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_id 360e
authors Mahdjoubi, Lamine and Wiltshire, John
year 2001
title Towards a framework for evaluation of computer visual simulations in environmental design
source Design Studies 22 (2) (2001) pp. 193-209
summary Research has been conducted into the assessment of visual simulation as a credible method for predicting future environments, especially in building and landscape evaluation. Despite this work a conceptual framework to guide research and practice in this field has not been developed. The recent and increasingly widespread use of computer simulation in design has created an urgent need to develop a conceptual framework which can test prevailing assumptions and provide the basis for the development of an accepted theory in the field. This paper proposes such a framework, and identifies and relates the significant variables, which impact upon the application of visual simulation in an environmental design, task-orientated context.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id da3a
authors Borges Sanches, Thais and Leão de Amorim, Arivaldo
year 2001
title AVALIAÇÃO DO USO DA SIMULAÇÃO COMPUTACIONAL EM PROJETOS DE ILUMINAÇÃO ARTIFICIAL (Evaluation of the Use of Computer Simulation for Artificial Illumination Projects)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 95-97
summary This paper tries to evaluate the quantitative e qualitative aspects of the uses of the computational simulation for the analysis of enclosed environments light designs, and its feasibility in teaching in Architectural and Urbanism courses. The importance of this paper is associated with the determining of the illumination levels and its effects. Simulations were made with the Lightscape software in a specific room and their results were compared with the experimental measurements taken in that place. From this comparison it was possible to make the analysis of the software characteristics and to evaluate the advantages or disadvantages of its uses. The results confirm its feasibility as a tool for illumination simulation and its adequate uses in the teaching of environmental comfort. The good correlation achieved in visual effects derived from the lighting design and also the information of values related to illuminance and luminance for the simulated space support this affirmative.
series SIGRADI
email alamorim@ufba.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id cf2011_p027
id cf2011_p027
authors Herssens, Jasmien; Heylighen Ann
year 2011
title A Framework of Haptic Design Parameters for Architects: Sensory Paradox Between Content and Representation
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 685-700.
summary Architects—like other designers—tend to think, know and work in a visual way. In design research, this way of knowing and working is highly valued as paramount to design expertise (Cross 1982, 2006). In case of architecture, however, it is not only a particular strength, but may as well be regarded as a serious weakness. The absence of non-visual features in traditional architectural spatial representations indicates how these are disregarded as important elements in conceiving space (Dischinger 2006). This bias towards vision, and the suppression of other senses—in the way architecture is conceived, taught and critiqued—results in a disappearance of sensory qualities (Pallasmaa 2005). Nevertheless, if architects design with more attention to non visual senses, they are able to contribute to more inclusive environments. Indeed if an environment offers a range of sensory triggers, people with different sensory capacities are able to navigate and enjoy it. Rather than implementing as many sensory triggers as possible, the intention is to make buildings and spaces accessible and enjoyable for more people, in line with the objective of inclusive design (Clarkson et al. 2007), also called Design for All or Universal Design (Ostroff 2001). Within this overall objective, the aim of our study is to develop haptic design parameters that support architects during design in paying more attention to the role of haptics, i.e. the sense of touch, in the built environment by informing them about the haptic implications of their design decisions. In the context of our study, haptic design parameters are defined as variables that can be decided upon by designers throughout the design process, and the value of which determines the haptic characteristics of the resulting design. These characteristics are based on the expertise of people who are congenitally blind, as they are more attentive to non visual information, and of professional caregivers working with them. The parameters do not intend to be prescriptive, nor to impose a particular method. Instead they seek to facilitate a more inclusive design attitude by informing designers and helping them to think differently. As the insights from the empirical studies with people born blind and caregivers have been reported elsewhere (Authors 2010), this paper starts by outlining the haptic design parameters resulting from them. Following the classification of haptics into active, dynamic and passive touch, the built environment unfolds into surfaces that can act as “movement”, “guiding” and/or “rest” plane. Furthermore design techniques are suggested to check the haptic qualities during the design process. Subsequently, the paper reports on a focus group interview/workshop with professional architects to assess the usability of the haptic design parameters for design practice. The architects were then asked to try out the parameters in the context of a concrete design project. The reactions suggest that the participating architects immediately picked up the underlying idea of the parameters, and recognized their relevance in relation to the design project at stake, but that their representation confronts us with a sensory paradox: although the parameters question the impact of the visual in architectural design, they are meant to be used by designers, who are used to think, know and work in a visual way.
