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_id 6473
authors Caneparo, Luca and Robiglio, Matteo
year 2001
title Evolutionary Automata for Suburban Form Simulation
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 767-780
summary The paper outlines a research project to develop a dynamic simulation of suburbanization processes. The approach to simulating suburban form relies on modelling different interacting processes on various scales. Two layered models are implemented, the Socio-Economic and Zoning model and the Suburban Form model, respectively by means of cellular automata and genetic programming. The Socio-Economic and Zoning model simulates exogenous factors and endogenous processes of large-scale suburban dynamics. The model approximates the area by means of a rectangular grid to the scale of hundred meters. The Suburban Form model uses a smaller grid, to the scale of meters, and is three-dimensional. The resulting dynamic, 3D, fine-scale model will create scenarios of suburban growth, allowing evaluation of their consequences on built environment and landscape.
keywords Urban Morphology, Model Based Design Support System, Urban Design, Landscape, Genetic Programming, Cellular Automata
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 7e02
authors Elger, Dietrich and Russell, Peter
year 2002
title The Virtual Campus: A new place for (lifelong) learning?
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 472-477
summary 472 eCAADe 20 [design e-ducation] Modeling Real and Virtual Worlds Session 13 In the early spring of 2001 a collection of German universities founded a virtual faculty of architecture, which was named „Liquid Campus“. Current thinking about future forms of education in the field of architecture combined with over 4 years of experience with net-based design studios, led to questions about the future of existing universities, their buildings and their use. This problem was put to 43 students in the form of a design exercise to create a place for a virtual university. In the current situation, in which the administration of knowledge is more and more located on the internet, and even the so-called meeting places themselves can be virtualised through the help of video-conference-software, the exercise was to design a virtual campus in the framework and to carry out this design work in a simulation of distributed practice. Initial criticism of the project came from the students in that exemplary working methods were not described, but left for the students to discover on their own. The creation of a concept for the Liquid Campus meant that the participants had to imagine working in a world without the face to face contacts that form the basis (at present) of personal interaction. Additionally, the assignment to create or design possible links between the real and the virtual was not an easy task for students who normally design and plan real physical buildings. Even the tutors had difficulties in producing focused constructive criticism about a virtual campus; in effect the virtualisation of the university leads to a distinctive blurring of its boundaries. The project was conducted using the pedagogical framework of the; a relatively well established Internet based communication platform. This means that the studio was organised in the „traditional“ structure consisting of an initial 3 day workshop, a face to face midterm review, and a collective final review, held 3,5 months later in the Museum of Communication in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. In teams of 3 (with each student from a different university and a tutor located at a fourth) the students worked over the Internet to produce collaborative design solutions. The groups ended up with designs that spanned a range of solutions between real and virtual architecture. Examples of the student’s work (which is all available online) as well as their working methods are described. It must be said that the energy invested in the studio by the organisers of the virtual campus (as well as the students who took part) was considerably higher than in normal design studios and the paper seeks to look critically at the effort in relation to the outcomes achieved. The range and depth of the student’s work was surprising to many in the project, especially considering the initial hurdles (both social and technological) that had to overcome. The self-referential nature of the theme, the method and the working environment encouraged the students to take a more philosophical approach to the design problem. The paper explores the implications of the student’s conclusions on the nature of the university in general and draws conclusions specific to architectural education and the role of architecture in this process.
