp. 133-136
summary In Winter/Spring 1999, DYNAMO - a Web-based design assistant for student architects - received its baptism of fire in a 4th year design studio at our department. The paper describes the setting and procedure of the baptism, the participation of the studio teaching staff, and the students' reactions and appreciation. Based on students' responses to a questionnaire and observations of the tool in use, we investigated whether DYNAMO succeeded in engaging students and what factors stimulated/hampered this engagement. Although students were noticeably enthusiastic about the tool, three factors revealed themselves as major obstacles to student engagement: lack of time, of encouragement by the teachers and of studio equipment. The paper concludes with lessons learned for the future of DYNAMO and, more in general, of ICT in education.
series journal paper
email Ann.Heylighen@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2002/11/14 07:38

_id c408
authors Hirschberg, U., Schmitt, G., Kurmann, D., Kolarevic, B., Johnson, B. and Donath, D.
year 1999
title The 24 Hour Design Cycle: An Experiment in Design Collaboration over the Internet
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 181-190
summary This paper describes a Virtual Design Studio exercise involving three academic institutions University - Hong Kong (China), ETH Zurich (Switzerland), and University of Washington, Seattle (USA) - whereby teachers and students, obviously on three different continents and in three different time zones, roughly eight hours apart, were working on a common design project using computer-aided design systems, video-conferencing and a web-based central database that managed and displayed all works throughout the process. The 24 hour design cycle is a metaphor for a more open and international approach to design, facilitated through computer networks. It implies a new form of collective authorship and distributed credits and thus deals with some of the essential challenges and opportunities the internet poses to creative disciplines.
series CAADRIA
email hirschberg@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2000/01/13 11:02

_id 3203
authors Jabi, Wassim
year 1999
title STUDIO@UB
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 1
summary Design can be thought of as a process of interpolation. In the face of incomplete and distorted conditions, the designer interjects solutions that interpolate and mediate the given situation. The Upper level Electronic Studio in the Spring term 1999 investigated the nature of interpolation and its relationship to process, space, and program. In particular, it investigated how virtual space can interpolate and augment physical space. The students also researched the multiplicity of meanings of interpolation such as: Insertion/interjection, estimation, linkage, mediation, transformation, and augmentation. The process of interpolation was then mapped into a real architectural problem: The re-design of Hayes and Crosby Halls as an integrated School of Architecture and Planning for the 21st century. Some students took advantage of the option to choose other sites and building programs.
series ACADIA
email jabi@adm.njit.edu
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id b578
authors Kawasumi, Norihiro and Yamaguchi, Shigeyuki
year 1999
title A Study of Design Information System for Network Collaboration
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 191-199
summary In this paper, we discuss about the architectural design collaboration and information management based on the worldwide network. Internet and WWW are rapidly infiltrating through the architectural schools in the world, so it is easy to communicate and share the design information with web homepage and e-mail. But, a set of homepage and e-mail is not sufficient for easy and smooth design. Because of the data management method and system for network collaboration is not yet well organized nor well developed. In this paper, we report the results of two Virtual Design Studio projects that we have experienced and intend to analyze the problems to exchange and share the design information on the web. Then we propose the collaborative design system environment and evaluate it from the result of the experimental third Virtual Design Studio project that we have executed.
series CAADRIA
more http://archigraf.archi.kit.ac.jp/
last changed 2000/01/13 11:04

_id 0beb
authors Koch, Volker and Russell, Peter
year 2000
title VuuA.Org: The Virtual Upperrhine University of Architecture
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 23-25
summary In 1998, architecture schools in the three nation region of the upper Rhine came together to undertake a joint design studio. With the support of the Center for Entrepeneurship in Colmar, France, the schools worked on the reuse of the Kuenzer Mill situated near Herbolzheim, Germany. The students met jointly three times during the semester and then worked on the project at their home universities usng conventional methods. This project was essential to generating closer ties between the participating students, tutors and institutions and as such, the results were quite positive. So much so, that the organisers decided to repeat the exercise one year later. However, it became clear that although the students had met three times in large groups, the real success of a co-operative design studio would require mechanisms which allow far more intimate interaction among the participants, be they students, teachers or outside experts. The experiences from the Netzentwurf at the Institut für Industrielle Bauproduktion (ifib) showed the potential in a web based studio and the addition of ifib to the three nation group led to the development of the VuuA platform. The first project served to illuminate the the differences in teaching concepts among the partner institutions and their teaching staff as well as problems related to the integration of students from three countries with two languages and four different faculties: landscape architecture, interior design, architecture and urban planning. The project for the Fall of 1999 was the reuse of Fort Kléber in Wolfisheim by Strasbourg, France. The students again met on site to kick off the Semester but were also instructed to continue their cooperation and criticism using the VuuA platform.
keywords Virtual Design Studio, CSCW, International Cooperation, Planning Platform
series eCAADe
email volker.koch@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de, peter.russell@ifib.uni-karlsruhe.de
more http://www.vuua.org
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 23df
authors Kolarevic, Branko and Ng, Edward Y.Y.
year 1999
title Net-enabled Collective Design Authorship
source Media and Design Process [ACADIA ‘99 / ISBN 1-880250-08-X] Salt Lake City 29-31 October 1999, pp. 302-315
summary The paper describes an experiment in collective design authorship conducted within a semester-long virtual design studio. Students at two geographically distant institutions were asked to design a "Place2Meet on the Water," a small floating pavilion to be assembled from hollow-section steel components. The first part of the studio was devoted to a study of precedents, done in teams of five students from both institutions, who worked both synchronously and asynchronously over the Internet. The students' work was continuously reviewed through virtual crits conducted using web pages and video conferencing. The second part of the virtual design studio, devoted to the actual design of the pavilion, was divided into five closely related phases. After each phase students had to place their designs into a common database. They then had to browse through submitted designs and choose one to develop further; they were not allowed to continue with their own designs. That way, students implicitly formed teams and engaged in collective design authorship that was enabled by the network and supported by the design database. The design-centered research project presented in this paper also examines the issues of teaching methods and whether the quality of design could be improved in a networked design environment based on collective authorship and how such an environment can affect the nature of the produced designs.
series ACADIA
email akienyy@nus.edu.sg
last changed 1999/12/02 07:55