keywords blindness, design parameters, haptics, inclusive design, vision
series CAAD Futures
email jherssens@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id avocaad_2001_17
id avocaad_2001_17
authors Ying-Hsiu Huang, Yu-Tung Liu, Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yi-Ting Cheng, Yu-Chen Chiu
year 2001
title The comparison of animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting in design process
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Design media is a fundamental tool, which can incubate concrete ideas from ambiguous concepts. Evolved from freehand sketches, physical models to computerized drafting, modeling (Dave, 2000), animations (Woo, et al., 1999), and virtual reality (Chiu, 1999; Klercker, 1999; Emdanat, 1999), different media are used to communicate to designers or users with different conceptual levels¡@during the design process. Extensively employed in design process, physical models help designers in managing forms and spaces more precisely and more freely (Millon, 1994; Liu, 1996).Computerized drafting, models, animations, and VR have gradually replaced conventional media, freehand sketches and physical models. Diversely used in the design process, computerized media allow designers to handle more divergent levels of space than conventional media do. The rapid emergence of computers in design process has ushered in efforts to the visual impact of this media, particularly (Rahman, 1992). He also emphasized the use of computerized media: modeling and animations. Moreover, based on Rahman's study, Bai and Liu (1998) applied a new design media¡Xvirtual reality, to the design process. In doing so, they proposed an evaluation process to examine the visual impact of this new media in the design process. That same investigation pointed towards the facilitative role of the computerized media in enhancing topical comprehension, concept realization, and development of ideas.Computer technology fosters the growth of emerging media. A new computerized media, scenario scripting (Sasada, 2000; Jozen, 2000), markedly enhances computer animations and, in doing so, positively impacts design processes. For the three latest media, i.e., computerized animation, virtual reality, and scenario scripting, the following question arises: What role does visual impact play in different design phases of these media. Moreover, what is the origin of such an impact? Furthermore, what are the similarities and variances of computing techniques, principles of interaction, and practical applications among these computerized media?This study investigates the similarities and variances among computing techniques, interacting principles, and their applications in the above three media. Different computerized media in the design process are also adopted to explore related phenomenon by using these three media in two projects. First, a renewal planning project of the old district of Hsinchu City is inspected, in which animations and scenario scripting are used. Second, the renewal project is compared with a progressive design project for the Hsinchu Digital Museum, as designed by Peter Eisenman. Finally, similarity and variance among these computerized media are discussed.This study also examines the visual impact of these three computerized media in the design process. In computerized animation, although other designers can realize the spatial concept in design, users cannot fully comprehend the concept. On the other hand, other media such as virtual reality and scenario scripting enable users to more directly comprehend what the designer's presentation.Future studies should more closely examine how these three media impact the design process. This study not only provides further insight into the fundamental characteristics of the three computerized media discussed herein, but also enables designers to adopt different media in the design stages. Both designers and users can more fully understand design-related concepts.
series AVOCAAD
email yinghsiu@iaaa.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 6a37
authors Fowler, Thomas and Muller, Brook
year 2002
title Physical and Digital Media Strategies For Exploring ‘Imagined’ Realities of Space, Skin and Light
source Thresholds - Design, Research, Education and Practice, in the Space Between the Physical and the Virtual [Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X] Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, pp. 13-23
summary This paper will discuss an unconventional methodology for using physical and digital media strategies ina tightly structured framework for the integration of Environmental Control Systems (ECS) principles intoa third year design studio. An interchangeable use of digital media and physical material enabledarchitectural explorations of rich tactile and luminous engagement.The principles that provide the foundation for integrative strategies between a design studio and buildingtechnology course spring from the Bauhaus tradition where a systematic approach to craftsmanship andvisual perception is emphasized. Focusing particularly on color, light, texture and materials, Josef Albersexplored the assemblage of found objects, transforming these materials into unexpected dynamiccompositions. Moholy-Nagy developed a technique called the photogram or camera-less photograph torecord the temporal movements of light. Wassily Kandinsky developed a method of analytical drawingthat breaks a still life composition into diagrammatic forces to express tension and geometry. Theseschematic diagrams provide a method for students to examine and analyze the implications of elementplacements in space (Bermudez, Neiman 1997). Gyorgy Kepes's Language of Vision provides a primerfor learning basic design principles. Kepes argued that the perception of a visual image needs aprocess of organization. According to Kepes, the experience of an image is "a creative act ofintegration". All of these principles provide the framework for the studio investigation.The quarter started with a series of intense short workshops that used an interchangeable use of digitaland physical media to focus on ECS topics such as day lighting, electric lighting, and skin vocabulary tolead students to consider these components as part of their form-making inspiration.In integrating ECS components with the design studio, an nine-step methodology was established toprovide students with a compelling and tangible framework for design:Examples of student work will be presented for the two times this course was offered (2001/02) to showhow exercises were linked to allow for a clear design progression.