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id cf2011_p027
id cf2011_p027
authors Herssens, Jasmien; Heylighen Ann
year 2011
title A Framework of Haptic Design Parameters for Architects: Sensory Paradox Between Content and Representation
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 685-700.
summary Architects—like other designers—tend to think, know and work in a visual way. In design research, this way of knowing and working is highly valued as paramount to design expertise (Cross 1982, 2006). In case of architecture, however, it is not only a particular strength, but may as well be regarded as a serious weakness. The absence of non-visual features in traditional architectural spatial representations indicates how these are disregarded as important elements in conceiving space (Dischinger 2006). This bias towards vision, and the suppression of other senses—in the way architecture is conceived, taught and critiqued—results in a disappearance of sensory qualities (Pallasmaa 2005). Nevertheless, if architects design with more attention to non visual senses, they are able to contribute to more inclusive environments. Indeed if an environment offers a range of sensory triggers, people with different sensory capacities are able to navigate and enjoy it. Rather than implementing as many sensory triggers as possible, the intention is to make buildings and spaces accessible and enjoyable for more people, in line with the objective of inclusive design (Clarkson et al. 2007), also called Design for All or Universal Design (Ostroff 2001). Within this overall objective, the aim of our study is to develop haptic design parameters that support architects during design in paying more attention to the role of haptics, i.e. the sense of touch, in the built environment by informing them about the haptic implications of their design decisions. In the context of our study, haptic design parameters are defined as variables that can be decided upon by designers throughout the design process, and the value of which determines the haptic characteristics of the resulting design. These characteristics are based on the expertise of people who are congenitally blind, as they are more attentive to non visual information, and of professional caregivers working with them. The parameters do not intend to be prescriptive, nor to impose a particular method. Instead they seek to facilitate a more inclusive design attitude by informing designers and helping them to think differently. As the insights from the empirical studies with people born blind and caregivers have been reported elsewhere (Authors 2010), this paper starts by outlining the haptic design parameters resulting from them. Following the classification of haptics into active, dynamic and passive touch, the built environment unfolds into surfaces that can act as “movement”, “guiding” and/or “rest” plane. Furthermore design techniques are suggested to check the haptic qualities during the design process. Subsequently, the paper reports on a focus group interview/workshop with professional architects to assess the usability of the haptic design parameters for design practice. The architects were then asked to try out the parameters in the context of a concrete design project. The reactions suggest that the participating architects immediately picked up the underlying idea of the parameters, and recognized their relevance in relation to the design project at stake, but that their representation confronts us with a sensory paradox: although the parameters question the impact of the visual in architectural design, they are meant to be used by designers, who are used to think, know and work in a visual way.
keywords blindness, design parameters, haptics, inclusive design, vision
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 3220
authors Lartigue, C. Thiebaut, F. and Maekawa, T.
year 2001
title CNC tool path in terms of B-spline curves
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 33 (4) (2001) pp. 307-319
summary We present an accurate and efficient method to generate a CNC tool path for a smooth free-form surface in terms of planar cubic B-spline curves which will be fed into afree-form curve interpolator. We assume the use of a three-axis CNC machine tool with a ball end-mill cutter. We first interpolate break points, which are generated bycomputing the offset surface-driving plane intersection curve reflecting the curvature, by a planar cubic B-spline curve. We then evaluate the maximum scallop height alonga scallop curve by computing the stationary points of the distance function between the scallop curve and the design surface. Furthermore, we compute the maximum pickfeed such that the maximum scallop height along a scallop curve coincides with the prescribed tolerance. Illustrative examples show the substantial improvements this methodachieves over conventional methods where the tool path consists of linear or circular paths.
keywords Free-Form Curve Interpolator, CNC Machine Tool, Pick Feed, Scallop Height, Tool Path, Offset Surface
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 625d
authors Liapi, Katherine A.
year 2001
title Geometric Configuration and Graphical Representation of Spherical Tensegrity Networks
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 258-267
summary The term “Tensegrity,” that describes mainly a structural concept, is used in building design to address a class of structures with very promising applications in architecture. Tensegrity structures are characterized by almost no separation between structural configuration and formal or architectural expression (Liapi 2000). In the last two decades structural and mechanical aspects in the design of these structures have been successfully addressed, while their intriguing morphology has inspired several artists and architects. Yet, very few real world applications of the tensegrity concept in architecture have been encountered. The geometric and topological complexity of tensegrity structures that is inherent to their structural and mechanical basis may account for significant difficulties in the study of their form and their limited application in building design. In this paper an efficient method for the generation of the geometry of spherical tensegrity networks is presented. The method is based on the integration of CAD tools with Descriptive Geometry procedures and allows designers to resolve and visualize the complex geometry of such structures.