_id 0297
authors Maher, M-L., Simoff, J. and Cicognani, A.
year 1999
title Understanding Virtual Design Studios
source Springer, London
summary Understanding Virtual Design Studios examines the issues involved in setting up and running a virtual design studio. Rather than focusing on the technology or how to apply it, the reader is presented with an interdisciplinary framework for understanding, organising, running and improving virtual design studios both in professional and educational practice. The authors assess the potential benefits, such as improved creativity and collaboration, and highlight the areas in which our understanding needs to improve; How people collaborate in an environment where interaction is mediated by shared computer resources; How to organise and manage a distributed workspace efficiently; How people represent and communicate design ideas in an electronic form. Of interest to both design professionals and researchers interested in computer-mediated collaboration, this volume will also be of interest to anyone who needs a clear picture of what this new technology can do for them
series other
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 9c00
authors Maher, M. and Simmoff, S.
year 1999
title Variations on the Virtual Design Studio
source Proceedings of Computer-Supported Collaborative Work in Design
summary There are numerous approaches and techniques for setting up an environment for collaborative design. The most common approach is to extend the desktop environment to include tools for meeting and sharing files. This approach takes the individual work environment and adds tools for communicating with others. An alternative approach is to create a virtual world environment in which the collaborators meet, work, and organise their projects. This approach differs conceptually because it creates a sense of place that is unique to the project, sort of a shared office space. A variation on this approach is to create a virtual world that is the model of the product being designed. This is a more obvious choice when the product is an architectural design, but it can be extended to other kinds of design. This approach is essentially collaborating within the design. We present the three approaches and comment on their strengths and weaknesses.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 290c
authors Maher, M.L. and Simoff, S.
year 1999
title Variations on a Virtual Design Studio in J-P. Barthes
source Z. Lin and M. Ramos (eds) Proceedings of Fourth International Workshop on CSCW in Design, Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, pp.159-165
summary There are numerous approaches and techniques for setting up an environment for collaborative design. The most common approach is to extend the desktop environment to include tools for meeting and sharing files. This approach takes the individual work environment and adds tools for communicating with others. An alternative approach is to create a virtual world environment in which the collaborators meet, work, and organise their projects. This approach differs conceptually because it creates a sense of place that is unique to the project, sort of a shared office space. A variation on this approach is to create a virtual world that is the model of the product being designed. This is a more obvious choice when the product is an architectural design, but it can be extended to other kinds of design. This approach is essentially collaborating within the design. We present the three approaches and comment on their strengths and weaknesses.
series other
email mary@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 422f
authors Morozumi, M., Shounai, Y., Homma, R., Iki, K. and Murakami, Y.
year 1999
title A Group Ware for Asynchronous Design Communication and Project Management
source CAADRIA '99 [Proceedings of The Fourth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 7-5439-1233-3] Shanghai (China) 5-7 May 1999, pp. 171-180
summary The number of Virtual Design Studio experiment that used WWW (Digital Pin-up Board) and e-mail for a synchronous communication, is rapidly increasing. There is no doubt that those media are quite helpful, but it also became clear that writing and managing pages of DPB require extra work for designers and technical staff to proceed with collaborative design. To make VDS a popular approach of collaborative design, developing convenient tools to support writing and managing pages of DPB has become inevitable. This paper discusses a prototype of group ware that supports asynchronous design communication with DPB: GW-Notebook that can be used with common web browsers on net-PCs.
series CAADRIA
email moro@arch.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
last changed 2003/05/17 07:54

_id 2c63
authors QaQish, Ra'Ed and Tarazi, Khaled
year 1999
title Formulating a Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) Program Model in Distance Education (DE) at Open Universities (OU)
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 189-204
summary This paper reports on a project that aims to formulate a CAAD program model in Distance Education (Learning/Teaching) framework, to be applied and implemented in future settings at Open Universities worldwide. The methodology used to establish the CAAD program model consisted of a worldwide literature review on the subject of Distance Education and Open Universities. It also involved an assessment of the methods and means used in the delivery of materials to students enrolled at Open Universities, together with an analysis of the current program of study and subject related courses. The methods of this investigation consisted of a comparative analysis between the existing models of teaching process at Open Universities and how it relates to CAAD in architecture schools. The study endeavored to examine several issues that were found to be key factors in any Open University system, namely: the methods of study, program of study, student type/body, academic/degree requirements, and residency/academic calendars. While attempting to establish a conceptual CAAD program model, this study investigated several questions concerning the efficiency of CAAD teaching in Distance Education. One of the study objectives was to determine which factors were mostly needed to effectively integrate CAAD in DE as a new program in Open Universities. In addition, how would these factors affect the design of CAAD courses in OU systems as a new DE program area? And what structural elements would be most affected by these factors? Another objective of this study was to determine to what extent the new CAAD program model in tandem with staff, learning environment, and administered materials would be effective in generating supplementary strategies in the virtual design studio. A third objective was to evaluate the personal computer station as an alternative design studio space in future settings of schools of architecture. Consequently, the principle objective of this study was to develop and establish a CAAD program model to be adopted by Open Universities as a new subject area in DE. Mainly, the study attempted to locate the areas where CAAD teaching excels in the context of virtual design studio of OU system.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

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