series ACADIA
email tfowler@calpoly.edu
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id 7655
authors Okeil, Ahmad and El Araby, Mostafa
year 2003
title Realism vs. Reality in Digital Reconstruction of Cities
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary The digital reconstruction of existing cities using virtual reality techniques is being increasingly used. For consultants, municipalities and planning departments these models provide decision support through visual simulations (El Araby, 2001). For academia they provide a new tool for teaching students urban design and planning (Okeil, 2001). For authorities they provide a tool for promoting the city on the world wide web trying to attract more businesses and tourists to it. The built environment is very rich in detail. It does not only consist of open spaces surrounded by abstract buildings but it also includes many smaller objects such as street furniture, traffic signs, street lights, different types of vegetation and shop signs for example. All surfaces in the built environment have unique properties describing color, texture and opacity. The built environmentis dynamic and our perception is affected by factors such as pedestrian movement, traffic, environmental factors such as wind, noise and shadows. The built environment is also shaped by the accumulation of changes caused by many influences through time. All these factors make the reconstruction of the built environment a very complex task. This paper tries to answer the question: how realistic the reconstructed models of urban areas can be. It sees “Realism“ as a variable floating between three types of realties. The reality of the physical environment which we are trying to represent. The reality of the digital environment which will host the digitally reconstructed city. And the reality of the working environment which deals with the problem of limitation of resources needed to digitally reconstruct the city. A case study of building a 3D computer model of an urban area in the United Arab Emirates demonstrates that new time-saving techniques for data acquisition can enhance realism by meetingbudget limitations and time limitations.
keywords Virtual Reality; Photo Realism; Texture Maps; 3D Modeling; Urban Design
series other
email a.okeil@uaeu.ac.ae
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id 3e51
authors Cerulli, C., Peng, C. and Lawson, B.
year 2001
title Capturing Histories of Design Processes for Collaborative Building Design Development. Field Trial of the ADS Prototype
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 427-437
summary The ADS Project - Advanced Design Support for the Construction Design Process - builds on the technological results of the previous COMMIT Project to exploit and demonstrate the benefits of a CAD based Design Decision Support System. COMMIT provides a system for storing knowledge about knowledge within the design process. It records design decisions, the actors who take them and the roles they play when doing so. ADS links COMMIT to an existing object-oriented CAD system, MicroStation/J from Bentley Systems. The project focuses on tackling the problem of managing design information without intruding too much on the design process itself. It provides the possibility to effectively link design decisions back to requirements, to gather rationale information for later stages of the building lifecycle, and to gather knowledge of rationale for later projects. The system enables members of the project team, including clients and constructors, to browse and search the recorded project history of decision making both during and after design development. ADS aims to facilitate change towards a more collaborative process in construction design, to improve the effectiveness of decision-making throughout the construction project and to provide clients with the facility to relate design outcomes to design briefs across the whole building life cycle. In this paper we will describe the field trials of the ADS prototype carried out over a three-month period at the Building Design Partnership (BDP) Manchester office. The objective of these trials is to assess the extent, to which the approach underlying ADS enhances the design process, and to gather and document the views and experiences of practitioners. The ADS prototype was previously tested with historical data of real project (Peng, Cerulli et al. 2000). To gather more valuable knowledge about how a Decision Support System like ADS can be used in practice, the testing and evaluation will be extended to a real project, while it is still ongoing. The live case study will look at some phases of the design of a mixed residential and retail development in Leeds, UK, recording project information while it is created. The users’ feedback on the system usability will inform the continuous redevelopment process that will run in parallel to the live case study. The ADS and COMMIT Projects were both funded by EPSRC.