keywords Tensegrity Networks, Visualization, Geometric Configuration
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id afb5
authors Yan, H., Ong, B. L. and Lim, G.T.
year 2001
title VBFRED-IVY: The development of a computational tool to model the thermal performance of plants on buildings in the Singapore climate
source CAADRIA 2001 [Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 1-86487-096-6] Sydney 19-21 April 2001, pp. 159-169
summary This paper reports the development of VBFRED-IVY, a computational tool that is used to model and analyze the thermal effects of plants on buildings under Singapore climatic conditions. In VBFRED-IVY, the vegetation-air temperature and surface temperature of a planted wall and a non-planted wall are investigated respectively. Climatic data of Singapore are input to do the parametric testing. Then field measurements are carried on three planted walls in different orientations, and statistics method is applied to evaluate the simulation program. The results show that VBFRED-IVY is efficient.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2001/05/27 16:27

_id 12e3
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E., Che Zulkhairi, A. and Karboulonis, P.
year 2002
title Interactive Storytelling and Its Role in the Design Process
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 151-158
summary Projects of ever increasing complexity and size have incited the need for new and robust design methodologies and tools in an effort to manage complexity, lower costs, ascertain quality and reduce risk. Technology convergence through the growing availability of networked computers, rapid progress in Computer Aided Design (CAD) and information management have encouraged the undertaking of even more complex designs that demand high degrees of interaction, collaboration and the efficient sharing and dissemination of information. It is suggested that interactive storytelling and interactive design (Rafi and Karboulonis, 2001) techniques that use non-linear information mapping systems can be deployed to assist users as they navigate information that is structured to address localized needs as they arise. The design process is a collaborative effort that encompasses diverse knowledge disciplines and demands the management and utilization of available resources to satisfy the needs of a single or set of goals. It is thought that building industry specialists should work close together in an organised manner to solve design problems as they emerge and find alternatives when designs fall short. The design process involves the processing of dynamic and complex information, that can be anything from the amount of soil required to level lands - to the needs of specific lightings systems in operation theatres. Other important factors that affect the design process are related to costs and deadlines. This paper will demonstrate some of our early findings in several experiments to establish nonlinear storytelling. It will conclude with a recommendation for a plausible design of such a system based on experimental work that is currently being conducted and is reaching its final stages. The paper will lay the foundations of a possible path to implementation based on the concept of multi-path animation that is appropriate for structuring the design process as used in the building industry.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id avocaad_2001_18
id avocaad_2001_18
authors Aleksander Asanowicz
year 2001
title The End of Methodology - Towards New Integration
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The present paper is devoted to the deliberation on the genesis and development of designing from the point of view of the potential use of computers in the process. Moreover, it also presents the great hopes which were connected with the use of the systematic designing methods in the 1960’s, as well as the great disappointment resulting from the lack of concrete results. At this time a great deal of attention was paid to the process of design as a branch of a wider process of problem-solving. Many people believed that the intuitive methods of design traditionally used by architects were incapable of dealing with the complexity of the problems to be solved. Therefore, the basic problem was the definition of a vertical structure of the designing process, which would make it possible to optimise each process of architectural design. The studies of design methodology directed at the codification of the norms of actions have not brought about any solutions which could be commonly accepted, as the efforts to present the designing process as a formally logical one and one that is not internally “uncontrary” from the mathematical point of view, were doomed to fail. Moreover, the difficulties connected with the use of the computer in designing were caused by the lack of a graphic interface, which is so very characteristic of an architect’s workshop. In result, the methodology ceased to be the main area of the architect’s interest and efforts were focused on facilitating the method of the designer’s communication with the computer. New tools were created, which enabled both the automatic generation of diversity and the creation of forms on the basis of