keywords Design Rationale, Design Support Systems, Usability Evaluation
series CAAD Futures
email c.cerulli@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ascaad2007_026
id ascaad2007_026
authors Sarji, E.A.; A. Rafi and R. Mat Rani
year 2007
title Preparing a multimedia-based gallery for institute of higher learning: A case study of Malaysian experience
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 305-316
summary While the majority of medium and small sized institutions still rely on their physical or traditional content, it has been observed a pre-disposition usually by major, recently founded or contemporary art institutions to display net-based projects (Buiani, 2001) and to some extent established as a permanent display. This changing of exhibitions has penetrated in many Asian galleries and as a result many schools trying to re-position and present in such a way that it can be easily changed and adapted to host multimedia, Internet, interactive and computer-based content. This funded research project investigates the functions of gallery in IHL in Malaysia. A triangulated study was conducted to understand the potentials and issues faced by galleries in public and private universities focusing on design schools that include art and design, and architecture. This research starts with the understanding of gallery design theories. It is then followed by a qualitative method survey to all galleries in the IHL. This research continues with an in depth study and a survey on Electronic Gallery (e-Gallery), Faculty of Creative Multimedia (FCM), Multimedia University (MMU) to understand between the theories and design ideas. A set of questionnaires was developed based on Mathews (1991) and Stewart’s (2002) principles and guidelines on research methods and distributed to visitors throughout a period of time consisting of open-ended, close-ended, Likert Summated Rating Scale and Multiple-choice. This involved a controlled group of visitors comprises students and staff of the faculty. The results of these studies will be used as a reference to further conduct a wider scope of galleries worldwide towards designing a multimedia-based gallery framework for Institute of Higher Learning.
series ASCAAD
email elyna.amir@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id caadria2003_b3-1
id caadria2003_b3-1
authors Stipech, Alfredo and Morahan, Thomas
year 2003
title Digital Media Its Incorporation into the Education of Architects and Graphic Designers
source CAADRIA 2003 [Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 974-9584-13-9] Bangkok Thailand 18-20 October 2003, pp. 397-410
summary Here we introduce a pedagogic experience in the Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina. It has begun about ten years ago, with the first intents of incorporating the computer into the design and teaching process , until current days with the setting of a Class for Introduction to Digital Media (IMD), as an obligatory subject in the first course of careers such as Architecture and Urbanism (AU) and Graphic Design of Visual Communication (DGCV). The introduction of "Computing Science" in this university resembled the process of other Universities (Pentill‰ Hannu, 2001), Today we can see that this was not adjusted to the necessities of these professions neither in the educational process nor in the professional production. In our case we will address particular experiences that enabled us to evolve in a pedagogic model towards the concept of Digital Media (DM) that we currently practice.
series CAADRIA
email arqasoc@satlink.com
last changed 2003/12/02 06:47

_id avocaad_2001_05
id avocaad_2001_05
authors Alexander Koutamanis
year 2001
title Analysis and the descriptive approach
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The rise of consciousness concerning the quality of working and living conditions has been a permanent though frequently underplayed theme in architecture and building since the reconstruction period. It has led to an explosive growth of programmatic requirements on building behaviour and performance, thus also stimulating the development of design analysis. The first stage of development was characterized by the evolution of prescriptive systems. These reversed the structure of pre-existing proscriptive systems into sequences of known steps that should be taken in order to achieve adequate results. Prescriptive systems complemented rather than replaced proscriptive ones, thereby creating an uncertain mixture of orthodoxy and orthopraxy that failed to provide design guidance for improving design performance and quality.The second stage in the development of design analysis focuses on descriptive methods and techniques for analyzing and supporting evaluation. Technologies such as simulation and scientific visualization are employed so as to produce detailed, accurate and reliable projections of building behaviour and performance. These projections can be correlated into a comprehensive and coherent description of a building using representations of form as information carriers. In these representations feedback and interaction assume a visual character that fits both design attitudes and lay perception of the built environment, but on the basis of a quantitative background that justifies, verifies and refines design actions. Descriptive analysis is currently the most promising direction for confronting and resolving design complexity. It provides the designer with useful insights into the causes and effects of various design problems but frequently comes short of providing clear design guidance for two main reasons: (1) it adds substantial amounts of information to the already unmanageable loads the designer must handle, and (2) it may provide incoherent cues for the further development of a design. Consequently the descriptive approach to analysis is always in danger of been supplanted by abstract decision making.One way of providing the desired design guidance is to complement the connection of descriptive analyses to representations of form (and from there to synthesis) with two interface components. The first is a memory component, implemented as case-bases of precedent designs. These designs encapsulate integrated design information that can be matched to the design in hand in terms of form, function and performance. Comparison between precedents with a known performance and a new design facilitate identification of design aspects that need be improved, as well as of wider formal and functional consequences. The second component is an adaptive generative system capable of guiding exploration of these aspects, both in the precedents and the new design. The aim of this system is to provide feedback from analysis to synthesis. By exploring the scope of the analysis and the applicability of the conclusions to more designs, the designer generates a coherent and consistent collection of partial solutions that explore a relevant solution space. Development of the first component, the design case-bases, is no trivial task. Transformability in the representation of cases and flexible classification in a database are critical to the identification and treatment of a design aspect. Nevertheless, the state of the art in case-based reasoning and the extensive corpus of analysed designs provide the essential building blocks. The second component, the adaptive generative system, poses more questions. Existing generative techniques do not possess the necessary richness or multidimensionality. Moreover, it is imperative that the designer plays a more active role in the control of the process than merely tweaking local variables. At the same time, the system should prevent that redesigning degenerates into a blind trial-and-error enumeration of possibilities. Guided empirical design research arguably provides the means for the evolutionary development of the second component.