genetic algorithms, as well as the presentation of the obtained results in the form of rendering, animation and VRML. This was the end of the general methodology of designing and the beginning of a number of methods solving the partial problems of computer-supported design. The present situation can be described with the words of Ian Stewart as a “chaotic run in all directions”. An immediate need for new integration is felt. Cyber-real space could be a solution to the problem. C-R-S is not a virtual reality understood as an unreal world. Whilst VR could be indeed treated as a sort of an illusion, C-R-S is a much more realistic being, defining the area in which the creative activities are taking place. The architect gains the possibility of having a direct contact with the form he or she is creating. Direct design enables one to creatively use the computer technology in the designing process. The intelligent system of recognising speech, integrated with the system of virtual reality, will allow to create an environment for the designer – computer communication which will be most natural to the person. The elimination of this obstacle will facilitate the integration of the new methods into one designing environment. The theoretical assumptions of such an environment are described in the present paper.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 1b10
id 1b10
authors Bay, Joo-Hwa
year 2001
title Cognitive Biases - The case of tropical architecture
source Delft University of Technology
summary This dissertation investigates, i) How cognitive biases (or illusions) may lead to errors in design thinking, ii) Why architects use architectural precedents as heuristics despite such possible errors, and iii) Develops a design tool that can overcome this type of errors through the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism. The mechanism controls biases and improves accuracy in architectural thinking. // The research method applied is interdisciplinary. It employs knowledge from cognitive science, environmental engineering, and architectural theory. The case study approach is also used. The investigation is made in the case of tropical architecture. The investigation of architectural biases draws from work by A. Tversky and D. Kahneman in 1982 on “Heuristics and biases”. According to Tversky and Kahneman, the use of heuristics of representativeness (based on similarity) and availability (based on ease of recall and imaginability) for judgement of probability can result in cognitive biases of illusions of validity and biases due to imaginability respectively. This theory can be used analogically to understand how errors arise in the judgement of environmental behaviour anticipated from various spatial configurations, leading to designs with dysfunctional performances when built. Incomplete information, limited time, and human mental resources make design thinking in practice difficult and impossible to solve. It is not possible to analyse all possible alternative solutions, multiple contingencies, and multiple conflicting demands, as doing so will lead to combinatorial explosion. One of the ways to cope with the difficult design problem is to use precedents as heuristic devices, as shortcuts in design thinking, and at the risk of errors. This is done with analogical, pre-parametric, and qualitative means of thinking, without quantitative calculations. Heuristics can be efficient and reasonably effective, but may not always be good enough or even correct, because they can have associated cognitive biases that lead to errors. Several debiasing strategies are discussed, and one possibility is to introduce a rebuttal mechanism to refocus the designer’s thinking on the negative and opposite outcomes in his judgements, in order to debias these illusions. The research is carried out within the framework of design theory developed by the Design Knowledge System Research Centre, TUDelft. This strategy is tested with an experiment. The results show that the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism can debias and improve design judgements substantially in environmental control. The tool developed has possible applications in design practice and education, and in particular, in the designing of sustainable environments.
keywords Design bias; Design knowledge; Design rebuttal; Design Precedent; Pre-parametric design; Tropical architecture; Sustainability
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
last changed 2006/05/28 05:42

_id dd8c
authors Brazier, F.M.T., Jonker, C.M., Treur, J. and Wijngaards, N.J.E.
year 2001
title Compositional design of a generic design agent
source Design Studies 22 (5), pp. 439-471
summary This paper presents a generic architecture for a design agent, to be used in an Internet environment. The design agent is based on an existing generic agent model, and includes a refinement of a generic model for design, in which strategic reasoning and dynamic management of requirements are explicitly modelled. The generic architecture has been designed using the compositional development method DESIRE, and has been used to develop a prototype design agent for automated agent design.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0277
authors Brusilovsky, P.
year 2001
title Adaptive hypermedia
source User modelling and User-Adapted Interaction, volume 11, pp. 87-110, Kluwer
summary Hypertext/hypermedia systems and user-model-based adaptive systems in the areas of learning and information retrieval have for a long time been considered as two mutually exclusive approaches to information access. Adaptive systems tailor information to the user and may guide the user in the information space to present the most relevant material, taking into account a model of the user's goals, interests and preferences. Hypermedia systems, on the other hand, are `user neutral': they provide the user with the tools and the freedom to explore an information space by browsing through a complex network of information nodes. Adaptive hypertext and hypermedia systems attempt to bridge the gap between these two approaches. Adaptation of hypermedia systems to each individual user is increasingly needed. With the growing size, complexity and heterogeneity of current hypermedia systems, such as the World Wide Web, it becomes virtually impossible to impose guidelines on authors concerning the overall organization of hypermedia information. The networks therefore become so complex and unstructured that the existing navigational tools are no longer powerful enough to provide orientation on where to search for the needed information. It is also not possible to identify appropriate pre-defined paths or subnets for users with certain goals and knowledge backgrounds since the user community of hypermedia systems is usually quite inhomogeneous. This is particularly true for Web-based applications which are expected to be used by a much greater variety of users than any earlier standalone application. A possible remedy for the negative effects of the traditional `one-size-fits-all' approach in the development of hypermedia systems is to equip them with the ability to adapt to the needs of their individual users. A possible way of achieving adaptivity is by modeling the users and tailoring the system's interactions to their goals, tasks and interests. In this sense, the notion of adaptive hypertext/hypermedia comes naturally to denote a hypertext or hypermedia system which reflects some features of the user and/or characteristics of his system usage in a user model, and utilizes this model in order to adapt various behavioral aspects of the system to the user. This book is the first comprehensive publication on adaptive hypertext and hypermedia. It is oriented towards researchers and practitioners in the fields of hypertext and hypermedia, information systems, andpersonalized systems. It is also an important resource for the numerous developers of Web-based applications. The design decisions, adaptation methods, and experience presented in this book are a unique source of ideas and techniques for developing more usable and more intelligent Web-based systems suitable for a great variety of users. The practitioners will find it important that many of the adaptation techniques presented in this book have proved to be efficient and are ready to be used in various applications.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ecaade2014_153
id ecaade2014_153
authors David Morton
year 2014
title Augmented Reality in architectural studio learning:How Augmented Reality can be used as an exploratory tool in the design learning journey
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 343-356
summary The boundaries of augmented reality in the academic field are now being explored at an ever increasing level. In this paper we present the initial findings of an educational project focusing on the use of augmented reality in the design process of an architectural student. The study seeks to evaluate the use of AR as a tool in the design stages, allowing effective exploration of spatial qualities of design projects undertaken in the studio. The learning process is guided by the exploration and detection of a design idea in both form and function, with the virtual environment providing a dynamic environment (Mantovani, 2001). This is further reflected in the constructivist theory where the learning processes use conceptual models, which are used to create incremental stages that become the platform to attain the next [Winn, 1993]. The additional benefit of augmented reality within the learning journey is the ability of the students to visually explore the architectural forms they are creating in greater depth.