series AVOCAAD
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id cf2003_m_040
id cf2003_m_040
authors BAY, Joo-Hwa
year 2003
title Making Rebuttals Available Digitally for Minimising Biases in Mental Judgements
source Digital Design - Research and Practice [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1] Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, pp. 147-156
summary The problem of heuristic biases (illusions) discussed by Tversky and Kahneman (1982) that can lead to errors in judgement by human designers, when they use precedent knowledge presented graphically (Bay 2001). A Cognitive framework of belief, goal, and decision, and a framework of representation of architectural knowledge by Tzonis are used to map out the problem of heuristic biases in the human mind. These are used to discuss what aspects of knowledge can be presented explicitly and digitally to users to make rebuttal more available for human thinking at the cognitive level. The discussion is applicable to both inductive and analytic digital knowledge systems that use precedent knowledge. This discussion is targeted directly at means of addressing bias in the human mind using digital means. The problem of human bias in machine learning and generalisation are discussed in a different paper, and the problems of international or non-intentional machine bias are not part of discussion in this paper.
keywords analogy, bias, design thinking, environmental design, heuristics
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/22 06:26

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id ddss9829
id ddss9829
authors De Hoog, J., Hendriks, N.A. and Rutten, P.G.S.
year 1998
title Evaluating Office Buildings with MOLCA(Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment)
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary MOLCA (Model for Office Life Cycle Assessment) is a project that aims to develop a tool that enables designers and builders to evaluate the environmental impact of their designs (of office buildings) from a environmental point of view. The model used is based on guidelinesgiven by ISO 14000, using the so-called Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. The MOLCA project started in 1997 and will be finished in 2001 resulting in the aforementioned tool. MOLCA is a module within broader research conducted at the Eindhoven University of Technology aiming to reduce design risks to a minimum in the early design stages.Since the MOLCA project started two major case-studies have been carried out. One into the difference in environmental load caused by using concrete and steel roof systems respectively and the role of recycling. The second study focused on biases in LCA data and how to handle them. For the simulations a computer-model named SimaPro was used, using the world-wide accepted method developed by CML (Centre for the Environment, Leiden, the Netherlands). With this model different life-cycle scenarios were studied and evaluated. Based on those two case studies and a third one into an office area, a first model has been developed.Bottle-neck in this field of study is estimating average recycling and re-use percentages of the total flow of material waste in the building sector and collecting reliable process data. Another problem within LCA studies is estimating the reliability of the input data and modelling uncertainties. All these topics will be subject of further analysis.