wos WOS:000361384700034
keywords Augmented reality; pedagogy; learning journey; exploration
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 6a37
authors Fowler, Thomas and Muller, Brook
year 2002
title Physical and Digital Media Strategies For Exploring ‘Imagined’ Realities of Space, Skin and Light
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 13-23
summary This paper will discuss an unconventional methodology for using physical and digital media strategies ina tightly structured framework for the integration of Environmental Control Systems (ECS) principles intoa third year design studio. An interchangeable use of digital media and physical material enabledarchitectural explorations of rich tactile and luminous engagement.The principles that provide the foundation for integrative strategies between a design studio and buildingtechnology course spring from the Bauhaus tradition where a systematic approach to craftsmanship andvisual perception is emphasized. Focusing particularly on color, light, texture and materials, Josef Albersexplored the assemblage of found objects, transforming these materials into unexpected dynamiccompositions. Moholy-Nagy developed a technique called the photogram or camera-less photograph torecord the temporal movements of light. Wassily Kandinsky developed a method of analytical drawingthat breaks a still life composition into diagrammatic forces to express tension and geometry. Theseschematic diagrams provide a method for students to examine and analyze the implications of elementplacements in space (Bermudez, Neiman 1997). Gyorgy Kepes's Language of Vision provides a primerfor learning basic design principles. Kepes argued that the perception of a visual image needs aprocess of organization. According to Kepes, the experience of an image is "a creative act ofintegration". All of these principles provide the framework for the studio investigation.The quarter started with a series of intense short workshops that used an interchangeable use of digitaland physical media to focus on ECS topics such as day lighting, electric lighting, and skin vocabulary tolead students to consider these components as part of their form-making inspiration.In integrating ECS components with the design studio, an nine-step methodology was established toprovide students with a compelling and tangible framework for design:Examples of student work will be presented for the two times this course was offered (2001/02) to showhow exercises were linked to allow for a clear design progression.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id avocaad_2001_06
id avocaad_2001_06
authors Giovanni De Paoli
year 2001
title Architectural design and procedural models - A radical change of language to design in architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The history of architecture and its teaching clearly reveal how representations of the image and drawing have changed over centuries. Today, computers are increasingly found at the desks of architecture professionals and students, but their usage remains restricted to technical functions and what is commonly known as CAD (computer-assisted design), in architecture is often simply the other CAD (computer-assisted drawing).This presentation deals with architectural design, particularly at its earliest stage. Our objective is to propose a model for describing the architectural concept that meets the needs of architects through software. Only then will they really be able to use computers as an aid to design by overcoming the obstacles that presently keep us from making full use of them.This has led me to propose an avenue of exploration that examines projection through an object’s properties, and a method of computer-assisted design that makes use of procedural models. These procedural models consist of geometric operators and operators that define the properties, characteristics and performance of a building — operators which I have termed “semantic”.This research fits into a paradigm that leads to representation of the building through functions that can be called with parameters and encapsuled in an algorithm, making it possible to create procedural models that assist with the design. This approach opens up a means of integrating the logos with the figurative representation where drawing is used instead of words to convey the architectural concept.The example of a procedural model shows how we can use a generic model to produce a volume model with all the characteristics belonging to the same family of objects. This type of model can serve not only to illustrate the result of a process, or to draw connections among buildings on the basis of their construction process, or to test the validity of a rule typical of a set of objects, but also to integrate, through a functional language, semantic operators which to date have been excluded from the initial design phase. This descriptive mechanism is extremely powerful in making it possible to establish relationships among the functions and properties of a building and the purpose of the architectural project.The scientific contribution of this research is to test the hypothesis that we can use computer tools to manipulate operators which enable the architect to reappropriate a complex design of the building, and open up new lines of investigation into integrating geometric and knowledge-based systems into a unified representation. The declarative approach for creating three-dimensional scenes fits into this perspective.It is now a matter of exploring the possibility of working on a “common morphology” shared by everyone involved in the design process by rewriting the functions or by converting the functions used for representation, or else through a functional dialect (language) that allows for dialectic relationships among all types of operators and the actions of the protagonists in the architectural design process.
series AVOCAAD
email Giovanni.De.Paoli@Umontreal.CA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id b7a0
authors Guillon, Sol M.
year 2001
title COLOR, FORMA Y CINETICA (Color, Form and Cinetics)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 171-172
summary “Color, Shape and Movement” is a course for Architecture, Design and Arts students of the Universidad Finis Terrae. The course is developed as a computer based experimentation laboratory whose objective is to give the students a perception of color and shape in a dynamic environment, with movement, direction and speed, in a search of a different perspective from those given in the traditional colour courses. This means of expression confirms the computer as another form of creative and artistic language.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:53

_id d90f
authors Hanser, D., Halin, G. and Bignon, J.-C.
year 2001
title Relation-Based Groupware For Heterogeneous Design Teams
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 86-91
summary This paper describes a work about coordination of concurrent engineering in the building construction and design. More particularly it describes the coordination of project teams which are heterogeneous and short-lived. The French context of the building trade is at present characterized by an increase of the quality requirements and by a reduction of the conception and realization delays. This induces the building sector to look for new modes of cooperation as they already exist in industry and services. With a few exceptions, the concurrent engineering tools taken from these sectors are not used in building projects. We make the assumption that the lack of use of these tools is due to the non-fitting of the common existing tools to the specificities of our sector. The solution we propose give a relational vision of the cooperation and the interactions existing during the processes of conception-construction in architectural works. Our first interest point concerns the representation of the actors, the documents and the assignments as a relational network and not as a hierarchical tree, mostly used in the groupware tools. In a second point, we use this relational network to produce a graphic and dynamic representation of the projects. The goal of this method is to reinforce the co-operation and the group awareness by supplying to the actors a good vision of the project evolution in order to increase the conception quality.
keywords Concurrent Engineering, Groupware, Project Management, Relational Model, Awareness
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id d146
authors He, Jie
year 2001
title CAD Study in Visual Analysis of the Visual Sustainability for China Urban Natural Landscape Planning
source Chinese University of Hong Kong
summary In this thesis a GIS-based CAD system prototype of evaluating visual quality of urban natural landscape environment is presented. This prototype is an indispensable component of the integrative Visual Sustainability research, and offers a calculable and visualizable technique to urban visual natural landscape assessment. This scientific method provides precise data to estimate the visibility of natural landscape in urban construction actuality. Furthermore, it can also work out supporting information for maintaining and protecting valuable visual landscape resources in further planning. Introduction of this methodology intends to improve the natural landscape cooperation in China urban planning through visual protection. Combining with popular CAD software such as AutoCAD and Microstation, the research team uses ArcView GIS software and its 3D Analyst extension to accomplish a set of research procedure, which includes data modification, model making, viewshed and view sensibility analysis. In addition, this system can create simultaneous 3D scenes or hire other information media as reference tools for professional analysis, design consultation and intercommunication. The core technologies of this proposed system are viewshed calculation and overlay analysis. In viewshed analysis, human visual characteristics are simulated by a series of ergonomics parameters of viewpoints. Viewshed of each viewpoint can be calculated into vector data and mapped by polygons identifying which region is visible and which is not. Overlay function of the proposed system is used in visual sensibility analysis to achieve the division of higher visual sensible area which indicates the common visible area from different viewpoints. Additionally, viewshed maps and visual sensibility results can add more information to mark out the areas that can satisfy certain visual parameters such as appropriate visual angle or visual distance. These overlaying results can visualized the visible areas into hierarchical visual perception quality categories in order to define the visual landscape significance of particular planning regions. A case study was operated to evaluate this system. The case is in Zhongshan city, Guangdong Province of China. Jinzishan hill region is the study site that picked by collaborating discussion of research team and the local government. It is located on the edge of urban built-up area. Jinzishan massif is the prominent landscape element of the surrounding environment. There are three topics in Jinzishan visual perception in this paper. The first topic is the visual quality evaluation of the intersections of its surrounding road system. The second is the integrated visual perception of two main roads called Qiwandao and Bo’ailu. Finally is the analysis of the hill skyline visual quality in surrounding area. The analysis results in GIS vector data can be converted into popular data format and combined with other spatial information for practical application. And comments for future urban planning are collected and analyzed by professional responses to the computer-generated information investigation.