keywords Life-Cycle Assessment, Office Buildings, Uncertainties in LCA
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id d146
authors He, Jie
year 2001
title CAD Study in Visual Analysis of the Visual Sustainability for China Urban Natural Landscape Planning
source Chinese University of Hong Kong
summary In this thesis a GIS-based CAD system prototype of evaluating visual quality of urban natural landscape environment is presented. This prototype is an indispensable component of the integrative Visual Sustainability research, and offers a calculable and visualizable technique to urban visual natural landscape assessment. This scientific method provides precise data to estimate the visibility of natural landscape in urban construction actuality. Furthermore, it can also work out supporting information for maintaining and protecting valuable visual landscape resources in further planning. Introduction of this methodology intends to improve the natural landscape cooperation in China urban planning through visual protection. Combining with popular CAD software such as AutoCAD and Microstation, the research team uses ArcView GIS software and its 3D Analyst extension to accomplish a set of research procedure, which includes data modification, model making, viewshed and view sensibility analysis. In addition, this system can create simultaneous 3D scenes or hire other information media as reference tools for professional analysis, design consultation and intercommunication. The core technologies of this proposed system are viewshed calculation and overlay analysis. In viewshed analysis, human visual characteristics are simulated by a series of ergonomics parameters of viewpoints. Viewshed of each viewpoint can be calculated into vector data and mapped by polygons identifying which region is visible and which is not. Overlay function of the proposed system is used in visual sensibility analysis to achieve the division of higher visual sensible area which indicates the common visible area from different viewpoints. Additionally, viewshed maps and visual sensibility results can add more information to mark out the areas that can satisfy certain visual parameters such as appropriate visual angle or visual distance. These overlaying results can visualized the visible areas into hierarchical visual perception quality categories in order to define the visual landscape significance of particular planning regions. A case study was operated to evaluate this system. The case is in Zhongshan city, Guangdong Province of China. Jinzishan hill region is the study site that picked by collaborating discussion of research team and the local government. It is located on the edge of urban built-up area. Jinzishan massif is the prominent landscape element of the surrounding environment. There are three topics in Jinzishan visual perception in this paper. The first topic is the visual quality evaluation of the intersections of its surrounding road system. The second is the integrated visual perception of two main roads called Qiwandao and Bo’ailu. Finally is the analysis of the hill skyline visual quality in surrounding area. The analysis results in GIS vector data can be converted into popular data format and combined with other spatial information for practical application. And comments for future urban planning are collected and analyzed by professional responses to the computer-generated information investigation.
keywords Natural Landscaping; Computer-Aided Design; Landscape Architecture; City Planning; Geographic Information Systems
series thesis:MSc
email hejie@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 7c0e
authors Koutamanis, Alexander and Den Hartog, Peter
year 2001
title Simulation and representation. Learning from airflow analyses in buildings
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 657-666
summary The simulation of environmental aspects is a current priority in design research and practice. The availability of relatively efficient and reliable simulation systems and the emphasis on environmental aspects throughout a building’s lifecycle combine to stimulate exploration of aspects such as lighting and air quality by computational means. Nevertheless, a frequent complaint is that the addition of such simulations makes design information processing timeconsuming and cumbersome, thereby increasing uncertainty and indecision. Therefore, it is imperative that simulation is integrated in the strategies and tools normally used by the digitally-minded architect. In this respect a central issue is the relations between the simulation and the design representation used as connecting tissue for the whole design environment. Input of design information in the simulation means identification of relevant objects, aspects, parts and properties of these objects, as well as relationships between objects. The explicit description of objects such as spaces, doors and windows in the design representation allows for ready extraction of relevant information, including automatic recognition of relationships such as adjacency between a window and a space. The addition of information specific to the airflow analysis was resolved by the extension of the representation to cover front-end service components such as inlets and outlets and general properties (annotations) such as activities accommodated in a space and the primary choice of cooling and heating subsystems. The design representation is also the obvious target for the output of the simulation (feedback). Visualization of airflow in terms of the resulting voxels makes effortless and enjoyable viewing but merely allowing the visualization to coexist with the representation of spaces and building elements does not provide design guidance. One way of achieving that is by treating spaces not as integral entities but as containers of relevant surfaces. These surfaces determine the adaptive subdivision of the space and function as attractors for voxel clustering.
keywords Simulation, Representation, Visualization
series CAAD Futures
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 728a
authors Mantere, Markku
year 2001
title Visualization of Flow Data in Photo-realistic Virtual Environment
source Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland
summary Virtual reality technology has been adopted in many different fields and new application areas are searched continuously. At the moment virtual reality has been applied separately for instance to scientific visualization and illustration of architectural spaces. In this work, a photo-realistic room model and a visualization of an air flow inside the room has been combined. The integrated illustrative three-dimensional model is presented within an immersive virtual environment. The first part of the work covers scientific visualization and virtual reality implementation techniques. The visualization review begins with a discussion about human percepion of visual information and proceeds with an introduction to three-dimensional visualization. The focus is on illustration of a flow data produced as a result of a computational simulation. The flow visualization techniques utilizing all three dimensions are discussed and many examples of different graphical elements are presented. Virtual reality is examined from technical solutions point of view. The features having effect on the quality of a virtual experience are discussed and three different commonly used display techniques are introduced. The hardware of Experimental Virtual Environment -facility at Helsinki University of Technology is given as a detailed example. The implementation of a visualization software is described in the applied part of this thesis. Discussion covers the evaluation of different software tools, the tool selection process, and a detailed description of the design principles and implementation of the software. The different visualization solutions are also justified in this part. In the implementation, the real-time system requirements and utilization of all three dimensions have been taken into account. Finally, the results and their meaning are discussed and the performance of the implementation is evaluated. The applied part successfully integrated the room model and the flow visualization in an interactive virtual environment.