keywords Natural Landscaping; Computer-Aided Design; Landscape Architecture; City Planning; Geographic Information Systems
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id avocaad_2001_08
id avocaad_2001_08
authors Ivanka Iordanova, Temy Tidafi
year 2001
title Design assistance by complexity-supporting precedents' modelling
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design processes imply complexity at every stage of the development of a project. On one hand, this complexity is rarely taken into consideration by the currently used CAD programs. On the other hand, recent theoretical researches indicate that a large proportion of architectural design processes are based on precedents as a source of inspiration or as a basis for reflection. A precedent is usually seen as a sketch, as a picture, as a drawing or as a visual memory of an architectural object or space. Recent research enlarges this concept into at least two directions: (1) precedents are looked for not only in the architectural space, and (2) it’s not only the visual aspect of a precedent that is important, but also its internal logic and structure, the know-how associated to it, and the actions needed for its creation. Usually, architectural design knowledge is implicitly presented by precedents. This design knowledge is applied to design-objects having various levels of generality, at different states of detailing and expected to be dynamically transformed during the following stages of design. Having in mind these characteristics of precedents called for during the architectural design process, we propose to join their visual representation with a description of their most important characteristics: structural organisation, way of production, functional organisation, spatial composition, etc. These can be either described or modelled by the original author, or interpreted by the precedent’s ‘user’. These design-knowledge models can be of use in several ways: (1) providing a library for search of precedents by semantic analogy, (2) offering ready-to-use capsules of design knowledge for new design situations, (3) enriching the ‘design world’ of the user-architect. We have implemented the proposed method of complexity-supporting precedents’ modelling by the means of the functional programming SGDL-Scheme language. The models (a programming function or a structure of programming functions) describe the actions necessary for the creation of an object (or its digital representation) and the structural organisation between the models in order to generate new, more complex ones. The concept of describing actions instead of shapes, provides a multi-level applicability of the models. Visual presentations (digital maquettes, images or animations) of newly generated objects can be stored in a visual-library of the assistant, thus creating a new ‘precedent’ that can be referred to in future by visual analogy. The design-knowledge that has generated the new object, is stored and linked to the image. Thus, the visual stimulus of a precedent can be joined with functional characteristics, production procedures and/or semantic meaning of the object. The paper will present the ‘engine’ of the proposed assistant, its organisation, as well as digital models of precedents that have served as a basis for the design of new architectural objects or structures. The assistant is conceived as an open, complexity supporting structure that can be further developed by the ‘user-architect’. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of the proposed assistant.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 3322
authors Klinger, Kevin R.
year 2001
title Making Digital Architecture: Historical, Formal, and Structural Implications of Computer Controlled Fabrication and Expressive Form
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 239-244
summary Digital output from computer modeling represents a significant new method for visualization and fabrication of architecture. The ability to move directly from three-dimensional modeling to real three-dimensional output challenges the need for traditional means of representation such as plan, section, etc. Moreover, the necessity for conversion of architectural intentions into a code (construction documents, shop drawings, etc.) to be translated by the contractor will also be tested with these new potentials in fabrication. This subjugation of traditional forms of representation and fabrication has serious implications for architectural design process and production. The intention of this paper is to scrutinize underlying issues inherent in a design process of developing architectural solutions using the computer both as a tool for threedimensional visualization as well as for guiding three-dimensional fabrication. Precedent of historic expressive architectural form (seen through the lens of fabrication) will be presented to lay the foundation for the examination of new fabrication techniques and structural concerns for computer generated expressive forms. A series of rapid prototype studies from a digital architecture seminar will also be analyzed to outline the need for developing visualization/fabrication process ideas and research into methods for making digital architecture.
keywords Expressive Form, Digital Visualization, Digital Fabrication, Rapid Prototyping, Five-Axis Milling
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

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