keywords Virtual Environments, Virtual Reality, Flow Visualization, CFD, 3D, Computer Graphics
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 0865
authors Mishima, Yoshitaka and Szalapaj, Peter John
year 2001
title Architectural Design Development through Multimedia Interaction
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 299-314
summary This paper describes the development of a multimedia system aimed at architects and architectural students for the purpose of helping them to understand the basic concepts of architectural analysis. Analytical features in the system that we have developed include many design-theoretic concepts such as massing, balance and circulation. Other concepts are more directly related to the built environment and include elements such as lighting, structure and construction. The system illustrates architectural analysis carried out on a range of building types dynamically, and allows users to navigate architectural analyses interactively. Users can learn about the differences between buildings and their corresponding analyses in a supportive non-linear learning process, and can explore building types depending upon their own interests or needs. The prototype system contains analyses of three British building projects. They show different types of architecture in order to demonstrate important design theoretic and environmental differences. Conceptual models in the system show important aspects of a particular analysis simply, and each analysis is additionally described with text, animations, video clips and interviews with architects (talking heads). Most of the models were generated by the use of architectural CAD software. Animation techniques were used to describe the analyses of buildings clearly and dynamically. Users can visualise how whole buildings were designed from an analytical point of view, and the system illustrates design thinking by showing dynamic presentations of analyses. Users can structure their own design learning processes through a series of interactions. These interactions are supported with flexible cross-referencing mechanisms implemented in Macromedia Director 8.0 exploiting Frame Markers, Event Handling, Navigation, and Buttons in the context of the object-oriented Lingo programming language. The navigation component of this system has a logical matrix structure reflecting the fact that analytical information is interrelated across building types, giving rise to vertical and horizontal patterns of access. The features of Director 8.0 can control this navigation in a flexible yet structured way. Users not only learn about analysis, but also how to present their own designs to the public through the use of different kinds of presentation techniques, particularly through the use of conceptual models. We intend that users can show their projects from their own analytical viewpoints instead of simply showing realistic images of final designs. Presentations can also be recorded in the system, and these can in turn be used as reference material for other users. This system is currently being developed further by storing presentations and translating them into different languages (e.g. Japanese) so that foreign users in other institutions can interact with these presentations. This system has been evaluated in the context of an undergraduate CAD course at the School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, UK. We are currently examining the usefulness of the system based upon an evaluation process, in addition to including more building types for future study.
keywords Analysis Of Form, Dynamic Interaction, Conceptual Models
series CAAD Futures
email arp95ym@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id acadia16_140
id acadia16_140
authors Nejur, Andrei; Steinfeld, Kyle
year 2016
title Ivy: Bringing a Weighted-Mesh Representations to Bear on Generative Architectural Design Applications
source ACADIA // 2016: POSTHUMAN FRONTIERS: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines [Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-77095-5] Ann Arbor 27-29 October, 2016, pp. 140-151
summary Mesh segmentation has become an important and well-researched topic in computational geometry in recent years (Agathos et al. 2008). As a result, a number of new approaches have been developed that have led to innovations in a diverse set of problems in computer graphics (CG) (Sharmir 2008). Specifically, a range of effective methods for the division of a mesh have recently been proposed, including by K-means (Shlafman et al. 2002), graph cuts (Golovinskiy and Funkhouser 2008; Katz and Tal 2003), hierarchical clustering (Garland et al. 2001; Gelfand and Guibas 2004; Golovinskiy and Funkhouser 2008), primitive fitting (Athene et al. 2004), random walks (Lai et al.), core extraction (Katz et al.) tubular multi-scale analysis (Mortara et al. 2004), spectral clustering (Liu and Zhang 2004), and critical point analysis (Lin et al. 20070, all of which depend upon a weighted graph representation, typically the dual of a given mesh (Sharmir 2008). While these approaches have been proven effective within the narrowly defined domains of application for which they have been developed (Chen 2009), they have not been brought to bear on wider classes of problems in fields outside of CG, specifically on problems relevant to generative architectural design. Given the widespread use of meshes and the utility of segmentation in GAD, by surveying the relevant and recently matured approaches to mesh segmentation in CG that share a common representation of the mesh dual, this paper identifies and takes steps to address a heretofore unrealized transfer of technology that would resolve a missed opportunity for both subject areas. Meshes are often employed by architectural designers for purposes that are distinct from and present a unique set of requirements in relation to similar applications that have enjoyed more focused study in computer science. This paper presents a survey of similar applications, including thin-sheet fabrication (Mitani and Suzuki 2004), rendering optimization (Garland et al. 2001), 3D mesh compression (Taubin et al. 1998), morphin (Shapira et al. 2008) and mesh simplification (Kalvin and Taylor 1996), and distinguish the requirements of these applications from those presented by GAD, including non-refinement in advance of the constraining of mesh geometry to planar-quad faces, and the ability to address a diversity of mesh features that may or may not be preserved. Following this survey of existing approaches and unmet needs, the authors assert that if a generalized framework for working with graph representations of meshes is developed, allowing for the interactive adjustment of edge weights, then the recent developments in mesh segmentation may be better brought to bear on GAD problems. This paper presents work toward the development of just such a framework, implemented as a plug-in for the visual programming environment Grasshopper.
keywords tool-building, design simulation, fabrication, computation, megalith
series ACADIA
type paper
email ksteinfe@berkeley.edu
last changed 2016/10/24 11:12

_id 4c45
authors QaQish, Ra'Ed K.
year 2001
title Exploiting Tools of Evaluation to Improve CAAD Teaching Methods. A Case Study of Inter & Intra ECTM Model
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 215-230
summary This paper reports on an ongoing research study model into the Evaluation of CAAD Teaching Methods (ECTM) of which a number of resolutions and strategies were attained via an empirical investigation. The first stage of the study findings proposed a framework for the evaluation of architecture courses in tandem with CAAD. The second stage was based on the Inter & Intra ECTM design model as a strategy for acquiring solutions to CAAD problems through the exploitation of CAAD evaluation tools. The ECTM model structure criteria: the Model Concepts, the Operational Context, Dialectic Meanings, Relational Context, Performing Methods and Level of Integration were illuminated. ECTM model has a twofold involvement junctures, which describe CAAD evaluation behaviour. The first involves the evaluator in an interdepartmental comparison of CAAD integration into the curriculum, and/or between schools of architecture. The second engages the evaluator in an intradepartmental study of CAAD integration, and within the institution. The study projected an attempt to validate the Inter & Intra ECTM design model in concert with evaluation. The paper presents an extended description of the objectives, procedures and testing designed for the two abovementioned junctures composing the proposed ECTM case studies. Sequences of methods of data collection employed as a vehicle for the ECTM were Kirkpatrick model, questionnaire survey, observation (using an ECTM checklist) and experimental studies. The paper also explores variables and indicators used, and advances to shed some light on the methods of statistical analysis employment. ECTM model as a tool to attain CAAD effectiveness might redefine the role of collaborators/ team partnerships in CAAD tuition; and induce the level of technology selection and adaptation amongst schools, e.g. tutors and coursework interconnectivity. The ECTM model may also work as a framework of strategies to augment interactivity and positive learning amongst both staff and students.
keywords Evaluation, Teaching Methods, Interactivity, Effectiveness
series CAAD Futures
email r.qaqish@index.com.jo
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 0767
authors Ries, Robert and Mahdavi, Ardeshir
year 2001
title Evaluation of Design Performance through Regional Environmental Simulation
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 629-642
summary Computational building simulation tools have historically viewed buildings as artefacts isolated and disconnected from their contexts. At most, the external environmental conditions have been viewed as outside influences or stressors encapsulated in, for example, weather files for energy simulation or sky models for lighting simulation. In the field of environmental assessment, life cycle analysis (LCA) has followed a similar path of isolating the artefact under analysis from its context. Modeling the building artefact as a participant in multiple contexts over time so that the interactions and dependencies between the regions and the building can be adequately explored in the design process requires support for the modeling of regional areas, as well as the artefact and the related life cycle processes. Using computational design and evaluation tools can provide the computing capability required for effective design decision support. This paper presents the implementation of the affordance impact assessment method and the regional environmental simulation in Ecologue. Ecologue is the computational tool for life cycle environmental impact assessment in the SEMPER integrated building design and simulation system. Ecologue contains a building model and an environmental model. The building model is automatically derived from the shared building model of the SEMPER system. The environmental model is a combination of a representation of the processes and emissions occurring in the life cycle of buildings and an impact assessment model. The impact assessment model is a combination of a context model of the physical characteristics of a region and a sub-regional fate and transport model based on the fugacity concept.
keywords Environmental Simulation, Design Decision Support, Life Cycle Analysis
series CAAD Futures
email robries@pitt.edu
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

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